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31 


«S2     172?       1942 


(Ettg 
tr  itbrarg 


This  Volume  is  for 
REFERENCE  USE  ONLY 


ifasmt^s\mmiW^^ 


THE 

NATIONAL  CATHOLIC 
ALMANAC 

THIRTY-SIXTH     YEAR     OF     PUBLICATION 

1942 


Compiled  by  the  Franciscan   Clerics  of 
Holy  Name  College,  Washington,  D.  C. 


Published  with  ecclesiastical  approbation  by 

ST.  ANTHONY'S  GUILD 

PATERSON—    NEW      JERSEY 


COPYRIGHT,    1942»   BY  ST.   ANTHONY'S  GUILD 


1942 


Date 

Day 

H.a 

r 

A. 

ROMAN  CALENDAR 

1 
2 
3 

T 

F 
S 

^M 

fc$i- 

Circumcision  of  Our  Lord 
St.  Macarius,  Abbot 
St.  Genevieve,  Virgin 

4 

s 

Jvt 

The  Holy  Name  of  Jesus 

Gospel:  The  Holy  Name  —  Luke  2,  21 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

KM* 

St.  Telesphorus,  Pope-Martyr 
Epiphany  of  Our  Lord 
St.  Lucian,  Martyr 
St.  Severin,  Abbot 
SS.  Julian  and  Basilissa,  Martyrs 
St.  Agatho,  Pope 

11 

S 

<JM 

Holy  Family 

Gospel:      Finding     of     Jesus     in     the     Tern  pie 
Luke  2,  42-^2 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

ttpt 

St.  Arcadius,  Martyr 
St.  Veronica,  Martyr 
St.  Hilary,  Bishop-Doctor 
St.  Paul,  First  Hermit-Confessor 
St.  Marcellus  I,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Anthony,  Abbot 

18 

S 

^M 

Second  Sunday  after  Epiphany 

Gospel:   The  Marriage   of   Cana  —  John  2,1-11 

19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

M 

T 
W 

T 
F 

S 

*g» 

SS.    Marius,    Martha,    Audifax    and    Aba- 
chum,  Martyrs 
SS.  Fabian  and  Sebastian,  Martyrs 
St.  Agnes,  Virgin-Martyr 
SS.  Vincent  and  Anastasia,  Martyrs 
St.  Raymond  of  Pennafort,  Confessor 
St.  Timothy,  Bishop-Martyr 

25 

S 

Jrt 

Third  Sunday  after  Ephiphany 

Gospel:  Jesus  cleanses  the  leper 
Matthew  S,  1-13 

26 

27 

28 
29 

30 
31 

M 
T 

W 

T 

F 

S 

**0* 

St.  Polycarp,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.    John    Chrysostom,    Bishop-Confessor- 
Doctor 
St.  Peter  Nolasco,  Confessor 
St.   Francis  of  Sales,  Bishop-Confessor- 
Doctor 
St.  Martina,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  John  Bosco,  Confessor 

H.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F.  —  Fast  Day:  Only  one  full  meal  (with  meat)  for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 


1942 


jfflontfj  of  tlje  $a*£ton 


i 

Date  |   Day 

1 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN   CALENDAR 

1     |     S 

Septuagesima  Sunday 

Gospel:  The  Laborers  in  the  Vineyard 
Matthew  20,  1-16 

2 
3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

**, 

Purification  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
St.  Blaise,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Andrew  of  Corsini,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Agatha,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  Dorothy,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  Romuald,  Abbot 

8     |     S 

I 

^ 

Sexagesima  Sunday 

Gospel:  The  Parable  of  the  Sower  —  Luke  8,  4-15 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

M 
T 
W 
T 

F 
S 

*». 

St.  Cyril  of  Alexandria,  Confessor-Doctor 
St.  Scholastica,  Virgin 
Our  Lady  of  Lourdes 
Seven  Servite  Founders,  Confessors 
St.  Catherine  of  Ricci,  Virgin 
St.  Valentine,  Martyr 

15 

S 

JV 

Quinquagesima  Sunday 

Gospel:  Christ  heals  the  blind  man 
Luke  18,  31-43 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

1 

* 

St.  Juliana,  Virgin-Martyr 
Flight  into  Egypt 
Ash  Wednesday 
St.  Gabinus,  Martyr 
St.  Eleutherius,  Martyr 
St.  Saverian,  Bishop-Martyr 

22 

S 

Jtf 

First  Sunday  of  Lent 

Gospel:  Jesus  tempted  by  Satan 
Matthew  4,  1-11 

23 

24 
25 

26 

27 

28 
r 

M 
T 

W 

T 

F 

S 

XCfflfc 

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MO* 

St.  Peter  Damian,  Bishop-Confessor-Doctor 
St.  Matthias,  Apostle 
St.  Tarasius,  Patriarch 
(Ember  Day) 
St.  Nestor,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Gabriel  of  the  Seven  Sorrows,  Confessor 
(Ember  Day) 
St.  Roman,  Abbot 
(Ember  Day) 

ii  -if*  'A*  *?   ;  'I  JL       'iv\  *  <*»* 

H.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F,  —  Fast  Day:   Only  one  full  meal   (with  meat)  for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 


1942 


of 


Date  1   Day 

1 

H*.*D. 

V. 

A. 

ROMAN  CALENDAR 

1 

S 

JM 

Second  Sunday  of  Lent 

Gospel:  The  Transfiguration  —  Matthew  17,  1-9 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

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St.  Simplicius,  Pope 
St.  Cunegunda,  Empress 
St.  Casimir,  King 
St.  John  Joseph  of  the  Cross 
SS.  Perpetua  and  Felicitas,  Martyrs 
St.  Thomas  Aquinas,  Doctor 

8 

S 

Jti 

Third  Sunday  of  Lent 

Gospel:  Jesus  casts  out  a  devil  —  Luke  11,  14-28 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

XOT" 
<«!»< 

XW?* 

«^K 
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«ff»» 

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St.  Frances  of  Rome,  Widow- 
Forty  Martyrs  of  Sebaste 
St.  Euthymius,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Gregory  the  Great,  Pope-Confessor-Doctor 
St.  Christina,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  Maude,  Queen 

15 

S 

<M 

Fourth  Sunday  of  Lent  (Laetare  Sunday) 
Gospel:  Miracle  of  loaves  and  fishes 
John  6,  1-15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

S 

fcjtt" 

^IBK 

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S 

«»< 

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MR* 

St.  Finian,  Abbot 
St.  Patrick,  Bishop-Confessor 
St.  Cyril  of  Jerusalem,  Bishop-Doctor 
St.  Joseph,  Spouse  of  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
St.  Cuthbert,  Bishop 
St.  Benedict,  Abbot-Founder 

22 

S 

^M 

Passion  Sunday 

Gospel:  Jews  attempt  to  stone  Jesus 
John  8,  46-59 

23 
24 
25 

26 

27 
28 

M 
T 
W 

T 
F 
S 

X(tt» 

S 
«K»rt 
Mffjto 
•<I?f< 

>«Jfe 
«»WK 
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XS»» 
^0*- 

SS.  Victorian  and  Companions,  Martyrs 
St.  Gabriel  the  Archangel 
The   Annunciation   of   the    Blessed    Virgin 
Mary 
St.  Ludger,  Bishop-Confessor 
St.  John  Damascene,  Confessor-Doctor 
St.  John  Capistran,  Confessor 

29 

S 

<JM 

Palm  Sunday 

Gospel:  Triumphant  entry  into  Jerusalem 
Matt  hew  21,  1-9 

30 
31 

M 
T 

•WK 

X*^ 
«iEBr< 

St.  John  Climacus,  Abbot 
St.  Benjamin,  Deacon-Martyr 

H.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F.  —  Fast  Day:  Only  one  full  meal  (with  meat)  for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 


1942 


1942 


4Hontfj  of  tfje  3&e£utrettion 


Date 

Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN  CALENDAR 

1 

2 
3 

4 

W 
T 
F 

S 

XUSfc 
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St.  Hugh,  Bishop 
Holy  Thursday 
Good  Friday 
Holy  Saturday  (p.  and  A.  until  noon) 

5 

s 

*M 

Easter  Sunday 

Gospel:  The  Resurrection  of  Christ 
Mark  16,1-7 

6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

Mf*» 

SS.  Timothy  and  Diogenes,  Martyrs 
St.  Epiphanius  and  Companions,  Martyrs 
St.  Perpetuus,  Bishop 
St.  Mary  Cleopha,  Widow 
St.  Ezechiel,  Prophet 
St.  Leo  I,  Pope 

12 

S 

^M 

First   Sunday  after   Easter   (Low  Sunday) 
Gospel:  Jesus  appears  to  His  Apostles 
John  20,  19-31 

13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

***» 

St.  Hermenegild,  Martyr 
St.  Justin,  Martyr 
SS.  Basilissa  and  Anastasia,  Martyrs 
St.  Bernadette,  Virgin 
St.  Anicetus,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Apollonius,  Martyr 

19 

S 

JM 

Second  Sunday  after  Easter 
Gospel:  The  Good  Shepherd  —  John  10,  11-16 

20 
21 
22 

23 
24 
25 

M 

T 

w 

T 
F 

S 

*0" 

St.  Theotimus,  Bishop 
St.  Anselm,  Bishop-Doctor 
Solemnity  of  St.  Joseph,  Patron  of  Uni- 
versal Church 
St.  George,  Martyr 
St.  Fidelis  of  Sigmaringen,  Martyr 
St.  Mark,  Evangelist 

26 

S 

JW 

Third  Sunday  after  Easter 

Gospel:  Joy  after  Sorrow  —  John  16,  16-22 

27 
28 
29 
30 

M 
T 
W 
T 

St.  Peter  Canisius,  Confessor-Doctor 
St.  Paul  of  the  Cross,  Confessor 
St.  Peter  of  Verona,  Martyr 
St.  Catherine  of  Siena,  Virgin 

H.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F. —  Fast  Day:  Only  one  full  meal  (with  meat)  for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 


1942 


S942 


of  tlje 


Date 

Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN  CALENDAR 

1 
2 

F 

S 

fc0» 

SS.  Philip  and  James,  Apostles 
St.  Athanasius,  Bishop-Doctor 

3 

S 

JM 

Fourth  Sunday  after  Easter 

Gospel;  Christ  promises  the  Comforter 
John  16,  5-14 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

M 

T 
w 

T 
F 

S 

fciQta 

St.  Monica,  Widow 
St.  Pius  V,  Pope-Confessor 
St.  John  Apostle  before  the  Latin  Gate 
St.  Stanislaus,  Bishop-Martyr 
Apparition  of  St.  Michael 
St.  Gregory  Nazienzen,  Bishop-Doctor 

10 

S 

JM. 

Fifth  Sunday  after  Easter 

Gospel:  Prayer  in  the  name  of  Jesus 
John  16,23-30 

11 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 

M 
T 
W 

T 
F 

S 

JM 

fc0» 

St.  Francis  Jerome,  Confessor 
(Rogation  Day) 
SS.  Nereus  and  Achilles,  Martyrs 
(Rogation  Day) 
St.  Robert  Bellarmine,  Cardinal-Doctor 
(Rogation  Day) 
Ascension  of  Our  Lord 
St.  John  Baptist  de  la  Salle,  Confessor 
St.  Andrew  Bobola,  Martyr 

17 

S 

<JM 

Sunday    within    the    Octave    of    Ascension 

Gospel:  Testimony  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
John  15,  26-27;  16,  1-4 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

>#&> 

«w 

XKI&. 

«ijh 

St.  Venantius,  Martyr 
St.  Peter  Celestine,  Pope-Confessor 
St.  Bernard  of  Siena,  Confessor 
St.  Valens,  Bishop 
St.  Rita,  Widow 
St.  John  Baptist  Rossi,  Confessor  (Vigil) 

24 

S 

JvL 

Pentecost  Sunday 

Gospel:  Christ's  Instruction  on  the  Holy  Ghost 
John  14,  23-31 

25 
26 

27 

28 
29 
30 

M 
T 
W 

T 
F 

S 

»#w 

•w 

fcOfc 
«*ap« 

XBta 

*W 

Mflh 
*»• 

*#»* 

St.  Gregory  VII,  Pope-Confessor 
St  Philip  Neri,  Confessor 
St.  Bede  the  Venerable,  Confessor 
(Ember  Day) 
St.    Augustine    of    Canterbury,    Confessor- 
Doctor 
St.  Mary  Magdalen  Pazzi,  Virgin 
(Ember  Day) 
St.  Joan  of  Arc,  Virgin 
(Ember  Day) 

31 

S 

<M 

Trinity  Sunday 

Gospel:    Jetui    commissions    His    Disciples    fo 
Preach  —  Matthew  28,  18-20 

1942 


3une 


1942 


jfJIontj)  of  tfte  feacreb  5)Eact 


Date 

Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN   CALENDAR 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

M 
T 

w 

T 

F 
S 

M®» 

St.  Juventius,  Martyr 
SS.  Marcellinus   and   Companions,   Martyrs 
St.  Clotilda,  Widow 
Corpus  Christ! 
St.  Boniface,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Norbert,  Confessor 

7 

S 

Jvt 

Second  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Parable  of  the  Supper  —  Luke  14,  16-24 

8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

XEffe 

St.  Medard,  Bishop-Confessor 
'SS.  Primus  &  Felician,  Martyrs 
'St.  Margaret,  Widow 
St.  Barnabas,  Apostle 
Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus 
St.  Anthony  of  Fadua,  Confessor 

14 

S 

JM 

Third  Sunday  after  Easter 

"  Gospel:  Parable  of  the  lost  sheep  —  Luke  15,  1-10 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

x$» 

SS.  Vitus  and  Companions,  Martyrs 
St.  Benno,  Bishop 
SS.  Nicandrus  and  Marcian,  Martyrs 
St.  Ephrem,  Deacon-Doctor 
St.  Julian  Falconieri,  Virgin 
St.  Silverius,  Pope-Martyr 

21      |     S 

I 
I 

JM 

Fourth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Miraculous  draught  of  fishes 
Luke  5,  I'll 

22 
23 

24 
25 
26 
27 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

w$» 

'St.  Paulinus,  Bishop-Confessor 
St.  Audry,  Virgin 
Nativity  of  St.  John  Baptist 
St.  William,  Abbot 
SS.  John  and  Paul,  Martyrs 
St.  Crescens,  Martyr 

28 

S 

Jvt 

Fifth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  Justice  of  the  Pharisees 
Matthew  5,20-24 

29 
30 

M 
T 

SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  Apostles 
Commemoration  of  St.  Paul,  Apostle 

H.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F — ^Fast  Day:  Only  one  full  meal  (with  meat)   for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 


1942 


fttlp 

of  tfje  $miou£ 


1942 


Date 

Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN   CALENDAR 

1 
2 
3 

4 

w 

T 
F 

S 

;*$•» 

The  Most  Precious  Blood 
Visitation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
St.  Leo  II,  Pope-Confessor 
St.  Laurianus,  Bishop-Martyr 

5 

s 

JW 

Sixth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Jesus  feeds  the  multitudes  —  Mark  8,  1-9 

6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

i*9»» 

St.  Isaias,  Prophet 
SS.  Cyril  and  Methodius,  Bishops-Confessors 
St.  Elizabeth  of  Portugal,  Widow 
SS.  John  Fisher  and  Thomas  More,  Martyrs 
Seven  Holy  Brothers,  Martyrs 
St.  Pius  I,  Pope-Martyr 

12 

S 

Jti 

Seventh  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Warning  against  false  prophets 
Matthew  7,  15-21 

13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

*w» 

St.  Anacletus,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Bonaventure,  Cardinal-Doctor 
St.  Henry,  Confessor 
Our  Lady  of  Mt.  Carmel 
St.  Alexius,  Confessor 
St.  Camillus  de  Lellis,  Confessor 

19 

S 

Jvt 

Eighth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  Unjust  Steward  —  Luke  16,1-9 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

*$» 

St.  Jerome  Aemilian,  Confessor 
St.  Praxedes,  Virgin 
St.  Mary  Magdalen,  Penitent 
St.  Appolinaris,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Christina,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  James  the  Greater,  Apostle 

26 

S 

JM. 

Ninth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Jesus  weeps  over  Jerusalem 
Luke  19,41-47 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 

M 
T 

W 
T 
F 

NP» 

St.  Pantaleon,  Martyr 
SS.   Nazarius,   Celsus,  Victor  I   and  Inno- 
cent I,  Martyrs 
St.  Martha  of  Bethany,  Virgin 
SS.  Abdon  and  Sennen,  Martyrs 
St.  Ignatius  Loyola,  Confessor 

H.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F.  —  Fast  Day:  Only  one  full  meal  (with  meat)  for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 


,942                                    aUgUSt 

Jttontf)  of  tfje  ples&efo  Sacrament 

S942 

1 
Date  |    Day 

1 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN  CALENDAR 

1     |     S 

1 

St.  Peter's  Chains 

2 

S 

^M 

\ 

Tenth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  Phatisee  and  the  Publican 
Luke  18,9-14 

3 

4 

5 
6 
7 
8 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

W 

Finding  of  St.  Stephen's  Relics 
St.  Dominic,  Confessor 
Our  Lady  of  the  Snows 
Transfiguration  of  Our  Lord 
St.  Cajetan,  Confessor 
SS.  Cyriac  and  Companions,  Martyrs 

9 

S 

JM 

Eleventh  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel;  Jesus  cures  the  deaf  and  dumb  man 
Mark  7,31-37 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

M 
T 

w 

T 
F 

S 

^M 

>fiffto 
«W 

*($» 

St.  Laurence,  Martyr 
SS.  Tiburtius  and  Susanna,  Martyrs 
St.  Clare,  Virgin 
SS.  Hippolytus  and  Cassian,  Martyrs 
St.  Eusebius,  Confessor  (Vigtl) 
Assumption  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 

16 

S 

^1 

Twelfth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  Good  Samaritan  —  Luke  10,23-37 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

Xg|» 

St.  Hyacinth,  Confessor 
St.  Agapitus,  Martyr 
St.  John  Eudes,  Confessor 
St.  Bernard,  Confessor-Doctor 
St.  Jane  Frances,  Widow 
SS.  Timothy,  Hippolytus  and  Symphorian, 
Martyrs 

23 

S 

JM 

Thirteenth    Sunday   after    Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  ten  lepers  —  Luke  17,  11-19 

24 
25 
26 

27 
28 
29 

M 
T 
W 

T 
F 
S 

fc&i 

St.  Bartholomew,  Apostle 
St.  Louis,  Confessor 
St.  Zephyiin,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Joseph  Calasanctius,  Confessor 
St.  Augustine,  Bishop-Doctor 
Beheading  of  St.  John  the  Baptist 

30 

S 

JM. 

Fourteenth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

'Gospel:  Undivided  Service  of  God 
Matthew  6,  24-33 

31     |     M     i 


I  St.  Raymond  Nonnatus,  Confessor 


.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required, 
p. —  Fast  Day:   Only  one  full  meal   (with  meat)   for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 


1942 


1942 


JHotit!)  of  tfje^ueeit  of 


Date 

Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN   CALENDAR 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

T 
W 

T 
F 

S 

5^» 

St.  Giles,  Abbot 
St.  Stephen,  Confessor 
St.  Phoebe,  Widow 
St.  Moses,  Prophet 
St.  Lawrence  Justinian,  Bishop-Confessor 

6 

s 

<JM 

Fifteenth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel  :T  he  Widow  of  Nairn  —  Luke  7f  11-16 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

MO* 

St.  Regina,  Virgin-Martyr 
Nativity  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
St.  Gorgonius,  Martyr 
St.  Nicholas  of  Tolentino,  Confessor 
SS.  Protus  and  Hyacinth,  Martyrs 
Holy  Name  of  Mary 

13 

S 

^M 

Sixteenth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Jesus  heals  the  diopsicul  man 
Luke  14,1-11 

14 
15 
16 

17 
18 

19 

M 
T 
W 

T 
F 

S 

>i> 

•*tSF< 

>W> 

«gx 

>S3J>B 
«®J< 

»$Jfc 

»#» 
fc$* 

Exaltation  of  the  Holy  Cross 
'Seven  Sorrows  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
SS.  Cornelius  and  Cyprian,  Martyrs 
(Ember  Day) 
Stigmata   of    St.    Francis    of   Assisi,    Conf. 
St.  Joseph  of  Cupertino,  Confessor 
(Ember  Day) 
SS.  Jamiarius  and  Companions,  Martyrs 
(Ember  Day) 

20 

S 

<JM 

Seventeenth   Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  greatest  commandment 
Matthew  22,35-46 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

»*»» 

St.  Matthew,  Apostle 
St.  Thomas  of  Villanova,  Confessor 
St.  Linus,  Pope-Martyr 
Our  Lady  of  Ransom 
St.  Cleophas,  Martyr 
SS.  Cyprian  and  Justina,  Martyrs 

27 

S 

^M 

Eighteenth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  ]e\us  citre\  the  partdyth 
Matthew  9,  1-8 

28 
29 
30 

M 

T 

w 

St.  Wenceslaus  of  Bohemia,  Martyr 
St.  Michael,  Archangel 
St.  Jerome,  Priest-Doctor 

H.  D. — -Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F.  —  Fast  Day:   Only  one  full  meal   (with  meat)   for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 

10 


1942 


1942 


jfHontfj  of  tfje 


Date 

1 
Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN  CALENDAR 

1 

2 
3 

T 
F 

S 

tat^ 

St.  Remigius,  Bishop-Confessor 
Holy  Guardian  Angels 
St.  Teresa  of  the  Child  Jesus,  Virgin 

4 

1    s 

Jvl 

1 

|  Nineteenth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Parable  of  marriage  feast 
Matthew  22,  2-14 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

*w* 

SS.  Placid  and  Companions,  Martyrs 
St.  Bruno,  Confessor 
Most  Holy  Rosary 
St.  Bridget  of  Sweden,  Widow 
SS.  Denis,  Rusticus  and  Eleutherius,  MM. 
St.  Francis  Borgia,  Confessor 

11 

S 

Jvt 

Twentieth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  Jesus  heals  the  ruler's  wn 
John  4,  46-53 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

M&» 

St.  Wilfred,  Bishop-Confessor 
St.  Edward,  Confessor 
St.  Callistus  I,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Teresa  of  Avila,  Virgin 
St.  Hedwig,  Queen-Widow 
St.  Margaret  Mary  Alacoque,  Virgin 

18 

S 

JM. 

Twenty-first  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  unmerciful  servant 
Matthew  18,  23-3$ 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

M 

T 

w 

T 
F 

S 

>*&* 

St.  Peter  of  Alcantara,  Confessor 
St.  John  Canty,  Confessor 
St.  Hilarion,  Abbot 
St.  Mary  Salome,  Widow 
St.  Ignatius  of  Constantinople,  Confessor 
St.  Raphael,  Archangel 

25 

S 

^M 

Twenty-second  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

(Feast  of  Christ  the  King) 
Gospel:  Christ  the  King  —  John  18,33-37 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 

M 
T 
W 

T 

F 
S 

X5JV. 
*»< 

**$* 
»3K» 

St.  Evaristus,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Florence,  Martyr 
SS.  Simon  and  Jude,  Apostles 
St.  Narcissus,  Bishop-Confessor 
St.  Zenobius,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Quentin,  Martyr  (Vigil) 

H.  D.  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

p.  —  Fast  Day:   Only  one  full  meal   (with  meat)  for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 

11 


1942 


jgtobemfoer 


1942 


of  tlje 


Date 

Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN  CALENDAR 

1 

S 

*M 

All  Saints  Day  (Twenty-Third  Sunday  after 
Pentecost) 

Gospel:  The  Beatitudes  —  Matthew  5,  1-12 

2 
3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

*flb 

A  plenaiy  Indulgence  may  be  gained  for  the 
Poor  Souls  by  each  visit  to  a  Chinch  from 
noon  Nov.  2  until  midnight  Nov.  3.    Con- 
ditions:  6  Our  Fathers,  6  Hail  Maiys  and 
6  Gloiys  for  each  visit. 

All  Souls 
St.  Hubert,  Bishop 
St.    Charles    Borromeo,    Cardinal-Confessor 
SS.  Zachary  and  Elizabeth 
St.  Leonard,  Abbot 
St.  Willibrord,  Bishop 

8 

S 

<Jvi 

Twenty-fourth    Sunday    after    Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  Wheat  and  the  Cockle 
Matthew  13.24-30 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 

ftp* 

Dedication   of  the   Basilica  of  St.   Saviour 
St.  Andrew  Avellino,  Confessor 
St.  Martin  of  Tours,  Confessor 
St.  Martin  I,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Didacus,  Confessor 
St.  Josaphat,  Bishop-Martyr 

15 

S 

<M 

Twenty-fifth    Sunday   after    Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  gram  of  mustard-seed 
Matthew  13,  31-35 

16 
17 
18 

19 
20 
21 

M 
T 
W 

T 
F 

S 

fcfflfr 

St.  Gertrude,  Virgin 
St.  Gregory  the  Wonderworker,  Bp-Conf. 
Dedication  of  the  Basilica  of  SS.  Peter  and 
Paul 
St.  Elizabeth  of  Hungary,  Widow 
St.  Felix  of  Valois,  Confessor 
Presentation   of  the   Blessed   Virgin   Mary 

22 

S 

^M 

Twenty-sixth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 

Gospel:  The  end  of  the  world 
Matthew  24,  15-35 

23 

24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

M 

T 

w 

T 
F 

S 

fegn. 

St.  Clement,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  John  of  the  Cross,  Confessor-Doctor 
St.  Catherine  of  Alexandria,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  Sylvester,  Abbot 
St.  Virgil,  Bisnop 
SS.  Stephen  and  Companions,  Martyrs 

29 

S 

JW 

First  Sunday  of  Advent 

Gospel:  Signs  of  the  destruction  of  the  world 
Luke  21,  25-33 

30 

M 

St.  Andrew,  Apostle 

12 


1942 


JBtttwbtv 


1942 


JHcntfj  of  tfre  Sol? 


Date 

Day 

H.  D. 

F. 

A. 

ROMAN   CALENDAR 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

T 
W 
T 

F 
S 

>*$«» 

St.  Natalia,  Widow 
St.  Bibiana,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  Francis  Xavier,  Confessor 
St.  Peter  Chrysologus,  Bishop-Doctor 
St.  Sabbas,  Abbot 

6 

1     S 

JW 

Second  Sunday  of  Advent 

Gospel:  John  sends  hts  disciples  to  Jesus 
Matthew  11,2-10 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 

12 

M 
T 

W 
T 
F 

S 

^M 

*$» 

St.  Ambrose,  Bishop-Coniessor-Doctor 
Immaculate  Conception  of  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary 
St.  Leocadia,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  Melchiades,  Pope-Martyr 
St.  Damasus,  Pope-Confessor 
'St.  Synesius,  Martyr 

13 

S 

JM 

Third  Sunday  of  Advent 

Gospel:  John's  Testimony  of  Chtist 
John  1,19-28 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

19 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 

S 

w 
•W 

>tW* 
«#»* 

Hfflh 

<t®f< 

»#» 

M(0»i 

*» 

St.  Nicasius,  Bishop-Martyr 
St.  Valerian,  Bishop 
St.  Eusebius,  Bishop-Martyr  (Ember  Day) 
St.  Lazarus,  Bishop 
SS.  Rufus  and  Zosimus,  Martyrs 
(Ember  Day) 
St.  Nemesius,  Martyr      (Ember  Day) 

20 

S 

JM 

Fourth  Sunday  of  Advent 

Gospel:  Mission  of  St.  John  Baptist 
Luke  3,  1-6 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

M 
T 
W 
T 
F 

S 

JM 

>T&fa 

«5»r< 

><av 

St.  Thomas,  Apostle 
St.  Ischyrion,  Martyr 
St.  Victoria,  Virgin-Martyr 
St.  Delphinus,  Bishop  (Vigil) 
Nativity   of   Our  Lord    and   Saviour  Jesus 
Christ 
St.  Stephen,  First  Martyr 

27 

S 

JM 

Sunday  within  octave  of  Christmas 

Gospel:  Simeon's  Prophecy  —  Luke  2,33-40 

28 
29 
30 
31 

M 

T 
w 

T 

Holy  Innocents,  Martyrs 
St.  Thomas  of  Canterbury,  Bishop-Martyr 
SS.  Sabinus  and  Companions,  Martyrs 
St.  Sylvester  I,  Pope-Confessor 

H.  D,  —  Holy  Day:  Attendance  at  Mass  required. 

F.  —  Fast  Day:  Only  one  full  meal   (with  meat)   for  those  from  21-60 

years  old. 
A.  —  Abstinence:  No  flesh  meat  allowed. 

13 


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9.S  S 


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14 


NECESSITY   FOR    KEEPING  TIME 

In  order  to  conduct  affairs  properly  it  lias  always  been  necessary  to 
keep  records  by  employing  a  definite  unit  of  measurement,  and  by  start- 
ing from  a  definite  date  or  epoch. 

SOLAR    TIME 

The  prime  unit  is  the  mean  solar  day,  which  is  the  average  of  all 
solar  days,  and  is  measured  by  the  period  of  twenty-four  hours  within 
which  the  earth  revolves  upon  its  axis.  The  true  solar  day  constantly 
fluctuates,  hence  the  adoption  of  a  mean  solar  day.  The  two  coincide 
four  times  a  year:  April  15,  June  14,  September  1,  December  24. 

Solar  time,  computed  upon  the  solar  day,  is  based  on  the  rotation  of 
the  earth  about  the  sun,  a  period  of  approximately  365  days.  This  unit 
of  time  is  called  a  year. 

CHRONOLOGICAL  ERAS 

A  reckoning  of  years  has  been  adopted  from  ancient  times.  This  was 
generally  based  upon  a  historical  period,  dating  from  an  important  event 
such  as  the  accession  of  a  great  king  or  the  founding  of  a  city,  or  char- 
acterized by  a  certain  order  of  things  such  as  physical,  social  or  intel- 
lectual conditions.  The  chronological  eras  in  use  in  the  past  are  as  follows: 

Name 

Grecian  Mundane  Bra, 
Civil  Eia  of  Constanti- 
nople    ,      ... 
Alexandrian    Era 
Julian   Peiiod      . 

Mundane  Eia 

Jewish   Mundane  Eia. 
Era  of  Abraham 
Era  of  the  Olympiads 
Roman  Era  (A  U  C.) . 
Era    of   Metonic   Cycle 

THE  CHRISTIAN   ERA 

Our  present  system  of  dating  events  according  as  to  whether  they  took 
place  "before  Christ"  (B.  C.)  or  "after  Christ,"  that  is,  "in  the  year  of 
our  Lord"  (A.  D.),  originated  about  A.  D.  527  with  the  Abbot  Dionysius 
Exiguus,  who  conceived  the  idea  of  making  the  year  of  Christ's  birth  the 
dividing  point  in  the  calendar.  He  took  the  year  754  A.  IT.  C.  (after  the 
founding  of  the  city  of  Rome)  as  the  year  of  the  Nativity  of  our  Lord, 
but  obviously  erred  in  his  calculations. 

The  correct  basis  of  calculations  is  the  year  in  which  Herod  the  Great 
died,  generally  accepted  as  750  A.  U.  C.  It  is  an  indisputable  fact  that 
Herod  was  alive  at  the  time  of  the  birth  of  Christ.  Consequently  Christ 
was  born  before  750  A.  IT.  C.,  or  before  the  year  4  B.C.  It  is  difficult 
to  determine  precisely  how  long  before  this  date  Christ  was  born.  The 
possibility  arises  that  since  Herod,  in  the  slaughter  of  the  Innocents,  saw 
fit  to  extend  the  tiny  victims'  age  to  two  years,  Christ  may  have  been 
born  in  6  B.  C,  Some  authors  place  the  sacred  date  from  7  B.  C.  to  9  B.  C, 

15 


Began 

Name 

Began 

C    5598,  Sept      1 

Grecian   or   Syro-Mace 

doman  Era     .... 

"     B 

C.     312,  Sept      1 

5508,  Sept.     1 

Era  of  Maccabees 

166,  Nov.  24 

5502,  Au#    29 
4713    Jan.      1 

Tynan   Era 
S'donian  Era 

125,  Oct     19 
110,  Oct.      1 

4008,'  Oct.      1 
3761,  Oct.      1 
2015,  Oct.      1 

Julian  Era  ... 
Spanish   Era 
Augustan  Era 
Christian   Era    . 

A. 

45,  Tan.       1 
38,  Jan.      1 
27,  Feb.    14 
D.         1,  Jan.      1 

776,  July      1 

Destruction     of     Jeru 

753,  April  24 

salem    

69,  Sept.     1 

432,   Tuly     15 

Mohammedan  Era    .  . 

622,  July    16 

THE  CALENDAR 

Julian  Calendar.  Even  after  the  new  reckoning  was  introduced,  the 
old  calendar  of  Julius  Caesar  consisting  of  a  year  of  365  days  was  used 
until  1582,  when  under  Pope  Gregory  XIII  it  was  corrected  by  a  council 
of  astronomers.  Since  the  earth's  journey  around  the  sun  is  not  com- 
pleted in  exactly  365  days  Caesar  made  each  fourth  year  a  leap  year  by 
inserting  an  additional  day  in  February.  The  Julian  Calendar  was  still 
inaccurate,  however,  because  the  earth's  journey  is  made  in  a  little  less 
than  365%  days.  By  1582  the  error  amounted  to  ten  days. 

Gregorian  Calendar.  Pope  Gregory  dropped  these  days  from  the  calen- 
dar and  ordered  that  a  leap  year  should  be  observed  in  1600  but  not  in 
1700,  1800  and  1900,  and  that  thereafter  century  years  would  be  leap 
years  only  when  they  are  divisible  by  400.  The  Gregorian  Calendar  is 
so  nearly  exact  that  there  will  be  an  error  of  one  day  only  in  3,500  years. 
This  calendar  was  readily  accepted  in  all  Catholic  countries  but  did 
not  come  into  use  in  Protestant  countries  until  some  time  later.  It  was 
finally  accepted  in  England  in  1752  and  in  the  American  Colonies  about 
the  same  time.  The  Julian  method  of  reckoning  was  retained  in  the 
East.  Turkey  did  not  adopt  the  Gregorian  Calendar  until  1917,  Russia 
1918,  Bulgaria,  Greece  and  the  Congress  of  the  Eastern  Orthodox  Church 
in  1923.  With  the  exception  of  a  few  Ruthenian  Catholics  the  whole 
civilized  world  was  using  the  Gregorian  Calendar  in  1924. 

The  Ecclesiastical  Calendar  is  a  lunisolar  calendar  for  regulating  the 
dates  of  church  feasts.  It  corresponds  in  periods  of  time  with  the  civil 
calendar.  The  beginning  of  the  ecclesiastical  year  dates,  however,  from 
the  beginning  of  Advent.  In  1942  Advent  begins  on  November  29.  Im- 
portant and  special  feasts  during  the  year  are  as  follows: 


January 


1,  Circumcision. 
4,  Holy  Name. 
6,  Epiphany. 
11,  Holy  Family. 


July 


1, 

2, 

16, 


February      2,  Purification. 

11,  Our  Lady  ofLourdes. 

18,  Ash  Wednesday. 

March         17,  St.  Patrick. 

19,  St.  Joseph. 

22,  Passion  Sunday. 
25,  Annunciation. 

29,  Palm  Sunday. 

April  2,  Holy  Thursday. 

3,  Good  Friday. 

4,  Holy  Saturday. 

5,  Easter. 

May  14,  Ascension. 

24,  Pentecost. 

30,  St.  Joan  of  Arc. 

31,  Trinity  Sunday. 

June  4,  Corpus  Christi. 

12,  Sacred  Heart 

13,  St.   Anthony   of   Pa- 
dua. 

29,  Sts.  Peter  and  Paul. 


26, 

August  2, 
6, 

15, 
September  8, 

14, 

15, 
17, 

24, 
26, 


October 


4, 

7, 

25, 

November  1, 
3, 

December     8, 

25, 
J28, 


Most  Precious  Blood. 
Visitation  of  B.  V.  M. 
Our  Lady  of  Ml 
Carmel. 
St.  Anne. 
Portiuncula. 
Transfiguration. 
Assumption. 
Nativity  of  B.V.M. 
Exaltation  of  the 
Cross. 

Sorrows  of  B.V.M. 
Stigmata  of   St. 
Francis. 

Our  Lady  of  Ransom. 
North  American 
Martyrs. 
Holy  Guardian 
Angels. 

St.  Theresa  of  the 
Child  Jesus. 
St.  Francis  of  Assist. 
Most  Holy  Rosary. 
Christ  the  King. 
All  Saints. 
All  Souls. 

Immaculate    Concep- 
tion. 

Christ  the  King. 
Holy  Innocents. 


The  World  Calendar 
(Courtesy  of  World  Calendar  Association) 

The  year  is  composed,  roughly,  of  365*^4  days.  In  our  Gregorian  Calen- 
dar, the  extra  quarter  of  a  day  is  set  aside  until  every  fourth  year,  which 
then  counts  366  days  instead  of  365  and  becomes  a  "leap  year." 

Neither  365  nor  366  is  exactly  divisible  by  7,  the  number  of  days  in 
a  week.  Hence,  successive  years  begin  .on  different  days  and  have  dif- 
ferent patterns.  To  remedy  this,  various  "reforms"  have  been  suggested. 

One  general  class  of  such  suggestions  would  give  each  year  364  days, 
and  instead  of  counting  the  extra  day  (two  days  in  leap  years)  in  the 
ordinary  line-up  of  weekdays,  the  extra  day  (or  days)  would  be  se- 
questered, so  to  speak,  and  given  a  name  of  its  own.  Every  year  would 
then  consist  of  52  full  weeks,  plus  one  or  two  "supplementary,"  "blank," 
"special,"  days.  This  arrangement  would  make  every  year  begin  on  the 
same  day,  and  give  every  day  of  each  month  the  same  date  in  successive 
years. 

There  have  been  two  principal  varieties  of  this  proposal.  One 
would  give  the  year  13  months  of  28  days  each  —  a  total  again  of  364. 
This  plan  has  been  traced  back  to  an  article  in  "Scot's  Magazine"  for 
July,  1745,  by  a  "Mr.  Urban  of  Maryland."  Its  origin  is  more  popularly 
attributed  to  Auguste  Comte,  who  published  an  article  on  it  in  1849. 
The  13-month  plan  makes  demands  that  are  altogether  too  radical.  It 
would  lose  all  approximate  correspondence  with  comparable  dates  in 
our  present  calendar,  would  introduce  a  new  month,  would  be  based  on 
an  indivisible  unit  of  calculation  (13),  would  offend  the  superstitious,  etc. 
Today  the  13-month  calendar  is  hardly  mentioned,  since  it  has  been 
definitely  rejected  by  the  League  of  Nations  authorities  entrusted  with 
the  study  of  calendar  reform  proposals.  The  same  is  true  of  intercalary 
week  or  month  schemes. 

The  other  plan  with  the  "supplementary  day"  was  first  proposed  in  its 
essential  features  by  a  Catholic  priest,  Marco  Mastrofini,  who  published 
a  work  on  it  in  Rome  over(a  hundred  years  ago  (1834).  The  plan  is  now 
widely  known  as  "The  World  Calendar,"  due  mainly  to  the  activities  of 
the  World  Calendar  Association  (630  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York  City; 
president,  Miss  Elisabeth  Achelis).  The  World  Calendar  produces  sym- 
metry by  giving  each  quarter  of  the  year  three  months  with  respectively 
31,  30  and  30  days.  Every  year  begins  on  Sunday,  as  does  also  every 
quarter.  The  second  month  in  each  quarter  begins  on  Wednesday,  the 
third  on  Friday.  The  basic  number  12,  handily  divisible  by  2,  3,  4,  and  6, 
is  thus  kept  in  a  logical  arrangement.  In  many  cases,  dates  in  the  new 
calendar,  when  paralleled  with  the  old,  are  the  same:  there  Is  never  a 
difference  of  more  than  two  days.  The  added  day  in  ordinary  years, 
tentatively  called  Year-End  Day,  follows  December  30.  The  second  addi- 
tional day  of  leap  years,  called  Leap-Year  Day,  follows  June  30.  Both 
days  would  be  holidays. 

Easter  could  be  fixed  in  the  World  Calendar  for  Sunday,  April  8.  While 
Easter  stabilization  has  economic  and  social  aspects,  it  is  predominantly 
a  religious  question  and  one  that  must  be  dealt  with  by  religious  authori- 
ties. The  rearranging  of  the  calendar  need  not,  therefore,  of  necessity 
imply  the  fixing  of  movable  ecclesiastical  feasts. 

Many  religious  authorities,  including  a  number  of  Catholic  priests  and 
scholars,  find  no  basic  difficulty  in  the  idea  of  the  supplementary  day, 
since  the  Sunday  legislation  is  primarily  ecclesiastical  and  could  be 
changed  by  Church  authority.  The  Vatican  has  declared  that  there  are 
no  dogmatic  objections  to  calendar  reform.  This  statement  seems  to 
cover  both  fixation  of  movable  feasts  and  use  of  the  supplementary  day. 

17 


HOLYDAYS   OF  OBLIGATION   FOR   THE   UNITED   STATES 

Every  Catholic  who  has  attained  the  age  of  reason,  and  is  not  pre- 
vented by  sickness  or  other  sufficient  cause,  is  obliged  to  rest  from  servile 
work  and  attend  Holy  Mass  on  the  following  days : 

All  Sundays  of  the  year. 

The  Circumcision  of  Our  Lord,  or  New  Year's  Day,  January  1, 
The  Ascension  of  Our  Lord,  May  14,  1912. 
The  Assumption  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  August  15. 
All  Saints'  Day,  November  1. 

The  Immaculate  Conception  of  the  B.  V.  M.   (Patronal  Feast  of  the 
United  States),  December  8. 
Christmas,  the  Nativity  of  Our  Lord,  December  25. 

FAST  DAYS  AND  DAYS  OF  ABSTINENCE 

The  Law  of  Fasting  affects  all  Catholics  between  the  ages  of  21  and 
60,  unless  health  or  other  sufficient  reason  allows  a  dispensation.  The  law 
of  fasting  requires  that  only  one  full  meal  may  be  taken,  although  it  does 
not  forbid  a  small  amount  of  food  in  the  morning  and  evening,  the  quality 
and  quantity  of  which  is  regulated  according  to  local  custom.  Both  fish 
and  meat  may  be  taken  at  the  same  meal  where  meat  is  allowed  to  those 
who  are  bound  to  fast.  Fast  days  in  the  United  States  are: 

The  Ember  Days --First  week  of  Lent,  Feb.  25,  27,  28,  1942. 
Pentecost  week,  May  27,  29,  30,  1942. 
Third  week  in  September,  Sept.  16,  18,  19,  1942. 
Third  week  in  December,  Dee.  16,  18,  19,  1942. 

The  Vigil  of  Pentecost,  May  23,  1942. 

The  Vigil  of  the  Assumption,  August  14. 

The  Vigil  of  All  Saints'  Day,  October  31. 

The  Vigil  of  Christmas,  December  24. 

And  all  days  of  Lent  up  to  noon  Holy  Saturday. 

The  Law  of  Abstinence  requires  the  abstaining  from  flesh  meat  and 
broth  made  from  meat.  The  number  of  meals  and  amount  taken  remain 
unaffected.  All  the  faithful  who  have  completed  their  seventh  year  are 
obliged  by  the  law  of  abstinence.  Abstinence  days  for  the  United 
States  are: 

All  Fridays  of  the  year  (holyclays  falling  on  Fridays  excepted). 

Wednesdays  and  Fridays  of  Lent  (for  Wednesday  in  Holy  Week  see 
your  diocesan  Lenten  regulations). 

Ember  days  and  vigils  listed  above  under  fast  days. 

ROGATION    DAYS 

Rogation  Days  are  days  of  solemn  supplication  to  God  for  a  good  and 
bountiful  harvest  and  for  His  protection  in  calamities,  and  to  appease 
His  anger  at  man's  transgressions.  Formerly  they  were  also  observed 
by  fasting,  but  this  is  no  longer  obligatory.  Where  practicable  a  solemn 
procession  is  a  feature  of  the  observance.  There  are  three  Minor  Roga- 
tion Days,  which  are  the  three  days  preceding  the  feast  of  the  Ascension 
(May  11,  12  and  IS,  1942,  and  one  Major  Rogation  Day,  on  the  feast  of 
St.  Mark,  April  25.  The  observance  of  St.  Mark's  Day  as  the  day  of  tbe 
Major  Litanies  originated  about  600  when  during  a  plague  in  Rome  Pope 
St.  Gregory  ordered  a  procession  to  be  held  to  implore  God's  mercy;  and 
the  pestilence  immediately  abated.  The  Minor  Rogation  Days  were 
formally  instituted  by  the  Fifth  Council  of  Orleans,  511,  and  approved 
by  Pope  Leo  III. 

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STANDARD  TIME 

Standard  time  is  the  time  commonly  in  use  and  is  based  on  solar  time. 
When  the  sun  is  on  the  meridian  of  any  place,  the  time  at  that  place  is 
called  noon  or  twelve  o'clock.  AH  places  having  the  same  meridian  have 
noon  at  the  same  time.  And  this  hour  varies  in  different  places  according 
to  their  meridian.  In  other  words,  when  it  is  noon  at  a  given  place,  it  is 
afternoon  in  places  to  the  eastward  and  still  forenoon  in  places  to  the 
westward,  since  the  sun  rises  in  the  east  and  sets  in  the  west.  These  dif- 
ferences in  time  led  to  great  confusion  especially  in  the  case  of  railroads. 
Hence  a  standard  of  time  was  necessary.  An  international  conference  met 
at  Washington  in  1884.  Most  of  the  26  delegates  present  favored  the 
adoption  of  Greenwich  as  the  common  prime  meridian  to  be  used  in 
reckoning  longitude,  and  this  is  almost  universally  employed.  On  it  is 
based  Standard  Time. 

The  railroads  of  the  United  States  and  Canada  had  the  previous  year 
decided  on  the  introduction  of  Standard  Time  to  take  effect  at  noon, 
Nov.  18,  1883.  Its  divisions  depend  on  a  mean  of  solar  time  applied  to 
every  meridian  distant  from  Greenwich  at  exact  multiples  of  15o.  The 
time  difference  for  each  succeeding  meridian  is  one  hour.  The  Standard 
Time  meridians  of  the  United  States  and  Canada  are: 

Time  Meridian  Difference  from  Greenwich 

Colonial  60o  4  hours  slower  than  Greenwich 

Eastern  75o  5      " 

"    Central  90o  6      " 

Mountain  105o  7      " 

Pacific  120o  8      " 

On  journeying  from  one  belt  to  another  it  is  necessary  to  change  the 
time  only  by  the  whole  hour  on  entering  and  leaving. 

DAYLIGHT  SAVING  TIME 

Daylight  Saving  Time  prolongs  the  hours  of  daylight  during  the  spring 
and  summer  months  by  advancing  the  clocks  one  hour.  It  was  first  ob- 
served in  New  York  City  in  1918,  and  in  1923  the  period  of  its  observance 
was  definitely  fixed,  beginning  at  2  a.  m.  the  last  Sunday  in  April. 

It  is  now  observed  throughout  the  states  of  Connecticut,  Delaware, 
Maine,  Massachusetts,  New  Jersey  and  Rhode  Island,  in  some  cities  and 
towns  of  Georgia,  Idaho,  Illinois,  Indiana,  New  Hampshire,  New  York, 
Pennsylvania,  and  Vermont,  and  in  Charleston,  W.  Va.,  Minneapolis, 
Minn.,  and  Billings,  Mont.  The  territory  of  Hawaii,  most  cities  and  towns 
of  Canada,  and  several  countries  of  Europe  and  South  America  observe 
it.  Great  Britain  has  "summer  time." 

In  1942  Daylight  Saving  Time  in  the  United  States  begins  April  26, 
and  ends  September  26. 

THE  SEASONS 

In  the  Temperate  Zone  there  are  four  seasons:  Spring  begins  at  the 
vernal  equinox,  summer  at  the  summer  solstice,  autumn  at  the  autumnal 
equinox  and  winter  at  the  winter  solstice.  In  the  North  Temperate  Zone 
these  dates  are  approximately  March  21,  June  21,  September  23  and 
December  21. 

At  the  vernal  and  autumnal  equinoxes  day  and  night  are  of  equal 
length  the  world  over,  due  to  the  fact  that  the  earth's  axis  is  then  at 
right  angles  to  the  direction  of  the  sun.  Lengthening  days  bring  in- 
creasing heat,  hence  the  warmth  of  the  summer  season.  At  the  summer 
solstice  the  day  is  longest.  The  shortest  day  of  the  year  occurs  at  the 
winter  solstice. 

20 


Indian  Summer  is  a  period  of  pleasant  mild  weather  occurring  in 
October  or  November,  or  sometimes  as  late  as  December,  in  the  Central 
and  Eastern  States.  The  origin  of  the  term  is  unknown.  It  occurs  first 
in  printing  in  1794  and  was  introduced  from  America  into  England. 
There  similar  weather  is  usually  termed  "All  Hallow  Summer"  or  "St. 
Martin's  Summer."  In  Germany  it  also  occurs  and  is  known  as  "St.  Luke's 
Summer"  or  "Old  Woman's  Summer." 

The  seasons  in  1942,  B..  S.  T.,  begin  as  follows:  spring,  March  21,  1:11 
a.  m.;  summer,  June  21,  8:17  p.  m.;  autumn,  September  23,  11:17  a.  m.; 
winter,  December  22,  6:40  a.  m. 

DERIVATIONS  OF  THE  NAMES  OF  DAYS  AND  MONTHS 
The  Names  of  Months 

January  —  The  Roman  Janus  presided  over  the  beginning  of  every- 
thing; hence  the  first  month  of  the  year  was  named  after  him. 

February  —  The  Roman  festival  Februs  was  held  on  the  fifteenth  day 
of  this  month,  in  honor  of  Lupercus,  the  god  of  fertility. 

March  —  Named  from  the  Roman  god  of  war,  Mars. 

April  —  The  Latin  word,  Aprtlts,  is  probably  derived  from  aperire, 
to  open;  because  spring  generally  begins  and  the  buds  open  in  this  month. 

May  —  The  Latin  word,  Maius,  is  probably  derived  from  Maia,  a  fem- 
inine divinity  worshiped  at  Rome  on  the  first  day  of  this  month. 

June  —  from  Juno,  a  Roman  divinity  worshiped  as  the  Queen  of  Heaven. 

July  —  Prom  Julius.   Julius  Caesar  was  born  in  this  month. 

August  —  Named  by  the  Emperor  Augustus  Caesar,  30  B.  C.,  after 
himself,  as  he  regarded  it  a  fortunate  month,  in  which  he  had  gained 
several  victories. 

September  —  From  septem,  meaning  seven.  September  was  the  seventh 
month  in  the  old  Roman  year. 

October  —  From  octo,  meaning  eight.  October  was  the  eighth  month 
in  the  old  Roman  year. 

November  —  From  novem,  meaning  nine.  November  was  the  ninth 
month  in  the  old  Roman  year. 

December  —  From  decem,  meaning  ten.  December  was  the  tenth  month 
in  the  old  Roman  year. 

Days  of  the  Week 

Sunday  — From  Anglo-Saxon,  Sunnandaeg,  day  of  the  sun. 

Monday  —  From  Anglo-Saxon,  Monadaeg,  day  of  the  moon. 

Tuesday  —  From  Anglo  Saxon,  Tiwesdaeg,  from  Tiw,  Norse  god  of  war. 

Wednesday  —  From  Anglo-Saxon,  Wodnesdaeg,  day  of  the  god  Woden. 

Thursday  —  From  Anglo-Saxon,  Thunresdaeg,  from  Thor,  Danish  god 
of  thunder. 

Friday  —  From  Anglo-Saxon,  Frigudaeg,  from  Frigga,  Norse  goddess 
of  marriage. 

Saturday  —  From  Anglo-Saxon,  Saeterdaeg,  from  Saturn,  god  of  time. 

LEGAL    OR    PUBLIC    HOLIDAYS    OBSERVED    THROUGHOUT 
THE  UNITED  STATES 

New  Year's  Day,  Thursday,  Jan.  1,  1942. 

Washington's  Birthday,  Sunday,  Feb.  22,  1942. 

Independence  Day,  Saturday,  July  4,  1942. 

Labor  Day,  first  Monday  in  September,  Sept.  7,  1942. 

Armistice  Day,  Wednesday,  Nov.  11,  1942. 

Thanksgiving  Day,  last  Thursday  in  November,  Nov.  26,  1942. 

Christmas  Day,  Friday,  December  25,  1942. 

21 


OTHER   HOLIDAYS  AND   DATES   COMMEMORATED   IN   THE 
UNITED   STATES 


Jan.    8—  Battle    of    New    Orleans 

(in  La.). 
Jan.    17  —  Benjamin    Franklin's 

Birthday, 
Jan.  19  —  R.  E.  Lee's  Birthday  (in 

Southern  States). 
Jan.   20  —  Inauguration   Day,    1937, 

and  every  fourth  year  thereafter 

(inD.  C.). 
Jan.    29  —  Win.    McKinley's    Birth- 

day (in  Ohio). 
Feb.    12  —  Lincoln's    Birthday    (in 

most  States). 

—  Georgia  Day  (in  Ga.). 
Feb.  14  —  St.  Valentine's  Day. 

—  Admission  Day  (in  Ariz.). 
Feb.  17  —  Shrove  Tuesday. 

—  Mardi  Gras  (in  Ala.,  Fla.,  and 
La.). 

March  2  —  Texas  Independence  Day 
(in  Tex.). 

March    4  —  Pennsylvania   Day    (in 
Pa.). 

March  7  —  Luther  Burbank's  Birth- 

day (in  Gal.). 
March  22  —  Emancipation  Day  (in 

Puerto  Rico). 

March  25  —  Maryland  Day  (in  Md.). 
March  30  —  Seward  Day  (in  Alaska). 
April  3  —  Good  Friday  (in  many 

states). 

April  5  —  Easter  Sunday. 
April  12  —  Anniversary  Passage  of 

Halifax  Independence  Resolu- 

tions (in  N.  C.). 
April  13  —  Thomas  Jefferson's 

Birthday  (in  Ala.). 
April  14  —  Pan-American  Day. 
April  16  —  De  Diego's  Birthday  (in 

Puerto  Rico). 
April  19  —  Patriots'  Day  (in  Mass. 

and  Me.). 
April  21  —  Anniversary  of  Battle  of 

San  Jacinto  (in  Tex.). 
April     22—  J.     Sterling     Morton's 

Birthday  (in  Neb.). 
April  24  —  National  Wild  Flowers 

Day. 
April    26  —  Confederate    Memorial 

Day  (in  Ky.  and  N.  C.). 
May  1  —  May  Day,    CMld  Health 


May  12  —  National  Hospital  Day 
(Florence  Nightingale's  Birthday). 

May  18— -Peace  Day.  World  Good- 
will Day. 

May  20  —  Anniversary  of  Signing 
of  Mecklenburg  Declaration  of 
Independence  (in  N.  C.). 

May  30  —  Decoration  or  Memorial 
Day  (in  most  States). 

—  Confederate  Memorial  Day  (in 
Va.). 

June  3  —  Jefferson  Davis'  Birthday. 

—  Confederate  Memorial  Day  (in 
Tenn.). 

June    11  —  Kamehameha    Day    (in 

Hawaii). 

June  14  —  Flag  Day. 
June  15  —  Pioneer  Day  (in  Idaho). 
June  17  —  Bunker  Hill  Day. 
June  20  —  West  Virginia  Day   (in 

W.  Va.). 
July    13  — Gen.    Bedford    Forrest's 

Birthday  (in  Tenn.). 
July   17  —  Munoz   Rivera   Day    (in 

Puerto  Rico). 

July  24— -Pioneer  Day  (in  Utah). 
July  25  —  Occupation  Day  (in 

Puerto  Rico). 
July   27  —  Dr.   Barbosa's    Birthday 

(in  Puerto  Rico). 
Aug.  1  — Colorado  Day  (in  Col.). 
Aug.  16 — -Anniversary  of  Battle  of 

Bennlngton  (in  Vt.). 
Sept.  6  — Lafayette  Day  (in  many 

States). 

Sept  9 --Admission  Day  (in  CaL). 
Sept.  12  —  Defenders'  Day  (inMd.). 
Sept.  17  —  Constitution  Day, 
Oct.  1  —  Missouri  Day   (in  Mo, 

schools). 

Oct.  9-- Fraternal  Day  (in  Ala.). 
Oct.  32  —  Columbus  Day  (in  most 

States). 

Oct.  18  — Alaska  Day  (in  Alaska). 
Oct  27  —  Navy  Day. 
Oct.  31  —  Hallowe'en. 

—  Admission  Day  (in  Nov.). 
Nov.  3 --General  Election  Day. 
Dec.  6 —  St.  Nicholas  Day. 
Dec.  7  — Delaware  Day  (in  Del.). 
Dec.  14  —  Alabama  Day  (in  Ala.). 
Dec.  28  —  Woodrow  Wilson's  Birth- 
day (in  S.  C.). 


22 


PAY  FINDER  FOR  200  YEARSs  FROM  1752*  TO  1952   INCLUSIVE 

(For  example,  to  and  on  what  day  of  the  week  November  11,  1918,  fell,  look  in  the 
table  of  years  for  1918,  and  in  a  parallel  line  under  November  is  figure  5,  which  directs 
to  column  5,  in  which  it  will  be  scon  that  November  11  fell  on  Monday  in  that  year.) 


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Thursday     11 
Friday          12 
Saturday      13 
SUNDAY    14 
Monday       15 
.Tuesday      16 
Wednesday  17 
Thursday     18 
Friday         19 
Saturday     20 
SUNDAY    21 
Monday      22 
Tuesday      23 
Wednesday  24 
Thursday     25 
Friday         26 
Saturday      27 
SUNDAY    28 
Monday       29 
Tuesday      30 
Wednesday  31 

SUNDAY      6 
Monday         7 
Tuesday        8 
Wednesday    9 
Thursday     10 
Friday          11 
Saturday      12 
SUNDAY    13 
Monday       14 
Tuesday       15 
Wednesday  16 
Thursday     17 
Friday          18 
Saturday      19 
SUNDAY    20 
Monday       21 
Tuesday       22 
Wednesday  23 
Thursday     24 
Friday          25 
Saturday     26 
SUNDAY    27 
Monday       28 
Tuesday      29 
Wednesday  30 
Thursday     3  1 

Monday         6 
Tuesday        7 
Wednesday    8 
Thursday       9 
Friday          10 
Saturday      11 
SUNDAY    12 
Monday       13 
Tuesday      14 
Wednesday  15 
Thursday     16 
Friday          17 
Saturday      18 
SUNDAY    19 
Monday       20 
Tuesday       21 
Wednesday  22 
Thursday     23 
Friday         24 
Saturday     25 
SUNDAY    26 
Monday       27 
Tuesday       28 
Wednesday  29 
Thursday     30 
Friday         31 

Tuesday        6 
Wednesday    7 
Thursday      8 
Friday           9 
Saturday      10 
SUNDAY    11 
Monday       12 
Tuesday       13 
Wednesday  14 
Thursday     15 
Friday          1  6 
Saturday      17 
SUNDAY    18 
Monday       19 
Tuesday      20 
Wednesday  21 
Thursday     22 
Friday          23 
Saturday      24 
SUNDAY    25 
Monday       26 
Tuesday      27 
Wednesday  28 
Thursday     29 
Friday         30 
Saturday      31 

Wednesday    6 
Thursday       7 
Friday           8 
Saturday       9 
SUNDAY    10 
Monday       11 
Tuesday       12 
Wednesday  13 
Thursday     34 
Friday          15 
Saturday      16 
SUNDAY    17 
Monday       18 
Tuesday       19 
Wednesday  20 
Thursday     21 
Friday          22 
Saturday      23 
SUNDAY    24 
Monday       25 
Tuesday       26 
Wednesday  27 
Thursday     28 
Friday         29 
Saturday      30 
SUNDAY    31 

Thursday       6 
Friday           7 
Saturday        8 
SUNDAY      9 
Monday       10 
Tuesday       11 
Wednesday  12 
Thursday     13 
Friday          14 
Saturday      15 
SUNDAY    16 
Monday       17 
Tuesday       18 
Wednesday  19 
Thursday  20 
Friday         21 
Saturday      22 
SUNDAY    23 
Monday       24 
Tuesday       25 
Wednesday  26 
Thursday     27 
Friday          28 
Saturday      29 
SUNDAY    30 
Monday       31 

Friday            6 
Saturday        7 
SUNDAY      8 
Monday         9 
Tuesday       10 
Wednesday  11 
Thursday     12 
Friday          13 
Saturday      14 
SUNDAY    15 
Monday        16 
Tuesday       17 
Wednesday  IS 
Thursday     19 
Friday         20 
Saturday      21 
SUNDAY    22 
Monday       23 
Tuesday       24 
Wednesday  25 
Thursday     26 
Friday          27 
Saturday      28 
SUNDAY    29 
Monday       30 
Tuesday       31 

*In  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States,  where  the  Gregorian  Calendar  was  not 
adopted  till  1752:  1752  is  the  same  as  1772  from  January  1  to  September  2.  From 
September  14  to  December  31  it  is  the  same  as  1780.  September  3-13  were  omitted, 

23 


WEATHER  WISDOM  IN 

A  late  spring  never  deceives. 

A  cold  April  will  fill  the  barn. 

In  a  year  of  snow,  fruit  will  grow. 

January  blossoms  fill  no  man's 
cellar, 

January  wet,  no  wine   you  get. 

A  February  spring  is  worth  noth- 
ing. 

All  the  months  of  the  year  curse 
a  fair  February. 

The  moon  with  a  circle  brings 
water  in  her  beak. 

Clear  moon,  frost  soon. 

When  the  stars  begin  to  huddle, 
the  earth  will  soon  become  a 
puddle. 

When  the  dew  is  in  the  grass, 
rain  will  never  come  to  pass. 

When  the  wind  is  in  the  south, 
rain  is  in  its  mouth. 

When  the  ditch  and  pond  offend 
the  nose,  look  then  for  rain  and 
stormy  blows. 


PHRASE  AND  VERSE 

A  rising  well  and  a  gushing 
spring  are  two  good  signs  of  raining. 

Mackerel  scales  and  mare's  tails, 
make  ships  carry  low  sails. 

A  sky  red  at  night  is  a  sailor's 
delight. 

A  rainbow  in  the  morning  is  the 
shepherd's  warning. 

A  rainbow  at  night  is  a  shep- 
herd's delight. 

A  red  niorn  brings  sorrow  to  the 
tender  flocks,  woe  to  birds,  gusts 
and  foul  flaws  to  herds. 

Alternate  sunshine  and  shower 
mean  rain  again  tomorrow. 

A  green  sunset  ray  marks  the 
morrow  a  fine  day. 

Smoke  comes  clown  before  rain. 

Wind  from  the  northeast  is  good 
for  neither  man  nor  beast. 

Evening  red  and  morning  gray 
help  the  traveler  on  his  way. 

Shooting  corns  presage  storm; 
aches  will  throb,  and  the  hollow 
tooth  will  rage. 


WEATHER 

Sunset  Colors  —  A  gray,  lowering 
sunset,  or  one  where  the  sky  is 
green  or  yellowish-green,  indicates 
rain.  A  red  sunrise,  with  clouds 
lowering  later  in  the  morning,  also 
indicates  rain. 

Halo  (Sun  Dogs) — By  halo  we 
mean  the  large  circles,  or  parts  of 
circles,  about  the  sun  or  moon.  A 
halo  occurring  after  fine  weather 
indicates  a  storm. 

Corona — By  this  term  we  mean 
the  small  colored  circles  frequently 
seen  around  the  sun  or  moon,  A 
corona  growing  smaller  indicates 
rain;  growing  larger,  fair  weather. 


INDICATIONS 

Rainbows  —  A  morning  rainbow 
is  regarded  as  a  sign  of  rain;  an 
evening  rainbow,  of  fair  weather. 

Sky  Color  —  A  deep-blue  color  of 
the  sky,  even  when  seen  through 
clouds,  indicates  fair  weather;  a 
growing  whiteness,  an  approaching 
storm. 

Fogs  —  Fogs  indicate  settled 
weather.  A  morning  fog  usxially 
breaks  away  before  noon. 

Visibility  —  Unusual  clearness  of 
the  atmosphere,  unusual  brightness 
or  twinkling  of  the  stars  indicate 
rain. 

Frost  — The  first  frost  and  last 
frost  are  usually  preceded  by  a  tem- 
perature very  much  above  the  mean. 


WEATHER  FORECASTING 

The  barometer  is  chiefly  used  in  predicting  changes  in  the  weather,  A 
simple  barometer  consists  of  a  glass  tube  82  indies  long  filled  with  mer- 
cury closed  at  one  end  and  covered  at  the  other,  When  immersed  in  a 
bowl  of  mercury  and  the  covered  end  is  uncovered,  the  column  in  the 
tube  falls  and  comes  to  rest  since  the  weight  of  the  liquid  in  the  tube  is 
balanced  by  the  weight  of  the  outside  air.  The  standard  atmospheric 
pressure  is  denoted  by  29.92  inches  of  pure  mercury.  Storms  are  preceded 
by  a  period  of  low  pressure,  wherefore  a  falling  barometer  foretells  a 
storm  and  vice  versa. 

24 


CHRONOLOGICAL  TABLE  OF  THE  SAVIOUR'S  LIFE 
^  (Approximate  dates  are  here  given  based  "on  the  year  4  B.  C.  as  the  date  of  the 
birth  of  Christ;  of  many  events,  such  as  the  Flight  into  Egypt,  Hts  Passion  and 
Death,  exact  dates  cannot  be  determined*  Scholars  agree  that  Christ  could  not  have 
been^  born  later  than  4  B.  C.f  as  Herod,  whose  Massacre  of  the  Innocents  followed 
Christ's  birth,  died  in  that  year, ) 

Year         Date  Event 

Conception  of  the  Blessed  Virgin. 

Nativity  of  the  Blessed  Virgin. 

Presentation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  at  the  age  of  three. 

Death  of  St.  Joachim  at  eighty  years  of  age  and  of  St. 

Ann  at  seventy-nine  years. 
Annunciation  by  the  Angel  Gabriel  to  Zachary  that  his 

wife  Elizabeth  would  bring  forth  a  son. 
Annunciation  by  the  Angel  Gabriel  to  the  Blessed  Vii 

gin  that  she  was  to  be  the  Mother  of  God. 
The  Blessed  Virgin  visits  her  cousin  Elizabeth. 
Nativity   of   John   the   Baptist,    son   of   Elizabeth   and 

Zachary. 
Birth  of  Christ. 
Circumcision  of  Our  Lord. 
Adoration  of  the  Magi. 
Presentation  of  Christ  in  the  Temple. 
Flight  into  Egypt. 
Massacre  of  the  Holy  Innocents. 

Return  of  Joseph  and  the  Holy  Family  out  of  Egypt. 
Jesus  comes  with  His  parents  from  Nazareth  to  Jerusa- 
lem for  three  days. 

John  begins  to  preach  the  baptism  of  penance. 
Baptism  of  Christ  by  St.  John. 

Christ  retires  to  the  desert  and  fasts  for  forty  days. 
Christ  changes  water  into  wine  at  the  marriage  feast 

of  Cana  in  Galilee. 
Christ  celebrates  the  first  Passover. 
At  the  command  of  Herod  Antipas,  son  of  Herod  Agrip- 

pa,  John  is  imprisoned. 
Christ  begins  publicly  to  preach  to  the  Jews. 

29  A.  D.  Second  year  of  Christ's  preaching. 

Christ  celebrates  the  second  Passover. 
Christ  chooses  His  twelve  apostles. 

30  A.  D.  Third  year  of  Christ's  preaching. 

Christ  celebrates  the  third  Passover. 
Christ  chooses  His  seventy-two  disciples. 

31  A.  D.  Apr.     9     Christ's  triumphal  entry  into  Jerusalem. 

Apr,  10    Christ  prays  daily  in  the  Temple;  returns  in  the  eve- 
ning to  Bethania  to  pray  in  the  Garden  of  Gethsemani. 
Apr.  12    Judas  agrees  to  deliver  up  Jesus  to  the  chief  priests  for 

a  sum  of  money. 
Apr.  13     The  disciples  prepare  the  Paschal  Lamb  which  Christ 

and  the  Apostles  eat. 
Christ  washes  the  feet  of  the  Apostles. 
After  supper,  Christ  institutes  the  Blessed  Sacrament. 
He  suffers  a  bloody  sweat  in  agony  of  spirit  as  He 
prays  for  three  hours  in  the  Garden  of  Gethsemani, 
is  betrayed  by  Judas  and  seized  by  the  soldiers. 
Christ  is  led  before  Annas  and  Caiphas. 

25 


19  B.  C.  Dec.    8 

18  B.  C.  Sept.   8 
15  B.  C.  Nov.  21 
7  B.C. 

5  B.C. 

4  B.  C.  Mar.  25 

4  B.C. 

4  B.C.  June  24 

Dec.  25 

3  B.C.  Jan.  1 
Jan,  6 
Feb.  2 


2  B.C. 
9  A.D. 

27  A.  D. 

28  A.  D. 


Apr.  14      Early  in  the  morning  He  is  delivered  up  to  Pilate  who 

declares  Him  innocent. 

Apprehensive  of  the  emperor's  displeasure,  Pilate  con- 
demns  Him  at  about  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning 
to  death  by  crucifixion. 
The  crucifixion  of  Christ  at  noon. 
Christ  dies  at  three  o'clock. 
He  is  buried  on  the  same  day, 
Apr.  16     Christ  rises  from  the  dead  and  appears  at  five  different 

times. 

Apr.  23  Christ  in  the  midst  of  His  Apostles  shows  His  wounds 
to  Thomas  who  thereupon  believes  He  is  the  risen 
God. 

May  25    The  Ascension  of  Christ  into  heaven. 
June   4    Christ  sends  down  the  Holy  Ghost  upon  His  disciples. 


DISCOURSES  OF  JESUS    IN   CHRONOLOGICAL   ORDER 

He  converses  with  Nicodemus Jerusalem 

He  converses  with  the  Samaritan  woman Sichar 

He  vindicates  His  disciples  for  not  fasting Capharnaum 

He  vindicates  Himself  and  His  mission Jerusalem 

He  vindicates  His  disciples  for  plucking  corn  on  the  Sabbath. Galilee 

He  vindicates  Himself  for  healing  the  withered  hand  on  the 

Sabbath Galilee 

He  preaches  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount Thabor 

He  denounces  Corozain,  refutes  calumny  of  Jews Capharnaum 

He  instructs  the  Apostles Galilee 

He  discourses  concerning  the  heavenly  bread Capharnaum 

He  discourses  concerning  internal  purity Capharnaum 

He  discourses  against  giving  or  taking  scandal Capharnaum 

He  discourses  on  fraternal  correction Capharnaum 

He  discourses  at  the  feast  of  Tabernacles Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  the  adulterous  woman  brought  before  Him. . ,  .Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  the  qualities  of  His  sheep Jerusalem 

He  instructs  the  seventy  disciples Peraea 

He  denounces  the  Scribes  and  Pharisees Peraea 

He  discourses  against  the  fear  of  death Peraea 

He  discourses  against  worldly  solicitude Peraea 

He  discourses  on  self-denial Caesarea  Philippi 

He  discourses  on  matrimony,  in  favor  of  virginity Judea 

He  discourses  on  His  second  coming  and  the  destruction  of 

the  wicked » .  Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  the  salvation  of  the  rich  and  the  happiness 

of  renouncing  all  for  Christ Judea 

He  converses  with  Martha Bethany 

He  exhorts  to  faith  in  opposition  to  the  credulity  of  the  Jews. .  .Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  the  lawfulness  of  His  mission .Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  the  first  commandment Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  the  sufferings  of  the  Apostles Jerusalem 

He  discourses  concerning  watchfulness Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  His  last  coming. Jerusalem 

He  talks  with  Peter  on  the  occasion  of  washing  his  feet. .    ....  .Jerusalem 

He  discourses  on  superiority Jerusalem 

He  consoles  His  Apostles  after  the  last  supper Jerusalem 

He  continues  His  consolation  on  the  way  to  Gethsemani 

He  discourses  with  His  disciples  before  His  Ascension Bethany 

26 


PRINCIPAL  MIRACLES  OF  CHRIST  IN  CHRONOLOGICAL  ORDER 

Cana He  turns  water  into  wine. 

Cana He  cures  the  ruler's  son  of  Capharnaum. 

Sea  of  Galilee He  causes  a  miraculous  draught  of  fishes. 

Capharnaum He  delivers  a  man  possessed  with  an  unclean  spirit. 

Capharnaum He  heals  Peter's  mother-in-law  of  a  fever. 

Sea  of  Galilee He  quiets  a  violent  storm. 

Gadara He  cures  the  demoniacs  of  Gadara. 

Capharnaum He  cures  a  man  of  the  palsy. 

Capharnaum He  cures  a  woman  of  an  issue  of  blood. 

Capharnaum He  restores  the  daughter  of  Jairus  to  life. 

Capharnaum He  restores  sight  to  two  blind  men. 

Capharnaum He  heals  a  dumb  man  possessed  by  a  devil. 

Jerusalem He  cures  an  infirm  man  at  the  Pool  of  Bethsaida. 

Capharnaum He  cures  a  man  with  a  withered  hand. 

Capharnaum He  cleanses  a  leper. 

Nairn He  heals  the  centurion's  servant. 

Nairn He  raises  the  widow's  son  to  life. 

Decapolis With  five  loaves  and  two  fishes  He  feeds  5,000  people. 

Sea  of  Galilee . . .  .He  walks  upon  the  sea,  enables  Peter  to  do  the  same. 
Sea  of  Galilee.  ..«He  calms  the  tempest,  heals  the  sick. 

Near  Tyre He  heals  the  daughter  of  the  Canaanite  woman. 

Decapolis He  cures  the  deaf  and  dumb  and  many  others. 

Decapolis He  feeds  4,000  people  with  seven  loaves  and  a  few  fishes. 

Bethsaida He  gives  sight  to  a  blind  man. 

Thabor He  cures  the  boy  possessed  with  a  dumb  spirit. 

Samaria He  cleanses  ten  lepers, 

Galilee He  heals  an  infirm  woman. 

Galilee ,He  cures  a  man  of  dropsy. 

Bethania He  raises  Lazarus  to  life. 

Jericho He  cures  two  blind  men. 

Jerusalem He  casts  out  the  buyers  and  sellers  in  the  Temple. 

Olivet He  curses  the  barren  fig  tree. 

Gethsemani He  makes  the  officers  and  people  fall  before  Him. 

Gethsemani He  heals  the  ear  of  Malchus. 

Sea  of  Galilee . . .  ,He  causes  a  miraculous  draught  of  fishes. 


PARABLES  OF  JESUS   IN  CHRONOLOGICAL  ORDER 

Two  Debtors . Capharnaum  Lost  Sheep  Galilee 

Sower   *'  Lost  Piece  of  Money " 

Tares    "  Prodigal  Son " 

Seed    Sprung    up    Un-  Dishonest  Steward  " 

noticed    "  Rich  Man  and  Lazarus " 

Grain  of  Mustard  Seed  "  Unjust  Judge  Peraea 

Leaven    "  Pharisee  and  Publican " 

Found  Treasure "  Laborers  in  the  Vineyard . .       " 

Precious  Pearl "  Pounds    Jericho 

Met    "  Barren  Fig  Tree Jerusalem 

Hundred  Sheep   "  Two  Sons    

Samaritans  Near  Jericho  The  Vineyard  " 

Rich  Glutton Galilee  Marriage  Feast  " 

Servants   Who   Waited    for      "  Ten  Virgins   

Their  Lord   "  Talents   

27 


IMPORTANT    DATES    OF   CHRISTIANITY 

I  A.D.  (4  B.C.)— Birth  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  at  Bethlehem  in  Judea. 

33  —  Crucifixion  and  Death  of  Jesus  Christ  on  Mount  Calvary. 

34  —  Conversion  of  Saul  of  Tarsus. 

39          _  Reception  into  the  Church  of  the  first  Gentile,  Cornelius  the 

Centurion,  by  St.  Peter. 
42          —  Spread  of  the  Faith  as  a  result  of  the  persecution  of  Herod 

which  forced  the  Christians 'to  flee  from  Palestine. 
46-    58 —  The  Missionary  journeys  of  St.  Paul  during  which  he  con- 
verted many  Gentiles. 
50         —  The  Council  of  Jerusalem,  the  first  held  in  the  Church,  which 

decreed  that  converts  from  paganism  were  not  held  to  the 

observance  of  the  Jewish  Law. 
67         —  The  Martyrdom  of  Sts.  Peter  and  Paul. 
70         — The  destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  Titus. 
64-  305  —  The  period  of  the  ten  great  persecutions  of  the  Infant  Church 

by  the  Eoman  Emperors. 
100         —  The  death  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist,  the  last  of  the  Apostles. 

With  his  death  the  deposit  of  faith  was  closed. 
313         —The  Edict  of  Milan  issued  by   Constantine   the   Great,   by 

which    Christianity    received    legal    recognition    within    the 

Roman  Empire. 
325         — The  Council  of  Nicea,  the  first  ecumenical  council,  which 

condemned  the  heresiarch  Arius  for  teaching  that  the  Son 

is  inferior  to  the  Father.  The  Council  also  formulated  the 

Nicene  Creed. 

301         — The  revival  of  paganism  under  Julian  the  Apostate. 
376         — The  beginning  of  the  Barbarian  Invasions. 

3§1         The  end  of  paganism  in  the  Roman  Empire  under  Theodosius. 

3§6         — The  conversion  of  St.  Augustine  by  St.  Ambrose. 
391-  405  —  Translation  of  the  Bible  into  Latin  by  St.  Jerome. 

431  — Condemnation  of  Nestorius  by  the  Council  of  Ephesus  for 

teaching  that  Mary  is  not  the  Mother  of  God  but  only  the 
Mother  of  Christ  the  Man. 

432  —The  arrival  in  Ireland  of  St.  Patrick  to  complete  the  con- 

version of  the  people  and  to  establish  the  hierarchy. 
476         —  The  end  of  the  Western  Roman  Empire. 
496         — Conversion  of  Clovis,  King  of  the  Franks.   Soon  after,  the 

whole  nation  embraced   Catholicism.   This   conversion   of   a 

powerful  Germanic  people  sealed  the  doom  of  Arianism. 
529          — st.  Benedict,  the  Father  of  Western  Monasticism,  began  his 

great  work  with  the  foundation  of  the  Monastery  of  Monte 

Cassino. 

532          — Justinian  wrote  his  famous  code  of  laws. 
596         —  St.  Augustine  began  the  conversion  of  the  English. 
622         — The  Flight  (Hegira)  of  the  Mohammed  from  Mecca  and  the 

beginning  of  the  Mohammedan  conguest. 
719          — The   beginning   of   the   conversion   of  the   Germans   by    St. 

Boniface. 
732         — The  battle  of  Poitiers  at  which  Charles  Martel  defeated  the 

Moors,  thus  saving  Europe. 
756         —  The  beginning  of  the  Papal  States  with  the  bequest  of  some 

territory  to  Pope  Stephen  by  Pepin  the  Short 
800          —  Coronation  of  Charlemagne  by  Pope  Leo  III. 

28 


1041          — The  Truce  of  God. 

1054          — The  beginning  of  the  Eastern  Schism. 

1066          —The  conquest  of  England  by  the  Normans. 

1077          — The  Emperor,  Henry  IV,  appeared  before  Pope  St.  Gregory 

at  Canossa  to  beg  his  pardon. 
1096-1271  —  The  period  of  the  Crusades  to  regain  the  Holy  Places  from 

the  Saracens. 
1156          — The  founding  of  the  Order  of  Our  Lady  of  Mt  Carmel  by 

the  crusader  Berthold  of  Calabria  with  ten  companions. 
1184          — Establishment  of  the  Inquisition  by  Pope  Lucius  III. 
1205          —  Foundation  of  the  Order  of  Preachers  by  St.  Dominic. 
1207          —Foundation  of  the  Order  of  Friars  Minor  by  St.  Francis  of 

Assisi. 

1274          — Reunion  of  East  and  West  for  a  short  time. 
1309-1376  —  The  Babylonian  exile  of  the  Papacy  at  Avignon. 
1378-1417  —  The  Great  Schism  of  the  West. 
1439-1453  —  Temporary  reunion  of  the  Greeks  and  Latins. 
1480          —The  Spanish  Inquisition. 
1492          —  The  discovery  of  the  New  World. 
1517          — The  beginning  of  the  Protestant  Reformation. 
1523          —  Zwingli  began  the  Reformation  in  Switzerland. 
1534          —  The  foundation  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  by  St.  Ignatius  Loyola 

to  counteract  the  work  of  the  Reformation. 
1534          — The  passage  of  the  Act  of  Supremacy  which  made  the  King 

the  head  of  the  Church  of  England. 

1536          — John  Calvin  began  the  work  of  the  Reformation  in  Geneva. 
1545-1563  —  The  Council  of  Trent  was  held  to  remedy  the  abuses  which 

had  brought  on  the  Reformation. 
1569          —  On  St.  Bartholomew's  Day  a  number  of  Catholic  nobles  of 

France  were  massacred  by  the  Hugenots.  On  the  same  day 

in  1572  the  assassins  and   some   700  Hugenots  were  killed 

by  mobs. 
1571          —  The  naval  battle  of  Lepanto  which  resulted  in  a  brilliant 

victory    for   the    Christians    and   marked    the    beginning    of 

Turkish  decadence. 

1588          —  The  defeat  of  the  Spanish  Armada. 
1598          — The   Edict   of  Nantes   granting  liberty   of   worship    to   the 

Huguenots. 

1608  — Jansenius  began  work  on  his  book,  "Augustinus,"  in  an  en- 
deavor to  discover  the  ideas  of  Baius  in  the  works  of  St. 

Augustine. 

1649          — Cromwell  lays  Ireland  waste. 

1743          — Febronius   opposed  the  authority  of  the   Church  of  Rome. 
1780          — The    beginning    of    ecclesiastical    reform    by    the    Emperor 

Joseph  II  of  Austria  which  is  called  "Josephinism." 
1789          — The  French  Revolution  and  the  rise  of  neo-paganism. 
1809          — The  annexation  of  the  Papal  States  and  the  carrying  into 

captivity  of  Pope  Pius  VII  by  Napoleon. 
1829          — Catholic  Emancipation  won  in  the  British  Isles  by  Daniel 

O'Connell. 

1870  — The  seizure  of  Rome  and  the  Papal  States  by  Garibaldi. 

1871  — The  beginning  of  the  "Kulturkampf"  in  Germany.  The  so- 

called  "May  Laws"  which  sought  to  transform  bishops  and 
priests  into  state  officials  were  passed  in  1873  and  1874. 

1903  — Expulsion  of  religious  congregations  from  France,  followed 
by  confiscation  of  Church  property  in  1906. 

1910         — The  Laws  of  Separation  in  Portugal. 

29 


1914 


1917 
1917 

1929 


1931 
1936 


1937 
1939 


—  Beginning  of  the  religious  persecution  in  Mexico  under  Presi- 
dent   Carranze.     This    lias    been   continued   under    Qbregon, 
Calles,  Gil  and  Cardenas. 

—  Pope  Benedict  XV  promulgated  the  "Code  of  Canon  Law." 

—  The    Bolshevik    Revolution    in    Russia    and    the    spread    of 
atheism. 

—  The    Lateran    Treaty    and    Concordat   whereby    the    Roman 
Question  was  settled.  The  sovereignty  and  independence  of 
the  Pope  were  recognized. 

—  The  proclamation  of  the  Spanish  Republic  was  followed  by 
a  bitter  persecution  of  the  Church  and  her  religious  orders. 

—  In  Germany  Hitler  began  persecution  of  the  Church  by  the 
arrest  of  many  priests  and  religious  on  trumped-up  charges 
of  immorality.  Revolution  in  Spain  was  accompanied  by  many 
outrages  against  the  Church:  destruction  and  seizure  of  her 
institutions,  slaying  of  bishops,  priests  and  nuns. 

—  New  Constitution  of  Eire  came  into  force. 

—  Victory  of  Generalissimo  Franco  ended  revolution  and  an- 
archy in  Spain.    Pope  Pius  XII  called  Franco  the   saviour 
of  civilization. 


THE  APOSTLES 


Peter,  originally  named  Simon,  son 
of  Jona,  called  Peter  (Gr.,  petrei, 
rock)  by  Christ  when  He  appointed 
him  chief  of  the  Apostles  and 
head  of  the  Church.  Scourged  and 
crucified  head  downward  at  Rome 
by  Nero,  A.  D.  67.  Feast,  June  29. 

Andrew,  brother  of  Peter.  Cruci- 
fied on  an  X-shaped  cross  at  Achaia 
by  the  Roman  governor  Aegeus, 
A.  D.  60.  Feast,  Nov.  30. 

James  the  Greater,  son  of  Zebe- 
dee,  elder  brother  of  John  the 
Evangelist.  Perished  by  the  sword 
under  Herod  Agrippa,  at  Jerusalem, 
A.  D.  44.  Feast,  July  25. 

John,  brother  of  James  the  Great- 
er, Plunged  into  a  cauldron  of  boil- 
ing oil  at  Rome,  but  escaped  un- 
hurt and  died  a  natural  death  at 
Bphesus  about  A.  D.  100.  Feast, 
Dec.  27. 

Philip,  native  of  Bethsaida,  as 
was  also  Peter.  Said  to  have  been 
hanged  against  a  pillar  in  Phrygia. 
Feast,  May  1. 

James  the  Less,  son  of  Alpheus 
and  Mary  of  Cleophas,  who  was 
probably  the  sister  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  Mary,  hence  a  cousin, 
called  "brother,"  of  Christ.  Stoned 
by  the  Jews  and  killed  with  a  full- 
er's club  about  A.  D.  62.  Feast, 
May  1. 


Thomas,  Said  to  have  labored  in 
India,  where  he  was  run  through 
with  a  lance  at  Coromandel.  The 
Thomas  Christians  trace  their  ori- 
gin to  him.  Feast,  Dec.  21. 

Bartholomew,  friend  of  Philip. 
Said  to  have  been  skinned  alive  in 
Armenia.  Feast,  Aug.  24. 

Matthew,  a  Galilean,  son  of  Al- 
pheus, and  originally  known  as 
Levi.  Martyred  probably  by  the 
sword  in  Ethiopia.  Feast,  Sept  21. 

Matthias,  chosen  from  among  the 
disciples  of  Christ  to  replace  the 
Apostle  Judas.  Martyred  probably 
in  Jerusalem,  first  stoned  and  then 
beheaded.  Feast,  Feb.  24. 

Jude  or  Thaddeus,  brother  of 
James  the  Less.  Said  to  have  been 
shot  to  death  with  arrows  in  Meso- 
potamia. Feast,  Oct.  28. 

Simon.  Said  to  have  been  cruci- 
fied in  Persia.  Feast,  Oct.  28. 

Paul,  a  Jew  of  the  tribe  of  Ben- 
jamin, but  a  Roman  citizen,  and 
persecutor  of  the  Christians  until 
miraculously  converted  by  an  ap- 
parition of  Our  Lord.  He  is  con- 
sidered one  of  the  Apostles  with 
whom  he  labored  to  convert  men 
to  Christ,  Beheaded  outside  one 
of  the  gates  of  Rome  by  Nero,  A.  D. 
67.  Feast,  June  29. 


30 


THE    POPES  AS   MEDIATORS 
Notable  cases  when  Popes  have  acted  as  Mediators  include: 


Date  of  Reign 

440-  461 

590-  604 


715-  731 

741-  752 

1049-1054 

1055-1056 

1198-1216 

1216-1227 
1243-1254 
1277-1280 

1316-1334 
1342-1352 
1370-1378 
1484-1492 

1492-1503 
1572-1585 

1623-1644 
1878-1903 

1914-1922 


Name 

St.  Leo  I 

St.  Gregory  I 

St.  Gregory  II 
St.  Zachary 
St.  Leo  IX 
Victor  II 
Innocent  III 

Honorius  III 
Innocent  IV 
Nicholas  III 

John  XXII 
Clement  VI 
Gregory  XI 
Innocent  VIII 

Alexander  VI 
Gregory  XIII 

Urban  VIII 
Leo  XIII 

Benedict  XV 


Event 

Treaty  between  Attila  the  Hun  and 
Italy. 

Between  Agilulf,  the  Lombards,  and 
the  Romans;  between  the  Lombards 
and  the  Emperor  of  the  Orient. 

Between  Luitprand,  Lombard  King, 
and  the  Romans. 

Between  Luitprand  and  Rachis,  Lom- 
bard Kings,  and  the  Romans. 

Between  Henry  III,  Holy  Roman  Em- 
peror, and  King  Andrew  of  Hungary. 

Between  Henry  III,  Holy  Roman  Em- 
peror, and  King  Ferdinand  of  Spain. 

Between  Richard  the  Lion-Hearted, 
King  of  England,  and  Philip  Augustus 
of  France. 


Between    Louis    VIII    of   France 
Henry  III  of  England. 


and 


Between  the  King  of  Portugal  and  his 
subjects. 

Between  Emperor  Rudolph  of  Haps- 
burg  and  Charles  of  Anjou,  King  of 
Naples. 

Between  Edward*  II  of  England  and 
Robert  of  Scotland. 

Between  Edward  III  of  England  and 
Philip  VI,  King  of  France. 

Between  Ferdinand  of  Portugal  and 
Henry  of  Castile. 

Between  contending  royalties  in  Eng- 
land. 

Between  Spain  and  Portugal. 

Between  Czar  Ivan  IV  and  King 
Bathory  of  Poland. 

Between  France   and   Spain. 

Between  Germany  and  Spain;  between 
Haiti  and  Santo  Domingo. 

Between  Germany,  Austria,  Bulgaria, 
Turkey,  and  England,  France,  Russia, 
Belgium,  Serbia,  Montenegro,  for  the 
exchange  of  disabled  prisoners  and  in- 
terned civilians  in  the  World  War. 

31 


32 


xit 


Eugenio  Pacelli  was  born  in  Rome  on  the  second  day  of  March,  1876, 
the  second  son  of  Filippo  and  Virginia  Graziozi  Pacelli,  both  descendants 
of  noble  Roman  families.  Reared  in  simple  Catholic  fashion,  Eugenio 
early  manifested  outstanding  qualities  of  character  and  scholarship. 
Feeling  the  call  to  the  clerical  state,  he  entered  the  Alma  Collegio 
Capranica  in  Rome  after  having  completed  his  studies  in  the  Classical 
Secondary  School.  Delicate  health  made  community  life  practically  im- 
possible and  the  young  student  was  obliged  to  leave  Capranica  College 
after  a  year's  study.  He  continued  his  philosophical,  theological  and 
juridical  studies  at  the  Pontifical  University  of  the  Roman  Seminary 
as  a  day  student,  being  ordained  to  the  priesthood  in  1899. 

Recognizing  his  unusual  talent,  Fr.  Pacellfs  superiors  appointed  him 
substitute  professor  of  law  in  the  schools  of  the  Roman  Seminary,  mak- 
ing him  at  the  same  time  Apprendista  in  the  offices  of  the  Secretariate 
of  State.  Shortly  afterwards  he  was  made  titular  professor  of  Canon  Law 
and  an  official  in  the  Congregation  of  Extraordinary  Ecclesiastical  Affairs. 

His  singular  accomplishments  soon  drew  the  attention  of  Cardinal 
Gasparri,  Secretary  of  the  Congregation  of  Extraordinary  Ecclesiastical 
Affairs.  Assured  of  the  young  priest's  excellent  qualities  Cardinal  Gas- 
parri, having  consulted  His  Holiness  and  Cardinal  Merry  del  Val,  Secre- 
tary of  State,  persuaded  Fr.  Pacelli  to  resign  his  professorship  and  give 
himself  entirely  to  the  work  of  the  Congregation. 

Fr,  Pacelli  went  rapidly  from  one  grade  to  the  next  in  the  Congrega- 
tion. After  several  years  as  Minutante  he  was  appointed  Undersecre- 
tary; very  shortly  afterwards  he  was  made  Prosecretary.  This  latter 
position  he  held  during  the  reign  of  Pius  X.  Upon  his  election  to  the 
Papacy,  Benedict  XV  promoted  Fr.  Pacelli  to  the  position  of  Secretary 
of  the  Congregation. 

Together  with  Cardinal  Gasparri,  Papal  Secretary  of  State,  the  future 
Pius  XII  showed  himself  more  than  capable  of  dealing  with  the  situation 
created  by  the  World  War.  His  mastery  of  German  language  and  litera- 
ture, his  continued  interest  in  all  religious,  political,  social  and  intellec- 
tual phases  of  German  life,  and  his  readiness  to  assist  all  who  sought 
his  aid  made  for  effective  negotiations  with  the  German  people.  These 
qualifications  led  to  his  being  made  Apostolic  Nuncio  to  Bavaria  in  1917. 
Through  the  Nunciature  of  Bavaria  at  that  time  passed  all  negotiations 
between  Germany  and  the  Vatican.  In  accordance  with  the  custom  of 
conferring  the  fulness  of  the  priesthood  upon  all  Nuncios  of  the  Holy 
See,  Fr.  Pacelli  was  made  Titular  Archbishop  of  Sardi  on  April  23,  1917, 
being  consecrated  shortly  afterwards  by  the  Holy  Father  himself  in  the 
Sistine  Chapel. 

To  his  new  post  Archbishop  Pacelli  brought  Benedict  XV's  proposal 
for  peace.  The  Pope's  proposal  sought  not  only  to  bring  the  conflict 
to  a  close,  but  was  designed  also  to  assure  lasting  peace  to  the  world. 
The  Apostolic  Nuncio  acted  as  interpreter  of  the  proposal  of  peace.  But 
his  efforts  to  win  over  the  conflicting  parties  were  in  vain  and  the 
struggle  dragged  on  for  another  year. 

After  the  War  the  Nunciature  of  Berlin  was  established,  and  Arch- 
bishop Pacelli  was  its  first  Nuncio.  Outstanding  among  his  accomplish- 
ments in  this  position  was  the  negotiation  of  two  Concordats  —  one  with 
Bavaria  in  1924,  and  one  with  Prussia  in  1929.  After  twelve  years  of 
faithful  service  in  the  German  capital,  Nuncio  Pacelli  presented  his  resig- 
nation to  President  von  Hindenburg  on  December  9,  1929. 

33 


On  Ms  return  to  Rome  he  was  created  cardinal  by  Pius  XL  Following 
his  elevation  to  the  cardinalate  he  was  formally  appointed  successor 
to  Cardinal  Gasparri  as  Papal  Secretary  of  State  in  February  of  1930. 
His  excellent  work  as  Nuncio  to  Germany  certainly  merited  this  high 
position  conferred  upon  him  by  the  Holy  Father. 

Cardinal  Pacelli's  years  of  service  as  Secretary  of  State  were  sig- 
nalized by  important  events.  In  1930  he  signed  an  agreement  with  the 
Italian  Government  concerning  the  interpretation  and  application  of 
regulations  in  the  Concordat.  Between  the  years  1932  and  1935  he  suc- 
cessfully negotiated  concordats  with  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Badin  (No- 
vember 10,  1932);  with  Germany  (July  20,  1933);  with  Austria  (June  5, 
1934);  and  with  Yugoslavia  (July  25,  1935). 

In  1934  Cardinal  Pacelli  was  sent  by  the  Holy  Father  as  Papal  Legate 
to  the  International  Eucharistic  Congress  in  Buenos  Aires,  and  in  1935 
to  the  Solemn  Triduum  at  Lourdes  ending  the  Holy  Year  which  com- 
memorated the  nineteenth  centenary  of  the  Redemption.  In  1936  he 
inaugurated  the  International  Congress  of  the  Catholic  Press.  Having 
given  his  address  in  Italian,  Cardinal  Pacelli  then  addressed  the  other 
members  in  English,  French,  German,  Spanish,  Portuguese  and  Latin. 

The  last  noteworthy  achievement  of  the  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State 
before  his  election  as  Supreme  Pontiff  was  his  visit  to  the  United  States 
of  America  in  October,  1936.  His  gracious  kindness  and  his  open  friend- 
liness during  his  visit  have  won  for  him  a  place  in  the  heart  of  every 
true  American.  During  his  stay  Cardinal  Pacelli  visited  the  nineteen 
ecclesiastical  provinces  and  most  of  the  dioceses  in  the  States. 

As  Camerlengo  of  the  Holy  Office  he  fulfilled  various  duties  during 
the  interregnum  following  the  death  of  Pius  XI,  on  Feb.  10,  1939  He 
was  elected  Pope  on  the  third  ballot  in  the  conclave,  March  2,  and  took 
the  name  of  Pius  XII.  The  coronation  took  place  March  10. 

During  the  first  year  of  his  pontificate  war  broke  out  in  Europe,  en- 
gaging Germany,  Poland,  Great  Britain  and  France  in  combat.  Germany 
conquered  Poland,  and  in  1940  defeated  France  and  occupied  Denmark, 
Netherlands,  Belgium,  Luxemburg  and  Norway.  Italy  joined  Germany  and 
Great  Britain  stood  alone  against  the  Axis  powers.  To  all  these  nations 
suffering  from  the  horrors  of  war  Pope  Pius  XII  extended  his  paternal 
solicitude. 

In  1941  he  further  proved  himself  the  Father  of  all  in  his  impartiality 
towards  the  remaining  peoples  of  Europe  and  those  in  Asia  and  Africa 
to  whom  the  conflict  had  extended,  and  in  the  relief  administered  to 
war's  victims,  including  the  "non-Aryans."  His  generosity  was  aided  by 
the  Bishops1  Relief  Committee  of  the  United  States,  and  South  America 
too  helped  with  supplies.  Thus,  from  Argentina  he  received  clothing 
and  cases  of  medicine  sent  to  the  Polish  refugees  in  Rumania.  The  Poles, 
who  had  endured  acute  distress  for  more  than  a  year,  were  his  constant 
care,  though  efforts  to  help  those  in  their  own  country  or  prisoners  in 
Germany  were  greately  impeded.  He  contributed  towards  an  establish- 
ment for  Polish  refugees  in  Italy  and  sent  aid  to  those  in  various  coun- 
tries of  Europe.  His  Nuncios  or  Delegates  in  Italy,  Albania,  Canada, 
Australia,  India,  Egypt  and  Palestine  visited  English,  French,  Greek, 
Italian  and  German  internees  in  those  countries,  bringing  them  spiritual 
consolation  and  material  aid.  A  bureau  of  information  set  up  at  the 
Vatican  received  news  from  various  places  concerning  prisoners,  refugees 
and  missing  persons  and  transmitted  this  to  families  and  anxious  in- 
quirers. The  Vatican  Radio  broadcasts  lists  of  names  daily.  All  this 
was  planned  through  the  loving  sympathy  of  the  Holy  Father  for  his 
children. 


For  peace  he  incessantly  labors  and  prays,  and  he  has  made  it  the 
subject  of  many  allocutions,  including  his  annual  message,  broadcast  to 
the  world,  replying  to  the  traditional  good  wishes  of  the  Sacred  College 
of  Cardinals  on  Christmas  eve. 

His  first  Christmas  message,  in  1939,  gave  five  "fundamental  points  of 
a  just  and  honorable  peace":  one,  assurance  of  the  "right  to  life  and  in- 
dependence" of  all  nations,  large  and  small;  two,  liberation  by  mutual 
agreement  from  "the  heavy  slavery  of  armaments";  three,  establishment 
of  juridical  institutions  to  guarantee  the  faithful  carrying  out  of  peace 
terms  and  to  revise  them  if  need  arises;  four,  satisfaction  of  the  just 
demands  of  ethnical  minorities;  five,  honest  and  earnest  interpretation 
of  international  undertakings  in  the  light  of  the  Divine  law,  with  strict 
adherence  to  the  counsels  of  justice,  love  and  charity. 

In  his  Christmas  message  of  1940  he  referred  again  to  these  "essential 
presuppositions  of  peace  which  would  conform  to  principles  of  justice, 
equity  and  honor  and  would  thus  be  enduring,"  and  said  that  delayed 
application  had  not  lessened  "their  intrinsic  truth  and  conformity  to 
reality,"  nor  "their  force  of  moral  obligation."  He  then  went  on  to  con- 
sideration of  the  "opinion  which  contends  that  pre-war  Europe  as  well 
as  its  political  structure  are  now  undergoing  a  process  of  transformation 
of  such  nature  as  to  signal  the  dawn  of  a  new  era,"  and  he  laid  down 
five  "indispensable  prerequisites  for  the  search  for  a  new  order" : 

"One,  triumph  over  hate,  which  is  today  a  cause  of  division  among 
peoples;  renunciation  therefore  of  the  systems  and  practices  from  which 
hate  constantly  receives  added  nourishment.  Two,  triumph  over  mis- 
trust, which  bears  down  as  a  depressing  weight  on  international  law  and 
renders  impossible  the  realization  of  any  sincere  agreement.  Three, 
triumph  over  the  distressing  principles  that  utility  is  a  basis  of  law  and 
right,  and  that  might  makes  right:  a  principle  which  makes  all  inter- 
national relations  liable  to  fall.  Four,  triumph  over  those  germs  of  con- 
flict which  consist  in  two-sided  differences  in  the  field  of  world  economy; 
hence  progressive  action,  balanced  by  correspondent  degrees,  to  arrive 
at  arrangements  which  would  give  to  every  state  the  medium  necessary 
for  insuring  the  proper  standard  of  living  for  its  own  citizens  of  every 
rank.  Five,  triumph  over  the  spirit  of  cold  egoism  which,  fearless  in  its 
might,  easily  leads  to  violation  not  only  of  the  honor  and  sovereignty  of 
states  but  of  the  righteous,  wholesome  and  disciplined  liberty  of  citizens 
as  well.  It  must  be  supplanted  by  sincere  juridical  and  economic  solidar- 
ity, fraternal  collaboration  in  accordance  with  the  precepts  of  Divine 
law  amongst  peoples  assured  of  their  autonomy  and  independence." 

He  concluded:  "We  express  Our  heartfelt  wish  that  humanity  and 
those  who  will  show  it  the  way  along  which  it  is  to  move  forward  will 
be  sufficiently  matured  intellectually  and  capable  in  action  to  prepare 
the  ground  of  the  future  for  the  new  order  that  will  be  solid,  true  and 
just.  We  pray  God  that  it  may  so  happen." 

The  widespread  favor  with  which  the  words  of  the  Pope  were  received 
led  to  discussion  and  study  of  these  basic  points  which  clearly  define  the 
hope  for  the  future  of  a  war-torn  world.  "Osservatore  Romano"  and  the 
N.  C.  W.  C.  News  denounced  false  interpretation  of  his  words  as  favoring 
the  Axis. 

The  daily  life  of  the  Holy  Father  is  one  of  austerity,  devoutness,  pen- 
ance and  indefatigable  labor.  He  gives  personal  and  careful  direction  to 
current  affairs  of  the  Holy  See  and  on  certain  days  receives  cardinals 
and  prelates  who  head  the  ecclesiastical  dicasteries.  There  are  also 
private  audiences  for  visiting  dignitaries,  and  on  Sundays,  Mondays  and 
Wednesdays  public  audiences  are  granted.  In  addition,  groups  of  soldiers 
passing  through  Rome  are  received  every  day,  even  without  advance 
arrangements, 

35 


If  the  Pope  intends  to  address  an  audience,  lie  is  carried  into  the  large 
Hall  of  Benedictions  in  the  gestatorial  chair,  and  from  its  height  blesses 
those  present  as  he  is  carried  past  them.  When  he  does  not  speak,  he 
receives  visitors  in  the  Loggia  of  Raphael  and  adjoining  rooms,  and 
passes  among  some  times  thousands  of  persons,  extending  his  hand  to 
each  one  to  kiss,  ready  to  respond  with  kind  words  when  he  is  ad- 
dressed. Audiences  without  discourses  sometimes  last  four  hours.  Un- 
usual episodes  demonstrate  his  paternal  interest,  such  as  receiving  a 
group  of  First  Communicants  who  came  unannounced  and  without  guide 
to  see  him,  hearing  the  confession  of  a  young  girl,  to  her  great  joy,  after 
she  had  burst  into  tears  when  he  approached  her  in  an  audience,  grant- 
ing  a  plenary  indulgence  to  the  parishioners  of  a  priest  who  asked  for 
a  partial  indulgence  for  them.  In  these  audiences,  he  says,  he  finds  re- 
lief from  the  heaviness  of  spirit  occasioned  by  the  government  of  the 
Church  in  such  difficult  times,  for  here  he  comes  into  contact  with  his 
children  and  can  open  his  heart  freely. 

For  the  newlyweds  who  come  in  great  numbers  to  seek  his  blessing, 
the  Holy  Father  has  ever  a  word  of  counsel  and  affection.  His  discourses 
at  these  audiences  during  the  year  were  on  the  dignity  and  importance 
of  marriage,  for  which  Christ  instituted  a  sacrament,  the  grave  re- 
sponsibility of  bearing  children,  on  prayer  as  "the  daily  food  of  the  spirit/* 
the  frequent  practice  of  prayer  in  common,  perseverance  even  though 
petitions  seemingly  are  not  answered,  the  sacrifice  necessary  to  preserve 
Christian  family  life,  the  duties  of  this  life,  the  lofty  ideals  of  marriage, 
the  firmness  tempered  with  kindness  by  which  children  should  be  reared, 
and  the  normal  exercise  of  parental  authority  without  abuse  of  it.  To 
all  newlyweds  since  Jan.,  1941,  is  given  a  portrait  of  the  Pope  inscribed 
by  him  with  a  blessing. 

When  Pope  Pius  received  the  Roman  patriciate  and  nobility  early  in 
the  year  he  expressed  to  them  the  wish  that  1941  might  bring  a  just  and 
durable  peace.  He  welcomed  Msgr.  Francis  J.  Brennan,  the  first  Amer- 
ican Auditor  of  the  Sacred  Rota,  with  words  of  praise  for  the  Christian 
life  that  nourishes  among  American  Catholics.  In  the  course  of  an  audi- 
ence with  Bishop  Bierler  of  Sion,  he  spoke  of  the  cause  of  canonization 
that  he  actively  promotes  of  Bl.  Nicholas  von  der  Fleuh,  the  national 
ideal  of  Switzerland,  for  which  country  he  has  a  great  affection.  To  the 
Sodalities  of  Our  Lady  of  Ireland  he  sent  expression  of  grateful  appre- 
ciation of  their  spiritual  bouquet  for  his  intentions.  At  the  end  of  Janu- 
ary he  performed  the  marriage  ceremony  for  his  niece,  Giuseppina  Ros- 
signani,  and  Count  G-iulio  Rizzardi,  in  his  private  chapel,  and  pronounced 
a  touching  discourse  appropriate  to  the  day,  the  Espousal  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin. 

Receiving  the  committee  which  came  from  Milan  to  dedicate  the  tomb 
of  Pope  Pius  XI  on  Feb.  9,  Pope  Pius  XII  rejoiced  in  their  presence  to 
honor  his  predecessor,  "in  honoring  and  venerating  whom  We  feel  you 
honor  and  venerate  the  most  intimate  of  Our  memories  and  affections." 
In  the  evening  he  prayed  at  the  tomb  of  his  predecessor,  in  the  crypt 
of  the  Vatican  Basilica,  and  then  visited  the  excavations  being  carried  on 
underground,  which  give  complete  confirmation  of  the  Catholic  tradition 
regarding  the  burial  place  of  St.  Peter.  On  Feb.  10  he  attended  the  second 
anniversary  solemn  requiem  Mass  for  Pius  XI  In  the  SIstine  Chapel. 

When  the  Pontiff  received  the  envoy  of  Slovakia,  Karol  Sidor,  at  the 
Vatican,  he  "bestowed  his  Apostolic  Blessing  on  the  people  of  that  coun- 
try and  throughout  the  world.  In  an  audience  to  the  Lenten  preachers  of 
Rome  he  said  that  negation  of  God  and  irreligion  are  chiefly  to  blame 
for  the  momentous  events  that  are  shaking  the  world  today  and  urged 
them  in  their  sermons  to  recall  a  knowledge  of  God  to  men. 

36 


On  March  12,  the  second  anniversary  of  his  coronation,  a  Mass  of 
Thanksgiving  was  celebrated  in  the  Sistine  Chapel  and  subsequently 
members  of  the  Sacred  College  visited  his  apartments  to  extend  cordial 
greetings  from  all  the  faithful.  Many  messages  of  congratulation  were 
received  from  rulers  of  nations  and  officials  of  state.  Word  was  received 
that  throughout  Germany  Catholics  celebrated  the  occasion.  In  the  Na- 
tional Shrine  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  the 
Apostolic  Delegate,  Archbishop  Cicognani,  was  celebrant  of  a  solemn 
pontifical  Mass  of  commemoration,  at  which  many  diplomats  were  present, 
and  Archbishop  Spellrnan  of  New  York  preached  a  sermon  on  "The  Pope 
of  Peace."  All  Slovakia  manifested  its  allegiance  to  the  Vicar  of  Christ 
with  solemn  celebrations  in  every  town. 

Pilgrims  from  his  native  parish  in  Rome,  San  Giovanni  di  Fiorentini, 
were  received  in  audience  by  the  Holy  Father  as  were  also  a  number  of 
military  chaplains,  with  whom  the  Pope  conversed  and  whose  zeal  he 
praised.  Upon  the  death  of  former  King  Alfonso  of  Spain  he  sent 
messages  of  condolence,  and  later  received  the  eldest  son  of  the  King, 
Don  Juan  de  Bourbon,  former  Prince  of  the  Asturias  and  now  Count  of 
Barcelona,  who  came  to  thank  the  Pontiff  for  participating  in  mourning 
for  his  father.  Two  months  later,  he  received  former  Queen  Victoria 
Eugenia  of  Spain  in  an  official  audience,  with  all  the  honors  due  her 
rank.  She  was  accompanied  by  her  daughter  Beatrice  and  the  latter's 
husband,  Prince  Alexander  Torlonia. 

At  the  end  of  March  the  Pope  received  in  formal  audience  the  Duchess 
of  Aosta,  widow  of  the  Duke  of  Aosta,  cousin  of  the  King  of  Italy.  To 
Count  Stanislaus  Pecci,  who  came  to  present  his  credentials  as  Minister 
to  the  Holy  See  from  the  Order  of  Malta,  Pope  Pius  discoursed  on  the 
"high  ideals  and  fervent  faith  that  perpetually  live  and  shine  forth"  in 
that  Sovereign  Military  Order.  During  the  stay  in  Rome  of  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society  of  Berlin  the  chamber  music  trio  of  the  Society  gave 
a  half-hour  private  recital  for  His  Holiness.  To  representatives  of  the 
Confraternity  of  the  Most  Holy  Trinity  he  spoke  in  praise  of  their  work, 
saying,  "It  has  not  escaped  Our  attention  that  one  of  the  most  painful 
duties  of  this  day  is  that  of  hospitalization  for  the  victims  of  warfare," 
and  he  told  of  his  great  sorrow  over  the  suffering  inflicted  by  war  and 
of  his  constant  prayers  for  peace. 

With  all  honors  His  Holiness  received  Yosuke  Matsuoka,  iroretgn  Min- 
ister of  Japan,  in  audience  on  April  2,  and  presented  him  with  a  gold 
Pontifical  Medal.  Japanese  students  attending  Propaganda  College  in 
Rome  were  subsequently  received  by  the  Pope,  who  blessed  them  with 
words  of  paternal  affection  and  spoke  in  praise  of  their  Foreign  Minister. 
Matsuoka  told  newspapermen  the  audience  had  made  a  profound  im- 
pression on  him,  one  he  would  never  forget. 

Following  the  solemn  events  of  the  concluding  days  of  Holy  Week, 
carried  out  with  the  traditional  ceremonies  of  the  Vatican,  Pope  Pius  XII 
broadcast  Ms  Easter  message  to  the  world,  urging  redoubled  prayers  for 
the  restoration  of  peace  and  asking  the  belligerents  to  abstain  from  "still 
more  homicidal  instruments  of  war."  He  imparted  his  Apostolic  Blessing 
to  pastors  and  faithful,  to  families  and  children,  "to  those  who  in  fulfil- 
ment of  duty  are  fighting  on  land  and  sea  and  in  the  sky  and  especially 
to  all  those  who  have  been  so  severely  lashed  by  the  scourge  of  war*" 
Translations  were  rebroadcast  in  English,  French,  Spanish,  Hungarian, 
German,  Polish  and  Portuguese, 

The  Count  of  Turin,  cousin  of  Italy's  King,  was  received  in  audience 
that  week. '  To  one  thousand  Catholic  University  students  and  graduates 
the  Pope  delivered  a  discourse  recommending  excellence  in  study  so  they 
may  thereby  give  glory  to  God  and  support  Christian  truths  in  scientific 

37 


circles,  for  science  and  faith  are  sisters.  He  addressed  them  as  the  brain 
of  the  social  body.  From  Cardinal  Boetto,  Archbishop  of  Genoa^  he  re- 
received  a  first-hand  report  of  damage  done  to  the  cathedral  during  the 
British  bombardment  of  the  city,  to  whose  people  the  Pope  sent  a  mes- 
sage of  sympathy  and  a  special  blessing.  To  victims  of  Hoods  in  Hungary 
he  gave  pecuniary  aid.  Responding  to  an  impressive  telegram  of  greeting 
sent  him  from  Lourdes  by  Marshal  Petain,  the  Pope  invoked  "a  great 
abundance  of  graces  and  blessings"  on  his  person  and  on  France.  In 
reply  to  an  expression  of  loyal  devotion  from  the  hierarchy  of  England 
and  Wales  he  sent  his  Apostolic  Blessing. 

On  April  28  the  Holy  Father  solemnly  closed  the  quadricentennial  of 
the  Society  of  Jesus.  The  Very  Rev.  Vladimir  Ledochowski,  General  of 
the  Society,  presented  him  with  a  reliquary  containing  relics  of  all  the 
Jesuit  saints  and  in  an  address  stated  that  all  members  of  the  order  were 
spiritually  present  at  the  audience  and  wished  to  confirm  their  filial 
obedience  to  the  Vicar  of  Christ.  The  Pontiff  said  that  according  to  the 
will  of  its  founder  the  Society  of  Jesus  had  ever  wished  to  be  of  service 
to  the  Vicar  of  Christ  and  had  constantly  worked  and  suffered  for  the 
Church  the  history  of  its  four  centuries  testifying  to  great  achievements. 
He  rejoiced  in  the  gift  of  the  reliquary  and  the  presence  before  Mm  oi 
the  Jesuits  connected  with  the  institutions  in  Rome,  and  he  gave  to  all 
members  of  the  Society  and  those  entrusted  to  their  care  his  Apostolic 
Blessing. 

In  a  letter  to  Cardinal  Maglione,  Secretary  of  State,  the  Pope  conveyed 
his  wish  that  throughout  the  world  special  prayers  be  offered  during 
May  for  restoration  of  peace.  In  particular  he  asked  the  prayers 
of  children,  and  at  the  end  of  the  month  he  was  greatly  touched  when 
5,000  children  of  Naples  came  to  present  to  him  a  spiritual  bouquet  repre- 
senting prayers,  sacrifices  and  good  works  offered  for  children  suffering 
as  the  result  of  the  war.  To  their  city  he  sent  the  Apostolic  Blessing, 
When  he  received  from  the  Ladies  of  the  Perpetual  Adoration  and  the 
Work  for  Assistance  of  Poor  Churches  gifts  for  needy  churches,  vest- 
ments, altar  linens  and  laces,  he  gratefully  accepted  them  and  reem- 
phasized  the  need  of  prayer.  To  girls  of  the  Catholic  Action  organization 
in  Rome  participating  in  the  annual  Crusade  of  Purity  he  urged  the 
preservation  of  this  virtue  by  modesty  of  dress.  Students  receiving  high 
marks  at  the  College  of  the  Assumption,  where  he  was  for  many  years 
a  teacher  of  religion  were  given  an  audience  with  the  Holy  Father,  who 
warmly  welcomed  them. 

On  May  5,  he  officiated  at  the  consecration  of  Msgr.  Carlo  Gonfalonier! 
as  Archbishop  of  Aquila.  After  the  consecration  he  conferred  the  pallium 
and  concelebrated  Mass  with  the  new  Archbishop,  whom  with  his  family 
he  received  in  special  audience  following  the  ceremonies.  At  a  secret 
consistory,  May  12,  Pope  Pius  named  Cardinal  Fumasoni-Biondi  Camerl- 
engo  of  the  Sacred  College  of  Cardinals,  appointed  Bishops  to  fill  four 
vacant  sees  and  postulated  the  pallium  for  twenty  archbishops.  On  May 
17-,  an  audience  was  granted  to  Duke  Aimone  of  Spoleto,  nephew  of  King 
Victor  Emmanuel,  afterwards  named  to  the  throne  of  Croatia  as  King 
Aimone.  He  was  received  simply  as  a  Prince  of  the  House  of  Savoy,  and 
thus  the  impartiality  and  neutrality  of  the  Holy  See  were  maintained. 

In  a  radio  address  signalizing  the  golden  anniversary  of  "Rerum 
Novarum"  and  the  tenth  anniversary  of  "Quadragesimo  Anno/'  on  June 
1,  Pope  Pius  XII  broadcast  to  the  Catholic  world  "some  further  directive 
moral  principles  on  three  fundamental  values  of  social  and  economic 
life,"  namely,  the  use  of  material  goods,  labor  and  the  family.  "As  if  were 
renewed  the  miracle  of  Pentecost,"  he  said,  "when  the  different  peoples 
who  had  assembled  in  Jerusalem  from  regions  speaking  various  languages 

38 


heard  the  voices  of  Peter  and  the  Apostles  in  their  own  tongue,"  so  he 
was  able  on  that  feast,  by  "so  wonderful  an  instrument"  as  the  radio, 
to  call  men  together  "in  a  world-wide  Catholic  meeting"  for  "a  message 
of  love,  encouragement  arid  comfort."  He  urged  that  they  "keep  burning 
the  noble  flame  of  a  brotherly  social  spirit  which  fifty  years  ago  was 
rekindled  in  the  hearts  of  your  fathers  by  the  luminous  and  illuminating 
torch  of  the  words  of  Leo  XIII."  His  address  was  rebroadcast  in  eight 
languages. 

On  his  name  day,  June  2,  the  feast  of  St.  Eugene,  he  composed  a  prayer 
for  world  peace,  richly  indulgenced  by  the  Sacred  Penitentiary,  and  to 
the  Cardinals  who  came  to  greet  him  on  that  day  he  voiced  his  sorrow 
for  war's  victims.  During  the  month  he  delivered  a  discourse  on  Catholic 
Action  to  a  representative  group  of  college  student  members.  He  spoke 
of  the  responsibilities  of  those  favored  with  higher  education  and  de- 
plored the  separation  of  a  large  portion  of  our  men  of  learning  from 
Christian  thought  and  the  present  antagonism  between  science  and  re- 
ligion, which  however  cannot  dim  truth.  By  ardent  participation  in 
Catholic  Action  he  urged  them  to  reestablish  contacts  between  the  higher 
learning  of  the  universities  and  the  light  revealed  by  Christ. 

On  June  26,  the  Holy  Father  broadcast  an  address  to  the  Ninth  Na- 
tional Eucharistic  Congress  of  Catholics  in  the  United  States,  meeting 
in  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis.  "The  nations  of  the  world  are  "there,"  he 
said,  for  there  is  no  people  "but  has  children  of  its  own  blood  there 
among  you,"  and  moreover  "the  Sacrament  of  our  altars  is  a  source  of 
union  which  transcends  all  the  accidents  of  history,  all  the  diversifying 
traits  and  peculiarities,  which  have  divided  our  scattered  'human  family 
into  different  groups.  He  asked  their  "prayerful  sympathy  for  Christ's 
other  members"  who  "walk  the  sorrowful  Way  of  the  Cross,"  and  that 
they  imitate  St.  Paul's  "unquenchable  zeal  to  defend  and  to  spread  God's 
kingdom  on  earth,"  and  closed  with  the  Apostolic  Blessing  imparted  "with 
the  deep  affection  of  Our  paternal  heart." 

Again  by  radio  he  spoke  to  the  entire  world  on  June  29,  the  feast  of 
Sts.  Peter  and  Paul,  urging  men  to  put  their  trust  in  God,  Whose  hour 
will  come,  bringing  justice,  calm  and  peace  to  nations.  This  discourse 
on  "The  Ways  of  Providence  in  Human  Events"  was  hailed  by  the  secular 
press  as  filling  the  need  of  the  world  today.  In  the  evening  of  the  feast 
day  Pope  Pius  descended  to  the  crypt  of  the  Vatican  Basilica  to  pray  at 
the  tomb  of  St.  Peter  and  bless  the  sacred  palliums  to  be  distributed  to 
newly  created  archbishops.  The  annual  Pontifical  Medal  had  been  pre- 
sented to  him  the  previous  day.  On  one  side  is  an  engraved  likeness  of 
the  Holy  Father  and  on  the  other  the  Saviour  is  shown  surrounded  by 
war  victims,  thus  commemorating  the  charitable  activities  of  the  Pon- 
tiff during  the  year.  Annually  80  medals  in  gold,  2,000  in  silver  and  700 
in  bronze  are  coined,  in  a  special  design  commemorative  of  that  year 
of  the  Pontificate.  The  custom  originated  with  Pope  Martin  V  in  1417. 

At  the  end  of  June,  members  of  the  Pontifical  Academy  of  Sciences 
and  the  president,  the  Rev.  Agostino  Gemelli,  O.  F.  M.,  recovered  from 
a  serious  accident,  met  in  the  Vatican  Gardens  and  were  received  in 
audience  by  the  Pontiff,  who  discussed  with  each  one  his  scientific  work. 
Fr.  Gemelli  presented  to  him  two  volumes  just  published  by  the  Catho- 
lic University  of  Milan  of  the  "Discourses  and  Radio  Messages  of  Pius 
XII"  pronounced  in  the  first  two  years  of  his  pontificate. 

The  Holy  Father  remained  at  the  Vatican  during  the  summer  and 
continued  his  usual  activities,  with  the  exception  of  some  audiences  of 
ecclesiastical  routine.  Among  those  he  received  during  July  were:  Peru's 
new  Ambassador  to  the  Holy  See,  Diomedes  Arias  Schreiber,  who  pre- 
sented his  credentials;  the  Premier  and  Foreign  Minister  of  Bulgaria  and 

39 


their  suites;  Archbishop  Giuseppe  Misnraca,  newly  named  Papal  Nuncio 
to  Venezuela;  and  Cardinal  Ascalesi,  Archbishop  of  Naples,  who  told  of 
the  air  raids  on  his  city  and  who  received  for  the  sufferers  the  Apostolic 
Blessing  and  a  message  of  sympathy.  On  the  occasion  of  their  70th  anni- 
versary members  of  the  Society  for  Promoting  Good  Works  were  re- 
ceived by  the  Holy  Father.  A  spiritual  bouquet  was  sent  him  by  the 
Catholic  children  of  America  through  the  Pontifical  Association  of  the 
Holy  Childhood  and  gave  him  great  consolation.  An  audience  granted 
2,000  women  school  teachers  was  the  first  of  a  series  to  a  total  of  more 
than  10,000  teachers  who  came  to  Rome  for  courses. 

In  August  Gen.  Daniel  Papp,  Rumania's  new  Minister  to  the  Holy  See, 
presented  his  credentials  to  Pope  Pius.  An  armistice  effected  between 
Peru  and  Ecuador  was  largely  due  to  the  efforts  of  the  Pontiff. 

Myron  C.  Taylor,  President  Roosevelt's  special  representative,  returned 
to  the  Vatican  after  an  absence  of  more  than  a  year  necessitated  by  ill- 
ness. He  was  received  by  Pope  Pius,  on  Sept.  10,  within  twenty-four 
hours  of  his  arrival.  Many  rumors  were  circulated  but  no  official  report 
of  their  conversations  was  made  public,  nor  of  the  audiences  on  Sept. 
19  and  21,  before  Mr.  Taylor  left  again  for  the  United  States.  He  had 
spent  the  intervening  week  in  Florence,  at  his  Villa  Schifanoia,  which  he 
gave  to  the  Holy  Father  in  perpetuity  for  religious  and  educational  pur- 
poses. His  Holiness  was  pleased  to  assign  it  to  Rosary  College,  River 
Forest,  111. 

Special  prayers  throughout  October  to  the  Queen  of  the  Holy  Rosary 
that  "the  days  of  trial  for  the  Church  and  poor  humanity  may  be  short- 
ened," were  asked  by  the  Holy  Father.  At  the  opening  of  the  juridical 
year  of  the  Sacred  Roman  Rota,  he  praised  their  prudence  and  caution 
in  adjudication  of  marriage  cases  and  deplored  the  modern  "mania  for 
divorce."  He  was  greatly  saddened  by  the  death  on  Oct.  8  of  Cardinal 
Laud,  who  for  many  years  had  been  one  of  his  most  intimate  friends. 

To  the  Eighth  National  Eucharistic  Congress  of  Chile  he  broadcast  a 
message,  on  Nov.  9.  "Chile,  a  new  nation,"  he  said,  "was  born  within  the 
bosom  of  the  Church,  and  its  fruitful  land  was  sanctified  forever  with 

the  Real  Presence  of  Christ May  this  Sacrament,  '0  Vinculum  Cari- 

tatis/  constantly  remind  you  that  you  are  all  brothers,  rich,  and  poor. . . . 
May  Christ  the  Redeemer,  Who  has  been  raised  above  the  highest  peak 
of  the  Andes,  give  you  always  the  precious  gift  of  Faith  as  He  gave  it  to 
you  once  before. ...  To  all  the  beloved  Chilean  nation,  we  impart  with 
all  Our  heart  the  Apostolic  Benediction." 

To  Jose  Manuel  Llobet,  who  came  to  present  his  credentials  as  Argen- 
tina's new  Ambassador  to  the  Holy  See,  the  Pope  recalled  that  his  first 
personal  touch  with  Latin  America  was  as  Papal  Legate  of  Pius  XI  to 
the  International  Eucharistic  Congress  of  Buenos  Aires,  which  inspiring 
occasion  is  ineradicably  imprinted  in  his  soul. 

A  Papal  Brief  issued  on  the  occasion  of  the  42nd  Diocesan  Synod  of 
Milan  praised  the  salutary  effect  of  the  synod  in  consolidating  parish 
and  diocesan  activities  and  especially  recommended  that  religious  in- 
struction of  the  people  be  encouraged.  The  dignity  and  necessity  of 
the  priesthood  were  emphasized  in  his  Motu  Proprio,  in  November,  found- 
ing the  Pontifical  Work  of  Priestly  Vocations  in  the  Sacred  Congregation 
of  Seminaries  and  Universities,  to  intensify  in  the  faithful  the  desire  to 
support  priestly  vocations. 

In  commemoration  of  his  own  consecration  as  bishop  he  asked  that 
the  25th  anniversary  on  May  13,  1942,  be  observed  by  a  union  of  all 
hearts  in  prayer.  Thus  does  Pius  XII  ever  stress  the  necessity  of  elevat- 
ing hearts  and  thoughts  to  God  in  adoration  and  petition,  and  as  Vicar 
of  Christ  he  constantly  intercedes  for  the  faithful  committed  to  his  care 
and  all  mankind. 

40 


ECCLESIASTICAL  ADMINISTRATION 

There  are  1,731  separate  ecclesiastical  jurisdictions  throughout  the 
world,  under  the  Holy  See.  These  are:  residential  patriarchates,  10;  resi- 
dential sees,  1,209;  abbeys  and  prelatures  nullius,  54;  vicariates,  pre- 
fectures and  missions  sui  juris,  458.  In  addition  to  the  residential  prelates, 
there  are  4  titular  patriarchs  and  779  titular  archbishops  and  bishops. 
During  the  first  two  years  of  his  pontificate,  Pope  Pius  XII  created  21 
residential  sees,  4  abbeys  and  prelatures  nullius,  and  39  vicariates,  pre- 
fectures and  missions. 

In  the  Western  Hemispheres  there  are  476  ecclesiastical  jurisdictions. 
The  distribution  is:  North  America,  207;  continental  Central  America,  20; 
West  Indies,  20;  South  America,  229.  The  United  States  has  118,  includ- 
ing the  Vicariate  Apostolic  of  Alaska;  Brazil  has  101;  Canada  has  50. 

There  were  55  cardinals  at  the  beginning  of  1941.  Three  died  during 
the  year,  so  that  with  52  members,  the  Sacred  College  of  Cardinals  is 
18  short  of  its  full  complement. 

Missionaries  dependent  upon  the  Sacred  Congregation  for  the  Propaga- 
tion of  the  Faith  total  73,887,  composed  of  20,578  priests,  8,414  lay 
Brothers  and  44,895  Sisters.  The  greatest  number  of  these  missionary 
priests  (4,561)  and  Brothers  (1,167)  are  in  China,  but  the  country  having 
the  largest  number  of  these  missionary  Sisters  (10,525)  is  Australia. 

There  are  a  total  of  835  religious  orders,  of  which  159  are  orders  of 
men  and  776  are  orders  of  women. 

The  Holy  See  has  representatives  in  58  countries.  Of  these  36  have 
diplomatic  status  and  22  are  Apostolic  Delegates.  Thirty-five  countries 
have  diplomatic  representation  at  the  Vatican. 

PAPAL   DOCUMENTS 

Apostolic  Letter  —  Formerly  any  document  issued  by  the  Holy  See; 
now  principally  a  Brief  used  for  lesser  appointments,  for  erecting  and 
dividing  mission  territory,  for  designating  basilicas  and  approving  re- 
ligious congregations. 

Brief  —  Brief  papal  letter  lacking  the  solemnity  and  formality  of  a 
Bull,  signed  with  the  seal  of  the  Fisherman's  ring  and  used  for  less 
important  matters  than  a  Bull, 

Bull  —  Papal  document  with  leaden  seals  used  in  appointing  bishops 
and  in  canonizations. 

Constitution  —  Papal  law  or  grant  used  for  dogmatic  or  disciplinary 
pronouncements.  Since  1911  Constitutions  have  been  used  for  erecting  or 
dividing  dioceses.  They  follow  the  old  Bull  form  and  are  sub  plumbo  letters. 

Decree  —  Legislative  enactment  taking  the  form  of  a  constitution, 
apostolic  letter  or  motu  proprio,  concerning  faith  and  discipline  as 
affects  the  general  welfare  of  the  Church. 

Decretal  —  Papal  letter  containing  an 'authoritative  decision  on  some 
point  of  discipline. 

Encyclical  —  Circular  letter  differing  in  form  from  a  Bull  or  Brief, 
treating  matters  concerning  the  general  welfare  of  the  Church,  addressed 
by  the  Pope  to  patriarchs,  primates,  archbishops  and  bishops  in  commun- 
ion with  the  Holy  See. 

Motu  Proprio  —  Decree  following  an  informal  method. 

Rescript — Papal  reply  to  questions  or  petitions  of  individuals. 

41 


THE  PAPAL  ENCYCLICALS 

Communication  of  sound  doctrine  and  the  timely  admonition  against 
current  evils  by  means  of  letters  is  definitely  of  Apostolic  origin.  Sts. 
Peter,  Paul,  Joan  and  James  began  writing  to  the  members  of  the  con- 
gregations where  they  had  established  the  Church.  The  early  pastors  of 
souls  continued  this  work  of  instruction  by  letter;  and  it  is  proper  that 
the  Supreme  Shepherds  of  souls,  the  Roman  Pontiffs,  should  thus 
guard  their  flocks  by  direct  cautioning  against  abuses  and  by  exhortation 
to  virtue* 

The  encyclical  letters  of  the  recent  Popes,  who  are  at  once  pastors 
and  guardians  and  recognized  scholars  of  social  conditions,  have  become 
text  books  to  the  Catholic  and  Christian  world.  A  new  era  in  encyclical 
history  began  with  the  reign  of  Leo  XIII.  Since  he  wrote  his  "Rerum 
Novarum"  on  the  condition  of  the  working  classes,  labor  and  capital  both 
have  looked  to  it  and  supplementary  encyclicals  for  guidance  and  for 
protection. 

Because  so  many  of  the  encyclicals  deal  with  particular  and  even  pro- 
vincial problems,  many  students  have  been  unable  to  find  a  correct  index 
to  these  encyclicals.  Thus  far  only  one  volume,  "Guide  to  the  Encyclicals," 
has  appeared  giving  complete  sources  and  bibliographies  of  the  encycli- 
cals since  Pope  Leo  XIII.  With  the  permission  of  the  author,  Sister  M. 
Claudia  Carl  en,  I.  H.  M.,  we  publish  this  list.  Students  who  have  the  key 
to  these  encyclicals  stand  at  the  treasury  of  deep  thought,  loving  concern 
for  humanity  and  a  careful  analysis  of  the  varied  problems  of  men  and 
their  genuine  Christian  solution. 

Encyclicals  of  Pope  Leo  XIII 

Title                                                     Subject  Date 

Ad  extremas  Foundation  of  Seminaries  in  the  East 

Indies  1893 

Adiutricem Rosary 1895 

Aeterni  Patris Scholastic  Philosophy 1879 

Affari  vos  Manitoba  School  Question  1897 

Annum  Sacrum Consecration  of  Mankind  to  the  Sacred 

Heart  1899 

Arcanum Christian  Marriage  1880 

Au  milieu  des  sollicitudes  . . .  Church  and  State  in  France  1892 

Augustissimae  Virginis 

Mariae Rosary 1897 

Auspicato  concessum Third  Order  of  St.  Francis 1882 

Caritatis  Conditions  in  Poland  1894 

Caritatis  studium Magisterium  of  the  Church  in  Scotland  1898 

Catholicae  Bcclesiae Abolition  of  African  Slavery , . .  1890 

Christi  nomen Society    for   the   Propagation    of    the 

Faith    1894 

Constant!  Hungarorum Conditions  of  the  Church  in  Hungary. .  1893 

Cum  multa Conditions  in  Spain  1882 

Custodi  di  quella  fede Freemasonry  in  Italy 1892 

Dairalto  dell'Apostolico 

Seggia  Conditions  in  Italy 1890 

Depuis  le  jour  Ecclesiastical  Education  in  France  . .  „  1899 

Diuturni  temporis  Rosary 1898 

Diuturnum   Origin  of  Civil  Power 1881 

Divinum  illud  munus  Holy  Ghost 1897 

Dum  multa   Marriage  in  Ecuador 1902 

42 


Title                                                      Subject  Date 

Etsi  cunctas   Expression  of  Sympathy  for  the  Church 

in  Ireland  1888 

Etsi  nos   Conditions  in  Italy 1882 

"Rxeimte  iam  anno Right  Ordering  of  Christian  Life 1888 

Fidentem  piumque  animum,  .Rosary  1896 

Pin  dal  principio  Education  of  the  Clergy  in  Italy 1902 

Grande  munus Sts.  Cyril  and  Methodius 1880 

Graves  de  communi  re Christian  Democracy   1901 

Gravissimas Religious  Orders  in  Portugal 1901 

Humanum  genus   Freemasonry   1884 

lampridem    Laws  against  the  Church  in  Germany  1886 

Immortale  Dei   Christian  Constitution  of  States   1885 

In  amplissimo Church  in  the  United  States 1902 

In  ipso    Episcopal  Re-unions  in  Austria  1891 

In  plurimis Abolition  of  African  Slavery 1888 

Inimica  vis Freemasonry  in  Italy  1892 

Inscrutabili  Dei  consilio  ....  Evils  of  Society  1878 

Insignes    Hungarian  Millenium  1896 

Inter  graves Church  in  Peru 1894 

lucunda  semper  expectatione .  Rosary  1894 

Laetitiae  sanctae Rosary  1893 

Libertas    Human  Liberty 1888 

Licet  multa  Controversies  among  Catholics  in  Bel- 
gium    1881 

Litteras  a  vobis  Formation  and  Influence  of  Clergy  in 

Brazil 1894 

Longinqua    Catholicity  in  the  United  States  1895 

Magnae  Dei  Matris Rosary 1892 

Magni  nobis Authorization  of  the  Catholic  Univer- 
sity of  America  1889 

Militantis  Bccelsiae Third  Centenary  of  the  Death  of  St. 

Peter  Canisius   1897 

Mirae  caritatis Most  Holy  Eucharist  1902 

Nobilissima  Gallorum  gens  . .  Religious  Question  in  France  1884 

Non  mediocri   Spanish  College  in  Rome  1893 

Octobri  mense  Rosary 1891 

Officio  sanctissimo   Condition  of  the  Church  in  Bavaria  ...  1887 

Omnibus  compertum Union  among  the  Greek  Melchites  .    . .  1900 

Pastoralis  Religious  Union  in  Portugal  1891 

Pastoralis  officii Duelling 1891 

Paterna  Caritas   Recalling  the  Dissenting  Armenians  to 

the  Faith 1888 

Paternae Ecclesiastical  Education  in  Brazil 1899 

Pergrata  Needs  of  the  Church  in  Portugal 1886 

Permoti  nos    Social  Conditions  in  Belgium  1895 

Providentissimus  Deus Study  of  Holy  Scripture 1893 

Quae  ad  nos  Church  in  Bohemia  and  Moravia 1902 

Quam  aerumnosa   Italian  Emigrants  in  America 188$ 

Quam  religiosa    Civil  Marriage  Law  in  Peru  1898 

Quamquam  pluries   Patronage    of    St.    Joseph    and    the 

Blessed  Virgin  Mary 1889 

Quarto  abeunte  saeculo  Columbus  Centenary   1892 

Quod  anniversarius Sacerdotal  Jubilee 1888 

Quod  Apostolici  muneris   . . .  Socialism,  Communism,  Nihilism 1878 

Quod  auctoritate   Proclamation  of  Jubilee  Year  1885 

43 


Title                                                    Subject  Date 

Quod  multum   ..............  Liberty  of  the  Church  In  Hungary  ....  1886 

Quod  votis  .................  Catholic  University  in  Austria  .......  1902 

Quum  diuturnum  ...........  Convoking  the  Latin-American  Bishops 

to  the  First  Plenary  Council  at  Rome  1889 

Reputantibus  ...............  Language  Question  in  Bohemia  ......  1901 

Rerum  novarum  ............  Condition  of  the  Working  Classes  ----  1891 

Saepe  nos  ..................  Boycotting  in  Ireland   ...............  1888 

Sancta  Dei  Civitas  .........  Three  French  Societies  .............  1880 

Sapientiae  Christianae    .....  Chief  Duties  of  Christian  Citizens  ....  1890 

Satis  cognitum  .............  Church  Unity   ............  ...........  1896 

Spectata  fides  ..............  Maintenance  of  Denominational 

Schools    ...........................  1885 

Spesse  volte   ...............  Catholic  Action  in  Italy  .............  1898 

Superiore  anno  .............  Recitation  of  the  Rosary  .............  1884 

Supremi  Apostolatus  Officio.  .  Rosary  ..............................  1883 


........  Jesus  Christ  Our  Redeemer  ..........  1900 

ris  .....     ...  Foundation  of  a  Seminary  in  Athens.  .  1901 

Vi  e  ben  noto    .     .  '.'.'.'......  Rosary:  Remedy  for  Evils  in  Italy  ....  1887 

Encyclicals  of  Pope  Pius  X 

Ad  Diem  ilium  laetissimum.  .Jubilee  of  the  Immaculate  Conception.  1904 

Communium  rerum    ........  Eighth  Centenary  of  St.  Anselm  ......  1909 

E  SiSremi  ...........  Restoration  of  all  Things  in  Christ  .  .  .  1903 

Sditoe  saeDe""   "     .........  ™rd  Centenary  of  the  Canonization 

Editae  saepe  ...........  Borromeo  ...........  1910 


Gravissimo  officii  munere  .  .  .  Forbidding  French  Association  of  Wor- 

ship   ....................  .  .........  1906 

lamdudum  ..................  Separation  Law  in  Portugal  ..........  1911 

II  fermo  proposito  ..........  Catholic  Action  in  Italy  .............  1905 

lucunda  sane   ..............  Thirteenth  Centenary  of  St.   Gregory 

the  Great   ........  .  ................   1904 

Lacrimabili  statu  ...........  Indians  of  South  America  ...........  1912 

Pascendi  dominie  gregis  ----  Modernism  ..........................  1907 

Pieni  1'animo  ...............  Clergy  in  Italy  ......................  1906 

Singular!  quadam   ..........  Labor  organizations  in  Germany  .....  1912 

Tribus  circiter  .............  Condemnation  of  the  Mariavites  ......  1906 

Une  fois  encore  ............  Separation    of    Church    and    State    in 

France  ............................  1907 

Vehementer  nos  ............  French  Separation  Law  ..............  1906 

Encyclicals  of  Pope  Benedict  XV 

Ad  beatissimi  Apostolorum,  .Appeal  for  Peace  ....................  1914 

Annus  iam  plenus  ..........  Child  War  Victims  ..................  1920 

Fausto  appetente  Die  .......  Seventh  Centenary  of  the  Death  of  St 

Dominic  ..........................  •  1921 

Humani  generis 
redemptionem  ............  Preaching  ...........................  1917 

In  hac  tanta  ____  ...........  Twelfth    Centenary    of    St.    Boniface, 

Apostle  of  Germany  ...............  1919 

In  praeclara  summorum  ----  Sixth  Centenary  of  Dante's  Death  ----  1921 

Pacem,  Dei  munus 
pulcherrimum  ............  Peace  and  Christian  Reconciliation  ...  1920 

Paternp  iam  <JiU  ,,,,,,,,...  Christian  Charity  for  the  Children  of 

Central  Europe  .................  ...  1919 

44 


Title  ,  Subject  Date 

Principi  Apostoiorum  Petro . .  St.  Ephrem  the  Syrian   1920 

Quod  iam  din  Peace  Congress,  Paris  1918 

Sacra  propediem  Seventh  Centenary  of  the  Third  Order 

of  St.  Francis  1921 

Singular!  quadam   Labor  Organizations  in  Germany 1912 

Encyclicals  of  Pope  Pius  XI 

Acerba  animi Persecution  of  the  Church  in  Mexico. .  1932 

Ad  Catholici  sacerdotii  Catholic  Priesthood    1935 

Ad  salutem  Fifteenth  Centenary  of  the  Death  of 

St.  Augustine   1930 

Caritate  Christi  compulsi  . . .  Sacred  Heart  and  World  Distress 1932 

Casti  connubii Christian  Marriage  1930 

Dilectissima  nobis    Conditions  in  Spain  1933 

Divini  illius  magistri Christian  Education  of  Youth 1929 

Divini  Redemptoris Atheistic  Communism   1937 

Ecclesiam  Dei Third  Centenary  of  the  Death  of  St. 

Josaphat,  Archbishop  of  Polotsk  . . .  1923 

Firmissimam  constantiam   . .  Conditions  in  Mexico  1937 

In  graves centibus  malis  Rosary 1937 

Iniquis  afflictisque Persecution  of  the  Church  in  Mexico  . .  1926 

Lux  veritatis Fifteenth  Centenary  of  the  Council  of 

Ephesus 1931 

Maximam  gravissimamque  . .  French  Diocesan  Associations  1924 

Mens  nostra   Promotion  of  the  Practice  of  Spiritual 

Exercises    1929 

Miserentissimus  Redemptor  .  Reparation  Due  to  the  Sacred  Heart  . .  1928 

Mit  brennender  sorge  Church  in  Germany 1937 

Mortalium  animos Promotion  of  True  Religious  Unity  . . .  1928 

Non  abbiamo  bisogno   Catholic  Action   1931 

Nova  impendet Economic  Crisis,  Unemployment,   and 

Increase  of  Armaments  1931 

Quadragesimo  anno   Social  Reconstruction   1931 

Quas  primas   Feast  of  Christ  the  King  1925 

Quinquagesimo  ante Sacerdotal  Jubilee 1929 

Rerum  ecclesiae Catholic  Missions   1926 

Rerum  omnium  Third  Centenary  of  the  death  of  St. 

perturbationem Francis  de  Sales  1923 

Rerum  Orientalium Reunion  with  the  Eastern  Churches  . .  1928 

Rite  expiatis  Seventh  Centenary  of  the  Death  of  St. 

Francis  of  Assisi 1926 

Studiorum  ducem   Sixth  Centenary  of  the  Canonization  of 

St.  Thomas  Aquinas  1923 

Ubi  arcano  Dei  consilio Peace   of   Christ  in  the   Kingdom  of 

Christ 1922 

Vigilant!   cura    Clean  Motion  Picture©   1936 

Encyclicals  of  Pope  Pius  XII 

Summi  pontificatus Function  of  the  State  in  the  Modern 

World    1939 

Sertum  laetitiae  sanctae  ....  To  the  Church  in  the  United  States  . .  1939 

45 


CONCORDATS 

A  concordat  is  an  agreement  between  the  Holy  See  and  a  civil  govern- 
ment on  disputable  spiritual  matters.  In  order  to  secure  certain  neces- 
sary immunities  to  the  Church,  the  Popes  have  often  conceded  the  ex- 
ercise of  certain  rights  to  the  State  such  as  the  nomination  of  bishops, 
the  appointments  of  pastors,  the  number  of  the  clergy,  taxation  of 
Church  property,  etc. 

Some  famous  Concordats  were  those  between  Pope  Callistus  II  and 
Emperor  Henry  V  of  Germany  in  1122,  ending  the  dispute  over  the  ap- 
pointment of  bishops;  Pope  Pius  VII  and  Napoleon  in  1801,  reestablish- 
ing the  Church  in  France;  Pope  Pius  XI  and  Premier  Mussolini  of  Italy 
in  1929,  settling  the  controversy  about  the  holding  of  Church  property, 
and  the  marriage  and  public  school  questions. 

The  Holy  See  has  concordats  with  the  following  countries:  Poland, 
1925;  Italy,  1929;  Rumania,  1929;  Germany,  1933;  Yugoslavia,  1935;  Portu- 
gal, 1940;  and  a  Modus  Vivendi  with  Ecuador,  1937. 

PAPAL   ELECTIONS 

When  the  Dean  of  the  Sacred  College  proclaims  publicly  the  death  of 
the  Pontiff,  word  is  sent  out  to  all  the  cardinals  throughout  the  world. 
They  are  convoked  to  solemn  conclave  to  elect  a  new  Pope,  to  be  held 
within  fifteen  to  eighteen  days  after  the  death  of  the  Pope.  Until  an 
election  takes  place,  they  remain  in  seclusion  within  a  part  of  the  Vatican 
Palace  specially  prepared  for  them. 

On  the  fifteenth  day  after  the  death  of  the  Pope,  if  all  the  cardinals 
are  present,  or  if  not  all  present  then,  on  the  eighteenth  day  the  cardinals 
after  celebrating  Holy  Mass  go  to  the  Sistine  Chapel  where  voting  takes 
place,  on  specially  printed  ballots,  for  the  candidates  who  are  found  to 
have  the  qualifications  for  the  office. 

A  two-thirds  majority  is  required  to  elect.  Two  ballots  are  taken  each 
morning  and  evening  until  a  decision  is  reached.  If  no  selection  is  made 
the  ballots  are  burned  with  damp  straw  which  produces  a  heavy  black 
smoke,  thereby  notifying  the  people  that  no  selection  has  been  made. 
When  a  two-thirds  majority  is  reached  the  ballots  are  burned  without 
damp  straw.  The  light  smoke  ascending  from  the  chimney  proclaims  to 
the  people  the  election  of  a  new  Pope.  Acceptance  of  the  office  on  the 
part  of  the  one  elected  must  be  manifested  before  he  is  validly  the  new 
Pontiff.  If  the  one  elected  is  not  already  a  bishop  he  must  be  consecrated. 

The  Pope  is  elected  for  life,  i.e.,  for  the  remaining  years  of  his  life; 
although  if  he  wishes  he  may  resign.  At  the  time  he  does  so,  a  new 
Pope  is  elected.  Any  male  Catholic,  no  matter  of  what  race  or  color, 
may  be  elected  Pope,  even  one  who  is  not  a  priest.  Should  a  layman 
be  chosen  he  would  have  to  be  ordained  and  consecrated. 

CONSISTORIES 

Consistories  are  assemblies  of  Cardinals  presided  over  by  the  Pope 
and  called  to  deliberate  with  Mm.  There  are  three  kinds:  (1)  secret 
consistories,  at  which  only  the  Pope  and  Cardinals  are  present;  (2) 
public  consistories,  attended  by  other  prelates  and  lay  spectators;  (3) 
semi-public  consistories,  attended  by  bishops  and  patriarchs. 

46 


The  secret  consistory  is  the  most  important.  Thereat  the  Pope  delivers 
an  allocution  on  religious  and  moral  conditions  throughout  the  world. 
Sometimes  the  Pope  seeks  the  opinion  of  the  cardinals  on  the  creation 
of  new  cardinals,  gives  the  cardinal's  ring  to  new  cardinals,  appoints 
bishops,  archbishops  and  patriarchs,  makes  ecclesiastical  transfers,  di- 
vides or  unites  dioceses  and  asks  for  a  vote  on  a  proposed  canonization. 

At  the  public  consistory  the  Pope  bestows  the  red  hat  on  newly 
created  cardinals,  hears  the  causes  of  beatifications  and  canonizations. 

At  the  semi-public  consistory  the  propriety  of  a  proposed  canonization 
is  decided. 

AD    LIMINA  VISIT 

Bishops  are  obliged  once  every  five  years  to  visit  the  tombs  of  St. 
Peter  and  St.  Paul,  have  audience  with  the  Holy  Father  and  present 
a  written  report  of  conditions  in  the  diocese.  The  visits  rotate  over  five 
years  beginning  January  1,  1911:  first  year,  the  bishops  of  Italy,  Corsica, 
Sardinia,  Sicily  and  Malta;  second  year,  the  bishops  of  Spain,  Portugal, 
France,  Belgium,  Holland,  England,  Scotland,  Ireland;  third  year,  bishops 
from  the  other  countries  of  Europe;  fourth  year,  the  bishops  of  the 
American  Continents;  fifth  year,  the  bishops  of  Africa,  Asia  and  Australia. 

NOMINATIONS    OF    BISHOPS 

The  Sacred  Congregation  of  the  Consistory  decreed  July  25,  1916,  that 
bishops  should  every  two  years  send  to  their  metropolitans  a  list  of 
priests  worthy  of  the  episcopacy.  The  metropolitan  forwards  the  £e- 
sults  to  the  Apostolic  Delegate  who  in  turn  forwards  the  list  to  the  Con- 
gregation of  the  Consistory  where  the  names  are  recorded  to  guide  the 
Holy  Father  in  his  choice  of  bishops  to  fill  vacancies  and  newly  created 
sees. 

CONCURSUS 

A  competitive  examination  of  applicants  for  the  permanent  rectorship 
of  a  parish  covering  knowledge  of  ecclesiastical  affairs,  age,  prudence, 
integrity  and  past  services.  Qualifications:  must  have  been  a  priest  of 
the  diocese  not  less  than  ten  years,  must  have  had  three  years  of  parish 
work  and  have  demonstrated  ability  to  direct  the  temporal  and  spiritual 
affairs  of  a  parish.  A  permanent  rector  is  removed  only  by  judicial 
process. 

COUNCILS 

A  Council  is  an  assembly  of  the  prelates  of  the  Church,  called  to- 
gether by  their  lawful  head,  in  order  to  decide  questions  concerning 
faith,  morals,  or  ecclesiastical  discipline.  The  following  are  the  chief 
kinds  of  Councils:  General  or  Ecumenical;  Provincial;  National  or 
Plenary;  and  Diocesan. 

GENERAL   COUNCILS 

A  General  or  Ecumenical  Council  is  one  to  which  the  bishops  of  the 
whole  world  are  lawfully  summoned  by  the  Pope,  or  with  his  consent, 
and  presided  over  by  him  or  by  his  legates.  Its  decrees  must  also  have 
the  approval  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff.  General  councils  "are  infallible 
aknd  cannot  teach  us  anything  wrong  in  faith  or  morals,, 

47 


The  following  are  the  General  Councils  which  have  been  held  up  to 
the  present  time.  The  first  eight  were  held  in  Asia,  or  the  eastern  part 
of  Christendom;  the  remainder  in  Europe,  or  the  Western  part: 


Council  (Place)          Date 
1.  Nicaea  1 325 


2.  Constantinople   L.  381 


3.  Ephesus    431 


4.  Chalcedon    451 


5.  Constantinople    II.  553 


6.  Constantinople  III.  680 


7.  Nicaea  II 787 


8.  Constantinople  IV.  869 


9.  Lateran  I  (Rome).  1123 


10.  Lateran  II 1139 


11.  Lateran  III 1179 


Pope  Doctrine 

Sylvester .Condemned    heresy    of 

Arius;  defined  clearly  that 
the  Son  of  God  was  con- 
substantial  (homousios)  to 
the  Father;  formulated 
the  Nicene  Creed. 

Damasus Condemned    heresy    of 

Macedonius ;  defined  the 
divinity  of  the  Holy  Ghost; 
confirmed  and  extended 
the  Nicene  Creed. 

Celestine  I Condemned  the  heresy  of 

Nestorius ;  defined  that 
there  was  one  person  in 
Christ  and  defended  the 
Divine  Maternity  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary. 

Leo  I Condemned    heresy    of 

Eutyches  (Monophy sites) ; 
declared  Christ  had  two 
natures,  human  and  divine. 

Vigilius The  so-called  three  Chap- 
ters, the  erroneous  hooks 
of  Theodorus  and  the 
teachings  of  the  three  Nes- 
torian  bishops,  were  con- 
demned. 

Agatho Declared  against  the  Mon- 

othelites,  who  taught  one 
will  in  Christ,  by  defining 
that  Christ  had  two  wills, 
human  and  divine. 

Adrian  I Condemned  the  heresy  of 

the  image-breakers  (Icono- 
clasts). 

Adrian  II The  usurper  Photius  de- 
posed, the  patriarch  Ig- 
natius reinstated,  and  the 
Greek  Schism  suppressed. 

Callistus  II... Called  to  confirm  the 
peace  between  Church  and 
State  after  the  settlement 
of  the  Investiture  Ques- 
tion. 

Innocent  II. .  ..Condemned  the  heresies 
of  Peter  of  Bruys  and  Ar- 
nold of  Brescia  (Petro- 
brusians). 

Alexander  III.  Condemned  the  heresies 
of  the  Waldenses  and  Al- 
bigenses;  reformed  eccles- 
iastical discipline;  regu- 
lated for  elections  of 
Popes. 
48 


Council  (Place)          Date  Pope  Doctrine 

12.  Lateran  IV 1215  Innocent  III. .  .Called  to  condemn  prevail- 

ing heresies;  to  obtain 
aid  for  the  progress  of 
the  Crusades;  and  for  the 
promotion  of  ecclesiastical 
discipline.  Annual  confes- 
sion and  Communion  pre- 
scribed for  all. 

13.  Lyons  1 1245  Innocent  IV. ..  Called    in    behalf    of    the 

Holy  Land,  and  on  ac- 
count of  the  hostility  of 
the  Emperor  Frederick  II 
toward  the  Holy  See. 

14.  Lyons   II 1274  Gregory  X For  the  promotion  of  ec- 

clesiastical discipline;  for 
the  union  of  the  Greeks 
with  the  Latin  Church. 

15.  Vienne    1311  Clement  V Against  fanatic  sectarians 

(Beghards) ;  suppression 
of  the  Knights  Templars; 
the  union  of  soul  and  body 
defined;  help  for  the  Holy 
Land. 

16.  Constance    1414-1418  Gregory  XII. ,.  Suppression  of  the  West- 

Martin  V ern  Schism;  ecclesiastical 

reform  in  "head  and  mem- 
bers"; Wyclif  and  Hus 
condemned. 

17.  Florence  1431-1443  Eugene  IV For    the    union    of    the 

Greeks  and  other  Oriental 
sects  with  the  Latin 
Church;  re  establishment 
of  peace  among  Christian 
Princes. 

18.  Lateran  V 1512-1517  Julius  II The   relation    of   Pope   to 

Leo  X General  Councils  defined; 

condemnation  of  some  er- 
rors regarding  the  nature 
of  the  human  soul;  cru- 
sade against  the  Turks. 

19.  Trent 1545-1563  Paul   III Against    the    heresies    of 

Julius  III the  so-called  Reformers  of 

Pius  IV the  16th  century,  viz.,  Lu- 
ther, Calvin,  and  others. 
Reformed  the  discipline  of 
the  Church  and  clarified 
her  position  in  doctrinal 
matters. 

20.  Vatican ....    1869  (op'd)  Pius  IX. .....  Canons    relating   to    faith 

1870  (adj'd  and    the    Constitution    of 

but  not  the  Church;  defined  espe- 

closed)  cially  in  a  solemn  decree 

j   t  „       ,  the    primacy    and    infalli- 

-I   \  \\  &  j  *'  *'  **»    !  bility  of  the  Pope. 
"49 


PROVINCIAL  COUNCILS 

A  Provincial  Council  is  a  meeting  of  the  bishops  of  one  province.  The 
metropolitan  of  an  ecclesiastical  province  calls  and  presides  over  a 
provincial  council  to  consider  and  adopt  measures  for  the  increase  of 
faith,  the  regulation  of  morals,  the  correction  of  abuses,  the  settling  of 
controversies,  the  establishment  and  maintenance  of  uniform  discipline. 
Acts  and  decrees  must  be  approved  by  the  Sacred  Congregation  of  the 
Council  at  Rome  before  being  promulgated.  One  must  be  held  at  least 
once  every  twenty  years. 

PLENARY  COUNCILS 

Plenary  Councils  are  National  Councils,  or  meetings  of  the  ordinaries 
of  a  region  assembled  under  the  presidency  of  the  Pope's  legate  to  de- 
termine matters  of  regulation  and  discipline.  Their  decrees  are  binding 
in  the  whole  territory. 

In  the  United  States  the  archbishops  of  Baltimore  by  right  of  priority 
of  the  see,  have  presided  over  all  the  Plenary  Councils,  which  have  been 
attended  by  the  archbishops,  bishops,  administrators,  mitred  abbots, 
vicars  apostolic,  prefects,  apostolic  coadjutors,  auxiliary  bishops,  visiting 
bishops,  provincials  of  religious  orders,  rectors  of  major  seminaries  and 
experts  in  theology  and  canon  law. 

The  First  Plenary  Council  of  Baltimore  was  called  May  9,  1852,  with 
Archbishop  Kendrick  of  Baltimore  as  Apostolic  Delegate.  It  professed 
allegiance  to  the  Pope  and  faith  in  the  doctrines  of  the  Church,  regu- 
lated parish  life,  ceremonies,  the  administration  of  Church  funds,  and 
the  teaching  of  Christian  Doctrine. 

The  Second  Plenary  Council  was  called  by  Archbishop  Spaldmg  of 
Baltimore,  October  7-21,  1866.  It  condemned  the  heresies  of  the  day,  mad© 
regulations  in  the  organization  of  dioceses,  the  education  and  conduct  of 
the  clergy,  ecclesiastical  property,  parochial  duties,  general  education 
and  secret  societies. 

The  Third  Plenary  Council  was  called  Nov.  9  —  Dec.  7,  1884,  by  Arch- 
bishop Gibbons.  It  appointed  a  commission  for  the  creation  of  a  Catholic 
University.  Elementary  and  higher  school  education  was  discussed,  a 
commission  was  appointed  to  prepare  a  catechism  of  Christian  Doctrine. 
Six  holy  days  of  obligation  were  determined  for  the  United  States:  Im- 
maculate Conception,  Christmas,  Circumcision,  Ascension,  Assumption, 
All  Saints  Day.  It  signed  a  petition  to  introduce  the  cause  of  beatification 
of  the  Jesuit  Martyrs. 

DIOCESAN   SYNODS 

A  Diocesan  Council,  usually  called  Diocesan  Synod,  is  a  convention  of 
priests  of  a  diocese  called  by  the  bishop  to  consider  matters  for  the 
good  of  the  clergy  and  people.  Except  in  special  cases,  it  must  be  held 
in  the  Cathedral.  Those  who  attend  include;  vicar  general,  diocesan 
consultors,  rector  of  the  seminary,  deans,  a  delegate  from  each  collegiate 
church,  pastors  of  the  city  in  which  the  synod  is  held,  abbots  and  one 
superior  from  each  religious  order  in  the  diocese,  all  of  whom  merely 
consult  with  the  bishop  who  alone  signs  synodal  decrees  which  become 
effective  at  once. 

5Q 


ROMAN    PONTIFFS 

Authorities  differ  concerning  the  correct  list  of  the  Popes.  The  follow- 
ing is  the  official  list  printed  in  the  "Annuario  Pontificio"  and  taken 
from  a  series  of  portraits  in  the  Basilica  of  St.  Paul  near  Rome.  We  ven- 
erate eighty-three  Popes  as  saints,  seven  as  blessed.  One  hundred  and 
five  Popes  have  been  Romans;  one  hundred  and  three  were  natives  of 
other  parts  of  Italy;  fifteen  were  French,  nine  Greek,  seven  German, 
five  Asiatic,  three  African,  three  Spanish,  two  Dalmatian.  Palestine, 
Thrace,  Holland,  Portugal  and  England  have  each  furnished  one  occu- 
pant of  the  papal  chair. 

Duration 

Date  of  of  Pan- 

Acces-  Date  <?/    tificate 

Name                                                      Birthplace                             ston  Death    Yr.  Mo. 

1.  St.  Peter,  Martyr*    Galilee    33  67    33     11 

2.  St.  Linus,  Martyr   Volterra   67  78    11      % 

3.  St.  Cletus,  Martyr Rome    78  90    12      1 

4.  St.  Clement  I,  Martyr   Rome 90  100      9      2 

5.  St.  Anacletus,  Martyr Athens 100  112    12     10 

6.  St.  Evaristus,  Martyr Bethlehem    112  121      9      7 

7.  St.  Alexander  I,  Martyr  . . .  Rome    121  132    10      7 

8.  St.  Sixtus  I,  Martyr Rome    132  142      9      3 

9.  St.  Telesphorus,  Martyr   . . .  Greece    142  154    11      3 

10.  St.  Hyginus,  Martyr Greece    154  158      4      3 

11.  St.  Pius  I,  Martyr Aquileia    158  167      8      3 

12.  St.  Anicetus,  Martyr Emesa    175    11      4 

13.  St.  Soter,  Martyr Campania 182      9      3 

14.  St.  Eleutherius,  Martyr Epirus    193    15      4 

15.  St.  Victor  I,  Martyr Africa   193  203    10      2 

16.  St.  Zephyrinus,  Martyr   Rome    203  221     17      2 

17.  St.  Calixtus  I,  Martyr Rome    221  227      5      2 

18.  St.  Urban  I,  Martyr Rome    227  233      6      7 

19.  St.  Pontian,  Martyr Rome    233  238      5      2 

20.  St.  Anterus,  Martyr   Greece    238  239      1      1 

21.  St.  Fabian,  Martyr Rome    239  253    13      1 

22.  St.  Cornelius,  Martyr Rome    253  255      3      0 

.  23.     St.  Lucius  I,  Martyr Rome    255  257      3      3 

24.  St.  Stephen  I,  Martyr Rome    257  260      4      2 

25.  St.  Sixtus  II,  Martyr Greece    260  261            11 

26.  St.  Dionysius  Greece      261  272    11      3 

27.  St.  Felix  I,  Martyr Rome    272  275      2     10 

28.  St.  Eutychian,  Martyr   Luni    275  283      8    10 

29.  St.  Caius,  Martyr Dalmatia    283  296    12      4 

30.  St.  Marcellinus,  Martyr  ....  Rome    296  304      8      2 

31.  St.  Marcellus  I,  Martyr  ....  Rome    304  309      5      7 

32.  St.  Eusebius   Greece    309  311      2      1 

33.  St.  Melchiades    Africa  311  313      3      7 

34.  St.  Sylvester  I Rome    314  337    23    10 

35.  St.  Marcus   Rome    337  340      2      8 

36.  St.  Julius  I Rome    341  352    11      2 

37.  St.  Liberius   Rome    352  366    10      7 

38.  St.  Felix  II Rome    363  365      1      3 

39.  St.  Damasus  I  Spain    367  384    18      2 

40.  St.  Siricius  Rome    384  398    15    11 

41.  St.  Anastasius  I Rome    399  402      2     10 

42.  St.  Innocent  I  Albano    402  417    15      2 

43.  St.  Zozimus   Greece    417  418      1      9 

*St.  Peter,  after  his  election  by  Christ  as  His  vicar  on  earth,  resided  first  at  Antioch.    His 

Roman  pontificate  lasted  25  years  and  2  months. 

51 


Date  of 

Duration 
of  Pon- 

Acces- 

Date of    tiftcate 

Name 

Birthplace 

sion 

Death 

Yr. 

Mo. 

44. 

St.  Boniface  I  

Rome    

,  .  .  .      418 

423 

4 

9 

45. 

St.  Celestine  I  

Rome    

.  ,  .  .     423 

432 

9 

10 

46. 

St.  Sixtus  III  

Rome    

.  .  .  .     432 

440 

8 

0 

47. 

St.  Leo  I  (the  Great)   

Tuscany  

.  .  .  .     440 

461 

21 

1 

48. 

St.  Hilary  

Cagliari    

.  .  .  .     461 

468 

6 

3 

49. 

St.  Simplicius   

Tivoli    

,  .  .  .     468 

483 

15 

50. 

St.  Felix  III   

Rome    

,  .  .  .     483 

492 

8 

11 

51. 

St.  Gelasius  I  

Africa  

,  .  .  .     492 

496 

4 

8 

52. 

St.  Anastasius  II   

Rome    

,  .  .  .     496 

498 

1 

11 

53. 

St.  Symmachus  

Sardinia         .    . 

498 

514 

15 

7 

54. 

St.  Hormisdas  

Frosinone    

.  .  .  .      514 

523 

9 

55. 

St.  John  I,  Martyr  

Tuscany  

,  .  .  .     523 

526 

2 

9 

56. 

St  Felix  IV  

Sannio    

,  .  .  .     526 

530 

4 

2 

57. 

Boniface  II  

Rome    

...     530 

532 

2 

58. 

John  II   

Rome    

...     532 

535 

2 

4 

59. 

St.  Agapitus    

Rome    

...     535 

536 

10 

60. 

St.  Silverius,  Martyr  

Campania    

...     536 

538 

2 

61. 

Vigilius    

Rome    

...     538 

555 

16 

62. 

Pelagius  I  

Rome    

...     555 

560 

4 

10 

63. 

John  III  

Rome    

...     560 

573 

12 

11 

64. 

Benedict  I  

Rome    

...     574 

578 

4 

1 

65. 

Pelagius  II  

Rome    

...     578 

590 

11 

2 

66. 

St  Gregory  I  (the  Great)  .  .  , 

Rome    

...     590 

604 

13 

6 

67. 

Sabinianus   

Bieda    

...     604 

606 

1 

5 

68. 

Boniface  III  

Rome    

...     607 

607 

8 

69. 

St.  Boniface  IV  

Valeria  

...     608 

615 

6 

8 

70. 

St.  Adeodatus  I  (Deusdedit) 

Rome    

...     615 

619 

3 

71. 

Boniface  V  

Naples    

...     619 

625 

5 

10 

72. 

Honorius  I  

Campania 

...     625 

638 

12 

11 

73. 

Ceverinus   

Rome    

...     640 

640 

2 

74. 

John  IV  

Dalmatia    

...     640 

642 

1 

9 

75. 

Theodore  I  

Greece    

...     642 

649 

6 

5 

76. 

St.  Martin  I,  Martyr  

Todi    

...     649 

655 

6 

2 

77. 

St.  Eugenius  I   

Rome  

.  .  .     655 

657 

1 

7 

78. 

St.  Vitalian   

Segni    

...     657 

672 

14 

5 

79. 

Adeodatus  II  

Rome    

...     672 

676 

4 

2 

80. 

Domnus  I  

Rome    

...     676 

678 

1 

5 

81. 

St.  Agatho  

Palermo  

...     678 

682 

3 

6 

82. 

St.  Leo  II  

Sicily    

...     682 

683 

10 

83. 

St.  Benedict  II  

Rome    

...     684 

685 

10 

84. 

John  V  

Antioch    

...     685 

686 

1 

85. 

Conon  

Thrace   

...     686 

687 

11 

86. 

St.  Sergius  I  

Palermo  

...     687 

701 

13 

8 

87. 

John  VI  

Greece    

...     701 

705 

3 

2 

88. 

John  VII  

Rossano   

...     705 

707 

2 

7 

89. 

Sisianius  

Syria  

...     708 

708 

0 

0 

90. 

Constantine    

Syria  

...     708 

715 

7 

0 

91. 

St.  Gregory  II  

Rome    

...     715 

731 

15 

8 

92. 

St.  Gregory  III  

Syria  

...     731 

741 

10 

8 

93. 

St.  Zachary  

Greece    

...     741 

752 

10 

3 

94. 

Stephen  II  

Rome    

...     752 

752 

0 

0 

95. 

St.  Stephen  III  

Rome    

...     752 

757 

5 

96. 

St,  Paul  I  

Rome    

...     757 

767 

10 

1 

97. 

Stephen  IV   

Syracuse    

...     768 

771 

3 

5 

98. 

Adrian  I  

Rome   

...     771 

795 

23 

10 

52 


Date  of 

Duration 
of  Port- 

Acces- 

Date oj 

'•     til 

icate 

Name 

Birthplace 

sion 

Death 

Yr. 

Mo. 

99. 

St.  Leo  III  

,  Rome    

....     795 

816 

20 

5 

100. 

St.  Stephen  V  

Rome    

816 

817 

7 

101. 

St.  Paschal  I  

Rome    

817 

824 

7 

102. 

Eugenius  II   

Rome    

....     824 

827 

3 

6 

103, 

Valentine    

Rome    

....     827 

827 

1 

104. 

Gregory  IV  

Rome    

....     827 

844 

16 

105. 

Sergius  II  

Rome    

844 

847 

2 

11 

106. 

St.  Leo  IV  

Rome    

847 

855 

8 

3 

107. 

Benedict  III  

Rome    

....     855 

858 

2 

6 

108. 

St.  Nicholas  I  (the  Great)  .  .  . 

Rome    

....     858 

867 

9 

6 

109. 

Adrian  II  

Rome    

....     867 

872 

4 

10 

110. 

John  VIII   

Rome    

872 

882 

10 

111. 

Marinus  I  (Martin  II)   

Gallicia    

....     882 

884 

1 

5 

112. 

St.  Adrian  III   

Rome    

....     884 

885 

1 

4 

113. 

Stephen  VI  

Rome    

....     885 

891 

6 

114. 

Formosus    

Ostia     

891 

896 

4 

6 

115. 

Stephen  VII  

Rome    

....     896 

897 

1 

2 

116. 

Romanus  

Gaul    

....     897 

898 

0 

3 

117. 

Theodore  II   

Rome    

898 

898 

0 

0 

118. 

John  IX  

Tivoli    

....     898 

900 

2 

0 

119. 

Benedict  IV  

Rome    

900 

903 

3 

2 

120. 

Leo  V  

Ardea    

....     903 

903 

0 

1 

121. 

Christophorus    

Rome    

....     903 

904 

0 

6 

122. 

Sergius  III  

Rome    

....     904 

911 

7 

3 

123. 

Anastasius  III  

Rome    

....     911 

913 

2 

2 

124. 

Landus  

Sabino    

913 

914 

0 

6 

125. 

John  X   

Ravenna 

....     915 

928 

14 

2 

126. 

Leo  VI  

Rome    

....     928 

929 

0 

0 

127. 

Stephen  VIII  

Rome    

929 

931 

2 

1 

128, 

John  XI  

Rome    

....     931 

936 

4 

10 

129. 

Leo  VII  

Rome    

....     936 

939 

3 

6 

130. 

Stephen  IX  

Germany 

....     939 

942 

3 

4 

131. 

Marinus  II  (Martin  III)  

Rome    

....     942 

946 

3 

6 

132. 

Agapitus  II  

Rome    

946 

956 

10 

3 

133. 

John  XII  

Rome    

....     956 

964 

7 

9 

134. 

Benedict  V  

Rome    

964 

965 

1 

1 

135. 

John  XIII  

Rome    

....     965 

972 

6 

11 

136. 

Benedict  VI  

Rome    

972 

973 

1 

3 

137. 

Domnus  II   

Rome    

....     973 

973 

0 

3 

138. 

Benedict  VII  

Rome    

975 

984 

9 

5 

1.39. 

John  XIV  

Pavia    

984 

985 

0 

8 

140. 

John  XV  

Rome    

985 

996 

10 

4 

141. 

Gregory  V   

Saxony  

....     996 

999 

2 

8 

142. 

Sylvester  II  

France    

....     999 

1003 

4 

1 

143. 

John  XVI  or  XVII  

Rome    

....   1003 

1003 

0 

5 

144. 

John  XVII  or  XVIII  

Rome    

....   1003 

1009 

5 

5 

145. 

Sergius  IV  

Rome    

....  1009 

1012 

2 

8 

146. 

Benedict  VIII    

Rome    

....   1012 

1024 

11 

11 

147. 

John  XVIII,  XIX,  or  XX  

Rome    

....   1024 

1033 

9 

0 

148. 

Benedict  IX  (res.  1044)   

Rome    

....   1033 

1044 

11 

0 

149. 

Gregory  VI  (abd.  1046)   

Rome    

....   1044 

»  .  *  . 

2 

8 

150. 

Clement  II  

Saxony   

....   1046 

1047 

0 

9 

151. 

Damasus  II  

Germany    

....   1048 

1048 

0 

0 

152. 

St.  Leo  IX  

Germany   

....   1049 

1054 

5 

2 

153. 

Victor  II  f  t  ,  ,  

Bavaria    

....  1055 

1057 

2 

3 

53 


Date  of 

Duration 
of  Pon- 

Acces- 

Date 0} 

f    ttfi 

cate 

Name 

Birthplace 

sion 

Death 

Yr. 

Mo. 

154. 

Stephen.  X  

,  Germany    

.   1057 

1058 

0 

7 

155. 

Nicolas  II  

,  Burgundy    

.   1059 

1061 

2 

6 

156. 

Alexander  II  

,  Milan    

.   1061 

1073 

11 

6 

157. 

St.  Gregory  VII  

Sovana  

..   1073 

1085 

12 

1 

158. 

BL  Victor  III  

Benevento  

.   1087 

1087 

0 

4 

159. 

BL  Urban  II  

Reims  

,  .   1088 

1099 

11 

4 

160. 

Paschal  II    

Bleda    

.   1099 

1118 

18 

5 

161. 

Gelasius  II  

Gaeta    

.   1118 

1119 

1 

0 

162. 

Callistus  II  

Burgundy    

.   1119 

1124 

5 

10 

163. 

Honorius  II   

Bologna   

,   1124 

1130 

5 

1 

164. 

Innocent  II  

Rome    

.   1130 

1143 

13 

7 

165. 

Celestine  II  

Tuscany  

.   1143 

1144 

0 

5 

166. 

Lucius  II  

Bologna   

.    1144 

1145 

0 

11 

167. 

BL  Eugene  III  

Pisa  

.    1145 

1153 

8 

4 

168. 

Anastasius  IV  

Rome    

.   1153 

1154 

1 

4 

169. 

Adrian  IV  

England   

.  1154 

1159 

4 

8 

170. 

Alexander  III  

Siena    

.   1159 

1181 

21 

11 

171. 

Lucius  III  

Lucca   

.   1181 

1185 

4 

2 

172. 

Urban  III   

Milan    

-  1185 

1187 

1 

10 

173. 

Gregory  VIII  

Benevento   

.   1187 

1187 

0 

1 

174. 

Clement  III   

Rome    

.  1187 

1191 

3 

3 

175. 

Celestine  III   

Rome    

.   1191 

1198 

6 

9 

176. 

Innocent  III  

Anagni    

.   1198 

1216 

18 

6 

177. 

Honorius  III   

Rome    

.   1216 

1227 

10 

8 

178. 

Gregory  IX   

Anagni   

.   1227 

1241 

14 

5 

179. 

Celestine  IV  

Milan    

.   1241 

1241 

0 

0 

180. 

Innocent  IV  

Genoa   

.  1243 

1254 

11 

5 

181. 

Alexander  IV   

Anagni   

.   1254 

1261 

6 

5 

182. 

Urban  IV   

Troyes    

.   1261 

1264 

3 

1 

183. 

Clement  IV   

Saint-Gilles   

.   1265 

1268 

3 

9 

184. 

BL  Gregory  X  

Piacenza    

.   1271 

1276 

4 

4 

185. 

BL  Innocent  V  

Savoy   

.   1276 

1276 

0 

5 

186. 

Adrian  V    

Genoa  

.   1276 

1276 

0 

1 

187. 

John  XIX,  XX,  or  XXI  

Lisbon    

,   1276 

1277 

0 

8 

188. 

Nicholas  III  

Rome    

.   1277 

1280 

2 

8 

189. 

Martin  IV  (or  II)    

Brie    

.   1281 

1285 

4 

1 

190. 

Honorius  IV    

Rome    

.   1285 

1287 

2 

0 

191. 

Nicholas  IV  

Ascoli   

.   1288 

1292 

4 

1 

192. 

St.  Celestine  V  (abd.  1294). 

Isernia   

.   1294 

1296 

0 

5 

193. 

Boniface  VIII   

Anagni    

.   1294 

1303 

8 

9 

194. 

Bl.  Benedict  X  or  XI  

Treviso    

.   1303 

1304 

0 

8 

195. 

Clement  V  (to  Avignon)  .  .  . 

Guascogna  

.  1305 

1314 

8 

10 

196. 

John  XX,  XXI,  or  XXII  .  .  , 

Cahors   

.  1316 

1334 

18 

3 

197. 

Benedict  XI  or  XII  

Tolosa    

.   1334 

1342 

7 

4 

198. 

Clement  VI   

Limoges  

,   1342 

1352 

10 

6 

199. 

Innocent  VI  

Limoges  

1352 

1362 

9 

8 

200. 

BL  Urban  V  

Mende    

-  1362 

1370 

8 

1 

201. 

Gregory  XI  (retd.  to  Rome) 

Limoges   

,   1370 

1378 

7 

?, 

202. 

Urban  VI  

Naples    

1378 

1389 

11 

6 

203. 

Boniface  IX  

Naples    

1389 

1404 

14 

11 

204. 

Innocent  VII  

Sulmona    

1404 

1406 

2 

0 

205. 

Gregory  XII  (res.  1409)    .  .  . 

Venice    

1406 

1417 

2 

6 

206. 

Alexander  V   

Island  of  Candia. 

.   1409 

1410 

0 

10 

207, 

John  XXII,  XXIII,  or  XXIV 

(res.  1415)   

Naples    

1410 

1419 

5 

0 

54 


Date  of 

Duration 
of  Pon- 

Acces- 

Date of 

tificate 

Name 

Birthplace 

sion 

Death 

Yr. 

Mo. 

208. 

Martin  V  (or  III)   

Rome    

1417 

1431 

13 

3 

209. 

Eugene  IV   

Venice    

1431 

1447 

15 

11 

210. 

Nicholas  V  

Sarzana    

1447 

1455 

8 

0 

211. 

Callistus  III  

Valencia    

1455 

1458 

3 

3 

212. 

Pius  II  

Siena    

1458 

1464 

5 

11 

213. 

Paul  II  

Venice    

1464 

1471 

6 

10 

214. 

Sixtus  IV   

Savona   

1471 

1484 

13 

0 

215. 

Innocent  VIII    

Genoa   

1484 

1492 

7 

10 

216. 

Alexander  VI    

Valencia     

1492 

1503 

11 

0 

217. 

Pius  III  

Siena    

1503 

1503 

0 

0 

218. 

Julius  II   

Savona    

1503 

1513 

9 

3 

219. 

Leo  X   

Florence    

1513 

1521 

8 

8 

220. 

Adrian  VI    

Utrecht    

1522 

1523 

1 

8 

221. 

Clement  VII  

Florence    

1523 

1534 

10 

10 

222. 

Paul  III  

Rome    

1534 

1549 

15 

0 

223. 

Julius  III   

Monte  San  Savino 

1550 

1555 

5 

1 

224. 

Marcellus  II    

Montepulciano   .  .  . 

1555 

1555 

0 

0 

225. 

Paul  IV  

Naples    

1555 

1559 

4 

2 

226. 

Pius  IV  

Milan    

1559 

1565 

5 

11 

227. 

St.  Pius  V  

Bosco    

1566 

1572 

6 

3 

228. 

Gregory  XIII  

Bologna    

1572 

1585 

12 

10 

229. 

Sixtus  V  

Grottammare    

1585 

1590 

5 

4 

230. 

Urban  VII    

Rome    

1590 

1590 

0 

0 

231. 

Gregory  XIV  

Cremona    

1590 

1591 

0 

10 

232. 

Innocent  IX  

Bologna   

1591 

1591 

0 

2 

233. 

Clement  VIII  

Florence    

1592 

1605 

13 

1 

234. 

Leo  XI   

Florence    

1605 

1605 

0 

0 

235. 

Paul  V  

Rome    

1605 

1621 

15 

8 

236. 

Gregory   XV    

Bologna   

1621 

1623 

2 

5 

237. 

Urban  VIII    

Florence    

1623 

1644 

20 

11 

238. 

Innocent  X  

Rome    

1644 

1655 

10 

3 

239. 

Alexander  VII  

Siena    

1655 

1667 

12 

1 

240. 

Clement  IX  

Pistoia   

1667 

1669 

2 

5 

241. 

Clement  X  

Rome    

1670 

1676 

6 

2 

242. 

Innocent  XI  

Como    

1676 

1689 

12 

10 

243. 

Alexander  VIII  

Venice    

1689 

1691 

1 

3 

244. 

Innocent  XII   

Naples    

1691 

1700 

9 

2 

245. 

Clement  XI   

Urbino   

1700 

1721 

20 

3 

246. 

Innocent  XIII   

,  Rome    

1721 

1724 

2 

9 

247. 

Benedict  XIII  

Naples    

1724 

1730 

5 

8 

248. 

Clement  XII  

,  Florence    

1730 

1740 

9 

6 

249. 

Benedict  XIV  

Bologna    

1740 

1758 

17 

8 

250. 

Clement  XIII  

Venice    

1758 

1769 

10 

6 

251. 

Clement  XIV  

Sant'    Arcangelo  .  . 

1769 

1774 

5 

4 

252. 

Pius  VI  

Cesena   

1775 

1799 

24 

6 

253. 

Pius  VII   

,  Cesena   

1800 

1823 

23 

5 

254. 

Leo  XII  

Spoleto  

1823 

1829 

5 

4 

255. 

Pius  VIII   

Cingoli   

1829 

1830 

1 

8 

256. 

Gregory  XVI   

Belluno     

1831 

1846 

15 

3 

257. 

Pius  IX  

Senigallia    

1846 

1878 

31 

7 

258. 

Leo  XIII  

Carpineto    

1878 

1903 

25 

5 

259. 

Pius   X    

Riese    

1903 

1914 

11 

0 

260. 

Benedict  XV   

Genoa  

1914 

1922 

7 

4 

261. 

Pius  XI  

Desio  

1922 

1939 

17 

0 

262. 

Pius  XII   

Rome    

1939 

55 

of  tfje  Catfjoltc  Cfjutcf) 


The  hierarchy  is  the  governing  body  of  the  Church.  It  consists  of  the 
Pope,  the  College  of  Cardinals,  the  Sacred  Congregations,  the  Patriarchs, 
Archbishops  and  Bishops,  the  Apostolic  Delegates,  Vicars  and  Prefects, 
certain  Abbots  and  other  prelates. 

THE  POPE 

His  Holiness  the  Pope  is  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  Vicar  of  Jesus  Christ, 
Successor  of  St.  Peter,  the  Prince  of  the  Apostles,  Supreme  Pontiff  of 
the  Universal  Church,  Patriarch  of  the  West,  Primate  of  Italy,  Arch- 
bishop and  Metropolitan  of  the  Roman  Province,  Sovereign  of  the  tempo- 
ral dominions  of  the  Holy  Roman  Church,  and  Sovereign  of  Vatican  City. 

PROTHONOTOR1ES  APOSTOLIC 

Prothonotaries  Apostolic  are  members  of  the  chief  order  of  prelates 
in  the  Roman  Curia.  They  are  divided  into  four  classes: 

(1)  Prothonotaries  Apostolic  de  numero  participantium,  so  called  be- 
cause they  share  in  the  revenues  of  the  papal  chancery;  they  sign  the 
Papal  Bulls,  aid  in  the  work  of  the  consistories  and  in  the  process  of 
canonizations  and  examinations  of  candidates,  enjoy  the  use  of  pontifi- 
cals and  have  many  other  privileges. 

(2)  Prothonotaries  Apostolic  Supernumerary,  limited  to  the  canons  of 
the  Roman  patriarchal  Basilicas  of  St.  Peter,  the  Lateran  and  St.  Mary 
Major  and  the  cathedral  churches  of  Concordia,  Florence,  Goritz,  Padua, 
Treviso,  Udine,  Venice,  Cagliari,  Malta  and  Strigonia,  who  have  been 
made  domestic  prelates  by  the  Pope. 

(3)  Prothonotaries  Apostolic  ad  instar  (participantium),  who  are  ap- 
pointed by  the  Pope  and  are  entitled  to  the  same  external  insignia  as 
Class  1, 

(4)  Prothonotaries  Apostolic  Titular  or  Honorary,  who  receive  the  dig- 
nity as  a  special  privilege. 

PAPAL  LEGATES 

Legates  a  latere  —  Cardinals  appointed  by  the  Pope  to  represent  him 
at  specific  functions  usually  of  national  importance.  All  legates  do  not 
bear  this  title,  as  in  the  case  of  a  cardinal  sent  as  papal  representative 
to  a  Eucharistic  Congress. 

Nuncios  —  Representatives  of  the  Pope  at  a  foreign  government  whose 
duty  it  is  to  handle  the  affairs  between  the  Apostolic  See  and  the  State. 
In  Catholic  countries,  the  Nuncio  is  dean  of  the  diplomatic  corps.  They 
are  usually  titular  archbishops;  occasionally  bishops  or  archbishops  with 
a  residential  see. 

Internuncios  —  Legates  of  lower  rank  than  the  Nuncios  whose  duty 
it  is  to  foster  relations  between  the  Holy  See  and  the  State.  They  are 
sent  to  governments  of  lesser  importance. 

Apostolic  Delegates  —  Non-diplomatic  legates  sent  to  foreign  countries 
to  watch  over  the  conditions  of  the  Church  in  the  State. 

56 


THE   COLLEGE  OF  CARDINALS 

The  College  of  Cardinals  is  the  Senate  of  the  Church.  The  Cardinals 
act  as  advisers  to  the  Pope  and  elect  his  successor.  When  complete  the 
Sacred  College  numbers  70  members  of  whom  6  are  cardinal-bishops,  50 
are  cardinal-priests  and  14  are  cardinal-deacons.  The  following  is  a  list 
of  the  present  College  of  Cardinals: 


Year  of 
Birth 

Year  of 
Creation 

Name 

Office  or  Dignity 

Nationality 

IS1)! 

1863 

1871 
1871 

1870 
1861 

1859 
1872 
1859 
1869 

1865 
1868 
1872 

1865 

1874 
1881 

1880 
1884 
1880 
1888 
1874 
1861 

1911 

1916 

1925 
1930 

W3 
1935 

1911 
1916 
1916 
1921 

1921 
1921 
1923 

1925 

1927 
1927 

1927 
1927 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 

CARDINAL-BISHOPS 

Gennaro   Gianito  Pignatelli   di 
Belmonte         

Bishop    of    Ostia    and    Albano  , 
Dean   of  the   College   of   Car- 
dinals ;  Prefect  of  the  Congre- 

Italian 

Italian 
Italian 

[tali  an 
Italian 
Italian 

American 
Italian 
German 

German 
American 
Spanish 

Italian 

Italian 
Belgian 

Polish 
Spanish 

Hungarian 
Italian 
Portuguese 
Italian 
Irish 

Tommaso  Pio  Boggfani,    O.  P. 
Enrico  Gasparri                 

Bishop  of   Poito   and   Santa  Ru- 
fina  ;   Chancellor    of   the   Holy 
See                

Bishop    of    Velletri  ;    Prefect    of 
the  Apostolic  Signature    .    .    . 

Bishop   of   Frascati  ;   Vicar   Gen- 
eral   of    His    Holiness  ;    Arch- 
priest    of   the    Patriarchal    Ba- 
silica of  the  Lateian,  Secretary 
of    the    Congregation    of    the 

Francesco  Maichetti-Selvaggiani 
Carlo  Salotti            

Bishop  of  Paiestrina;   Prefect  of 

Enrico   Sibilia    

Bishop    of    Sabina    and    Poggio 
Mirteto    

CARDINAL-PRIESTS 

William  O'Connell    

Aichbishop  of  Boston  
Archbishop  of  Naples      
Archbishop  of  Breslau    .... 

Archbishop    of    Munich    and 
Frcising      ••       

Alessio   Ascelesi        
Adolf   Beitram    

Michael   von    de   Fauthaber... 
Dennis  J    Dougherty     ,  ,  

Archbishop  of  Philadelphia   .  , 
Archbishop  of  Tarragona   .  .    . 

Archbishop  of  Bologna  

Francisco  Vidal  y  Barraquer.  . 
Giovanni   B.   Nasalli-Rocca   di 
Corneliano 

Alessandro  Verde   .        ..... 

Aichpriest    of    Liberian    Patriar- 
chal    Basilica     of    St.     Mary 

Joseph  Ernest  Van  Roey  
Auguste  Hlond    S   S.    .      .... 

lines 

Archbishop  of  G  n  e  i  s  e  n   and 

Justinian  Seredi,  O.  S.  B  
Ildefonso  Schuster,  O.  S.  B. 
Manuel    Goncalves    Cerejeiia.  . 

Archbishop   of   Strigonia    
Archbishop  of  Miilan         

Pitriarch   of  Lisbon      

Archbishop  of  Palermo  

Archbishop  of  Armagh  

57 


Yearo 
Birth 

Year  o 
Creation 

Name 

Office  or  Dignity 

Nationality 

1882 

1930 

Sebastuino    Leme    da    Silvein 
Cintra    

Archbishop  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Brazilian 

1876 
1884 

1930 
1930 

Raffaelo  Carlo  Rossi,  O.  C.  D 
Achilles  Lienart 

Secretary     of     the     Consistoria 
Congiegation  ,    Camerlengo    o 
the  College  ot  Catdmals    . 

Italian 

1872 
1873 

1933 
1933 

Pietro    Fumasont-Biondi 
Fedenco  Tedeschim   

Piefect  of  the  Congregation   fo 
the   Propagation   ot    the   Fait 
Aichpriest    of    Vatican    Basilica 
Piefect  of  the  Congiegation  o 
Basilica  of  St    Peter;  Apostoli 
Datary    

Italian 

1876 

1933 

Maurilio  Fossati   

Archbishop  of  Tuiin 

1883 

1872 

1933 
1933 

Rodiigue  Villeneuve,   O.  M.  I 
Elias  dalla  Costa   . 

Archbishop   of  Quebec 

Canadian 

1875 
1879 
1876 

1933 
1935 

1935 

Theodoie   Inmtzei 
Ignatius  Tappouni 
Francesco   Marmaggt 

Archbishop   of  Vienna    . 
Synan  Patnaich  of  Antioch 

Piefctt    of    the    Congregation    o 
the  Council 

Austrian 
irakian 

1877 
1866 

1935 
1935 

Luigi  Maglione   
Carlo  Cremonesi 

Piefect    of   Congregation   of   Ex 
tiaoidinaiy    Ecclesiastical    Af 
fans  ;  Secretary  of  State  

talian 

1859 

1935 

Alfred  Baudiiilart,  Cong.  Orat 

Rector    of   Catholic    Institute    o 
Paris    

1874 
1880 
1871 
1884 

1884 

1935 
1935 

1935 
1936 

1937 

irnmanuel   Suhard 
Diego   Copello    .    . 
Pietro  Boetto,   S.  J.    , 
iiugene  Tisserant    . 

Adeodato      Giovanni      Piazza, 
0.  C.  D  

Archbishop  of  Pans    .... 
Aichbishop  of  Buenos  Aues.  .  . 
Aichbishop  of  Genoa   

Secietaiy    of    the    Congregation 
for  the  Oriental  Church   .  .    . 

French 
Argentine 

Italian 

Fiench 

1876 

1937 

Ermenegddo   Pellegrinctti    .... 

talian 

1865 
1877 

1880 

1937 
1937 

1937 

Aithur  Hmsley         .        ... 
Giuseppe  Pizzardo 

Pienc  Mane  Gerlier    

Aichbishop  of  Westminster  ,  .  , 

defect  of  Congregation  of  Semi- 
naries and   Umveisities  ,   Piesi- 
dent  of  Catholic  Action   .  . 

Archbishop  of  Lyons 

Inglish 
talian 

1877 

1935 

CARDINAL-DEACONS 

Camillo    Caccia    Dominion!. 

talian 

1874 

1935 

Micola  Canali   

Giand  Penitcntiaiy  ;  Ptestdent  oi 
the  Commission  chatged  with 
the  Administration  ot  Vatican 

Qty     .  .                          

talian 

1867 

1935 

Domenico   Jorio    

•^refect   of   the   Congregation    of 

the    Sacraments    

.  I  . 

1874 

1935 

Vincenzo  La  Puma 

Pi  efect   of   the   Congregation    of 

Religious    

1856 

1935 

ederico  Cattani    

1877 
1866 

1935 
1936 

[assimo   Massirm      .    . 
jriovanni  Mercati   ... 

^resident  of  the  Commission  on 
the  Authentic  Interpretation  oi 
the  Code  of  Canon  Law  .... 
Librarian    and    Archivist   of   the 

talian 

Holy  Roman  Church   

alian 

58 


THE  ROMAN  CURIA 

The  Pope  Is  the  Supreme  Head  of  the  Church,  possessing  full  and 
absolute  jurisdiction  in  the  governmental  affairs  of  the  Church.  Since, 
however,  it  is  practically  impossible  for  him  to  exercise  this  ordinary 
authority  immediately  over  the  whole,  universal  Church,  the  Popes  have 
found  it  necessary  to  establish  various  groups  of  churchmen  to  whom 
they  delegate  part  of  their  jurisdiction  to  be  exercised  by  them.  These 
various  bodies  constitute  the  Roman  Curia  which,  at  present,  according 
to  the  recent  reform  of  Pius  X,  consists  of  twelve  Congregations,  three 
Tribunals,  and  five  Offices. 

Congregations 

Congregation  of  the  Holy  Office 
Prefect:  His  Holiness,  the  Pope. 

Secretary:    Francesco  Cardinal  Marchetti-Selvaggiani. 

Assessor:  Msgr.  Alfred  Ottaviani. 
Commissary:  Very  Rev.  John  Lottini,  O.  P. 
Office:    Palazzo  del  S.  Officio. 

Duties:  Guards  the  Catholic  doctrine  in  faith  and  morals;  judges 
heresy  and  those  suspected  of  heresy;  protects  the  dogmatic  doctrine 
of  the  sacraments;  decides  in  matters  concerning  the  Eucharistic  fast  of 
priests  celebrating  Mass;  in  matters  concerning  the  Pauline  privilege, 
the  marriage  impediments  of  disparity  of  cult  and  mixed  religion,  and  is 
able  to  grant  dispensations  from  these  two  impediments;  examines  and 
condemns  books  and  gives  dispensations  for  reading  condemned  books; 
judges  all  questions  pertaining  to  the  dogmatic  doctrine  of  indulgences, 
new  prayers,  and  devotions. 
Consistorial  Congregation 

Prefect:   His  Holiness,  the  Pope. 

Secretary:   Raffaelo  Charles  Cardinal  Rossi,  O.  C.  D. 

Assessor:  Msgr.  Vincent  Santoro. 

Office:      Palazzo  della  Congregazioni,  Piazza  S.  Callisto. 

Duties:  Prepares  matter  to  be  discussed  at  consistories;  constitutes 
new  dioceses,  provinces,  and  cathedral  chapters  for  all  territories  not 
subject  to  the  Propagation  of  the  Faith;  divides  dioceses;  proposes 
bishops,  apostolic  administrators,  coadjutors,  and  auxiliary  bishops; 
makes  the  canonical  inquiry  of  those  to  be  promoted  and  carefully  ex- 
amines their  records  and  tries  their  doctrine;  all  that  pertains  to  the 
founding,  preservation,  and  condition  of  dioceses  belongs  to  this  Con- 
gregation; receives  and  examines  the  reports  of  bishops;  provides  for 
apostolic  visitation  and  examines  the  results;  decides  the  competency 
of  all  the  Congregations  other  than  the  Holy  Office;  provides  for  the 
spiritual  care  of  emigrants. 
Congregation  for  the  Oriental  Church 

Prefect:  His  Holiness,  the  Pope. 

Secretary:  Eugene  Cardinal  Tisserant. 

Assessor;  "Most  Hev.  Antonio  Arata. 
Office:  Palazzo  di  Convertendi. 

Duties:    All  matters  of  whatever  kind  which  pertain  to  the  discipline, 
the  persons,  or  the  rites  of  the  Eastern  Church,  as  also  mixed  questions 
either  of  persons  or  things  which  arise  owing  to  the  relation  to  the 
Latin  Church,  constitute  the  object  of  this  Congregation's  care. 
Congregation  of  the  Sacraments 

Prefect:  Domenico  Cardinal  Jorio. 

Secretary:  Msgr.  Francis  Bracci. 
Office:     Palazzo  della  Congregazioni,  Piazza  S.  Callisto. 

59 


Duties:  Regulates  the  discipline  of  the  seven  sacrampnts  gives  de- 
crees and  dispensations  Regarding  all  sacraments,  except  in  matters 
which  belong  to  the  Congregation  of  the  Holy  Office  or  of  Rites;  probes 
reasons  for  dispensations;  receives  and  answers  questions  regarding  the 
validity  of  Orders  or  Matrimony. 
Congregation  of  the  Council 

Prefect;    Francesco  Cardinal  Marmaggi. 

Secretary:  Msgr.  Joseph  Bruno. 

Office:     Palazzo  della  Congregazioni,  Piazza  S.  Callisto. 

Duties:  Has  authority  over  the  discipline  of  the  secular  clergy  and 
laymen.  Takes  care  that  the  precepts  are  observed  and  grants  dispensa- 
tions when  necessary.  Oversees  matters  concerning  canons  and  parish 
priests,  pious  sodalities,  unions  (even  though  these  may  be  founded  by 
religious,  be  under  their  direction,  or  in  their  parishes,  or  attached  to 
their  houses),  pious  legacies,  work,  Mass  stipends,  benefices,  and  offices, 
ecclesiastical  goods,  both  movable  and  immovable,  diocesan  taxes,  taxes 
of  the  Episcopal  Curia,  etc.;  has  power  to  dispense  from  the  conditions 
for  obtaining  a  benefice;  to  permit  laymen  to  acQuire  ecclesiastical 
goods,  usurped  by  the  civil  power.  Deals  with  immunities.  Prepares 
matters  for  the  celebration  of  episcopal  councils  or  conferences  and 
recognizes  the  proceedings. 
Congregation  of  Religious 

Prefect:  Vincenzo  Cardinal  La  Puma. 

Secretary:  Most  Rev.  Luke  Ermenegild  Pasetto,  O.  M.  Cap.,  Titular  Arch- 
bishop of  Iconio. 
Office:      Palazzo  della  Congregazioni,  Piazza  S.  Callisto. 

Duties:    Has  jurisdiction  over  the  government,  discipline,  studies,  prop- 
erty, and  privileges  of  all  religious,  including  lay  members  of  Third 
Orders;  gives  dispensations  to  religious  from  the  common  law. 
Congregation  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Faith 

Prefect:   Pietro  Cardinal  Pumasoni-Biondi. 

Secretary:  Most  Rev.  Celsus  Constantini,  D.  B.,  Titular  Archbishop  of 

Theodosia. 
Office:    Palazzo  di  Propaganda,  Piazza  di  Spagna. 

Duties:  Entrusted  with  the  care  of  all  mission  territory  —  those  places 
where  no  hierarchy  is  established,  or  if  established,  is  still  in  its  in- 
cipient stages;  constitutes  and  changes  priests  subject  to  it;  has  the 
power  to  judge  and  to  act  in  all  things  coming  within  its  scope  and 
which  it  considers  necessary  and  opportune;  arranges  for  the  celebra- 
tion of  councils  in  districts  tinder  its  jurisdiction;  approves  the  pro- 
ceedings. Societies  and  Seminaries  founded  to  train  missionaries  are 
under  the  supervision  of  this  Congregation. 
Congregation  of  Sacred  Rites 

Prefect:  Carlo  Cardinal  Salotti. 

Secretary:  Msgr.  Alphonse  Carinci. 
Office:  Palazzo  della  Congregazioni,  Piazza  S.  Callisto. 

Duties:  Supervises  and  determines  all  things  which  pertain  to  cere- 
monies and  rites  in  the  Latin  Church;  grants  dispensations  in  such 
matters;  gives  insignia  and  privileges  of  honor;  treats  of  all  business 
concerning  the  beatification  and  canonization  of  the  Servants  of  God  or 
concerning  the  relics  of  these  same;  to  this  Congregation  are  joined  the 
Liturgical  Commission,  the  Historico-Liturgical  Commission,  and  the 
Commission  for  Sacred  Music. 
Congregation  of  Ceremonies 

Prefect:  Gennaro  Cardinal  Granito  Pignatelli  di  Belmonte. 

60 


Secretary:  Msgr.  Benjamin  Nardone. 
Office:    Palazzo  Apostolico  Vaticano. 

Duties:    Regulates  ceremonies  in  the  papal  chapel  and  court  and  the 
sacred  functions  which  the  cardinals  perform  outside  the  papal  chapel; 
decides  questions  of  the  precedence  of  cardinals  and  legates  whom  the 
various  nations  send  to  the  Holy  See. 
Congregation  of  Extraordinary  EccIesiasticaS  Affairs 

Prefect:  Luigi  Cardinal  Maglione. 

Secretary:  Msgr.  Dominic  Tardini. 
Office:  Palazzo  Apostolico  Vaticano. 

Duties:  Constitutes  and  divides  dioceses,  promotes  suitable  men  for 
vacant  sees,  whenever  these  affairs  must  be  settled  in  conjunction  with 
civil  powers;  handles  matters  referred  to  it  by  the  Holy  Father  through 
the  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State,  especially  concordats  and  those  matters 
which  have  a  relation  to  the  civil  laws. 
Congregation  of  Seminaries  and  Universities 

Prefect:    Giuseppe  Cardinal  Pizzardo. 

Secretary:   Msgr.   Ernest  Ruffini. 

Office:   Palazzo  di  S.  Callisto,  Rome. 

Duties:  Superintends  all  those  matters  which  pertain  to  the  govern- 
ment, discipline,  temporal  administration,  and  studies  of  seminaries;  to 
it  also  is  committed  the  direction  of  the  government  and  studies  in 
universities  depending  on  the  authority  of  the  Church,  even  those  directed 
by  religious;  examines  and  approves  new  constitutions;  confers  academic 
degrees  and  grants  the  faculty  and  establishes  norms  for  the  con- 
ferring of  these. 
Congregation  of  the  Basilica  of  St.  Peter 

Prefect:     Pederico  Cardinal  Tedeschini. 

Secretary:  Msgr.  Ludwig  Kaas. 
Office:    Vatican  City. 

Duties:  The  care  of  business  pertaining  to  the  building  and  the  upkeep 
of  the  Basilica  of  St.  Peter. 

Tribunals 
Sacred  Penitentiary 

Grand  Penitentiary:  Nicola  Cardinal  Canali. 
Office:    Palazzo  del  S.   Officio. 

Duties:  Jurisdiction  to  judge  all  cases  of  conscience,  non-sacramental 
as  well  as  sacramental;  also  decides  questions  concerning  the  use  and 
concession  of  indulgences,  without  however  encroaching  on  the  rights 
of  the  Holy  Office  as  to  the  dogmatic  doctrine  involved  in  these  or  in 
new  prayers  and  devotions. 
Sacred  Roman  Rota 

Dean:  Msgr.  Julius  Grazioli. 
Office:    Palazzo  della  Dataria. 

Duties:  Handles  cases  demanding  judicial  procedure,  without  preju- 
dice to  the  rights  of  the  Holy  Office  or  the  Congregation  of  Sacred  Rites. 
Apostolic  Signature 

Prefect:  Henry  Cardinal  Gasparri. 

Secretary:  Msgr.  Francis  Morano. 
Office:    Palazzo  della  Dataria. 

Duties:  The  supreme  tribunal  of  the  Roman  Curia;  handles  all  cases 
of  appeal;  settles  controversies  as  to  the  jurisdiction  of  the  inferior 
tribunals. 

61 


Offices 
Apostolic  Chancery 

Chancellor:  Tommaso  Pio  Cardinal  Boggiani,  O.  P. 

"Regent:  Msgr.  Vincent  Bianchi-Cagliesi. 

Office:    Palazzo  della  Cancellaria  Apostolica. 

Duties:   Sends  out  Apostolic  Letters  and  Bulls  concerning  the  provision 
of  consistorial  offices  and  benefices,  the  establishment  of  new  dioceses, 
provinces,  and  chapters,  and  other  affairs  of  major  importance. 
Apostolic  Datary 

Datary:  Federico  Cardinal  Tedeschini. 

Regent:  Msgr.  Joseph  Guerri. 
Office:    Palazzo  della  Dataria. 

Duties:  Should  have  knowledge  of  the  suitability  of  candidates  to  be 
promoted  to  non-consistorial  benefices;  sends  letters  of  appointment  to 
such  candidates;  sends  dispensations  from  conditions  required  for  these 
benefices;  exacts  the  tax  imposed  by  the  Holy  Father  in  conferring  these 
benefices. 
Apostolic  Camera 

Chamberlain  of  the  Holy  "Roman  Church: 

Vice-Chamberlain:   Most  Rev.  Tito  Trocchi,  Titular  Archbishop  of  Lace- 
demonia. 

Auditor:  Most  Rev.  John  Vallega,  Titular  Archbishop  of  Nicopolis  in  Bpiro. 

Duties:  Has  the  care  and  administration  of  the  temporal  goods  and 
rights  of  the  Holy  See,  especially  when  it  is  vacant. 
Secretariate  of  State 

Secretary  of  State:  Luigi  Cardinal  Maglione. 

Secretary   for   Extraordinary   Affairs:    Msgr.  Dominic  Tardini. 

Under-Secretory:  Msgr.  John  B.  Montini. 

Chancellor  of  Apostolic  Briefs:   Msgr.  Dominic  Spada. 
Office:    Palazzo  Apostolica  Vaticano. 

Duties:  Prepares  matters  to  be  brought  up  before  the  Congregation  of 
Extraordinary  Ecclesiastical  Affairs.    Sends  out  Apostolic  Briefs. 
Secretariate  of  Briefs  to  Princes  and  Latin   Letters 

Secretary  of  Briefs  to  Princes:  Msgr.  Antony  Bacci. 

Secretary  of  Latin  Letters:    Msgr.  Angelus  Perugini. 
Office:   Palazzo  Apostolico  Vaticano. 

Duties:   To  transcribe  in  Latin  the  acts  of  the  Supreme  Pontiff,  which 
have  been  committed  to  it  by  him. 


PATRIARCHS 

Patriarchs  are  the  highest  ecclesiastical  dignitaries  after  the  Pope. 
In  the  early  Church  patriarchal  rights  were  acceded  only  to  the  Bishops 
of  Rome,  Alexandria  and  Antioch.  Jerusalem  rose  to  importance  when 
pilgrims  began  to  flock  to  the  Holy  City  and  the  Council  of  Chalcedon 
(451)  cut  away  Palestine  and  Arabia  from  Antioch  oand  formed  the 
Patriarchate  of  Jerusalem.  Constantine  having  made  Byzantium  "New 
Rome,"  Constantinople  was  also  raised  to  patriarchal  rank  by  the  Council 
of  Chalcedon. 

There  are  now  five  major  patriarchates.  The  Pope  as  Bishop  of  Rome 
is  Patriarch  of  all  the  western  Church.  In  the  eastern  Church  there  are 
Patriarchs  of  Constantinople,  Alexandria,  Antioch  and  Jerusalem.  The 
Latin  Patriarchs  of  Constantinople,  Alexandria  and  Antioch  are  now 
merely  titular.  The  Latin  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem  has  jurisdiction  over 

62 


Palestine  and  Cyprus.  The  Coptic  Patriarch  of  Alexandria  and  the  Syrian, 
Maronite  and  Meichite  Patriarchs  of  Antioch  rule  over  Uniat  Catholics 
of  their  respective  Rites. 

Minor  Patriarchs  in  the  East  are  the  Patriarch  of  Babylon  for  the 
Chaldees  and  the  Patriarch  of  Cilicia  for  the  Armenians. 

Minor  Patriarchs  in  the  West  are  merely  titular.  They  bear  the  titles 
of  Patriarchs  of  the  West  Indies,  the  East  Indies,  Lisbon  and  Venice. 

The  Patriarchs  are  as  follows: 
Patriarchate  Rite  Patriarch 

Date  of 

~        ,      ,.        ,  Election 

Constantinople, 

Turkey Latin Antonio  A.  Rossi  1927 

Alexandria,  Egypt  Latin Paul  de  Huyn   1921 

Coptic Marco  Khouzam,  Bp.  of  Thebes, 

Apostolic  Administrator  . . .  1926 

Antioch,  Syria Syrian Ignazio  Cardinal  Tappouni.   .  1929 

Maronite Anton  Arida  1932 

Latin Roberto  Vicentini  1925 

Meichite Cyril  IX  Mogabgab 1925 

Jerusalem, 

Palestine Latin Luigi  Barlassina   1920 

Babylon,  Iraq Chaldean Joseph  E.  Thomas   1900 

Cilicia,  Turkey. . .  .Armenian Gregory  Peter  XV 

Agagianian    1937 

West  Indies Latin Vacant    

East  Indies Latin Teotonio  E.  R.  Vieira  de 

Castro,  Abp.  of  Goa 1929 

Lisbon,  Portugal  .  .Latin Emanuele  Goncalves 

Cardinal  Cerejeira   1929 

Venice,  Italy Latin Adeodato  Giovanni  Cardinal 

Piazza,  O.  C.  D 1935 

APOSTOLIC  DELEGATES  TO  THE  UNITED  STATES 

An  Apostolic  Delegate  enjoys  precedence  over  all  ordinaries  in  his 
territory  except  cardinals.  There  have  been  six  Apostolic  Delegates  to 
the  United  States: 

His  Eminence  Francis  Cardinal  Satolli 1893-1896 

His  Eminence  Sebastian  Cardinal  Martinelli,  O.S.A.  1896-1902 
His  Eminence  Diomede  Cardinal  Falconio,  O.F.M.  1902-1911 

His  Eminence  John  Cardinal  Bonzano 1911-1922 

His  Eminence  Pietro  Cardinal  Fumasoni-Biondi 1922-1933 

His  Excellency  Most  Rev.  Amleto  Giovanni 

Cicognani,  Titular  Archbishop  of  Laodicea 1933- 

His  Excellency  Most  Rev.  Amleto  Giovanni  Cicognani  was  born  in 
Brisighella,  Province  of  Ravenna,  Italy,  February  24,  1883.  He  was  or- 
dained priest  at  Faenza,  on  September  23,  1905.  Appointed  Under  Sec- 
retary of  the  Consistorial  Congregation,  December  16,  1922,  he  was 
elevated  to  Domestic  Prelate,  May  19,  1923,  and  was  successively  ap- 
pointed Assessor  of  the  Congregation  for  the  Oriental  Church,  February 
16,  1928,  Secretary  of  the  Commission  for  the  Codification  of  Oriental 
Law,  December  2,  1929,  and  Apostolic  Delegate  to  the  United  States, 
March  17,  1933.  He  was  consecrated  Titular  Archbishop  of  Laodicea 
on  April  23,  1933,  in  Rome.  He  resides  at  3339  Massachusetts  Ave.,  N.  W., 
Washington,  D.  C. 

63 


APOSTOLIC  NUNCIOS,  INTEBNUNCSO®  AND  CHARGES  D'AFFAIRES 
Post  Name  Rank 

Argentina 
Buenos  Aires Most  Rev.  Joseph  Fietta Nuncio 

Belgiumf 
Brussels    Most  Rev.  Clement  Micara   Nuncio 

Bolivia 
La  Paz    Most  Rev.  Egidio  L»ari  Nuncio 

Brazil 
Rio  de  Janeiro  Most  Rev.  Benedict  Aloisi  Masella Nuncio 

Chile 
Santiago    Most  Rev.  Aldo  Laghi   Nuncio 

Colombia 
Bogota  Most  Rev.  Charles  Serena Nuncio 

Costa  Rica 
San  Jose Most  Rev.  Charles  Chiarlo Nuncio 

Havana  .Most  Rev.  George  Caruana Nuncio 

Ecuador  _ 

Quito Moat  Rev.  Efrera  Forai Nuncio 

France 
Paris  and  Vichy Most  Rev.  Valerio  Valeri Nuncio 

Germany 
Berlin Most  Rev.  Caesar  Orsenigo  Nuncio 

Guatemala 
Guatemala    Most  Rev.  Joseph  Beltrami Nuncio 

Haiti 
Port  au  Prince  Marius  Geronazzo Charge  d*  Affaires 

Honduras 
Tegucigalpa Most  Rev.  Frederico  Lninardi Nuncio 

Hungary 
Budapest Most  Rev.  Angelus  Rotta Nuncio 

Ireland 
Dublin   Most  Rev.  Pascal  Robinson,  (X  F.  M.  . .  .Nuncio 

Italy 
Home   Most  Rev.  Francis  Borgongini-Duca Nuncio 

Liberia 

Monrovia Most  Rev.  John  Collins,  S.  M.  A Charge 

d'Affaires 

Lithuania 
Kaunas Most  Rev.  Luigi  Centoz  Nuncio 

Luxemburgf 
Brussels,  Belgium Most  Rev,  Clement  Micara  Internunclo 

Netherlands! 
The  Hague Most  Rev.  Paul  Giobbe Interumcio 

Nicaragua 
San  Jose,  Costa  Rica Most  Rev.  Charles  Cniarlo Nuncio 

Panama 
San  Jose,  Costa  Rica Most  Rev,  Charles  Chiarlo Nuncio 

Paraguay 
Montevideo,  Uruguay Most  Rev.  Albert  Levame Nuncio 

Peru 
Lima    Most  Rev.  Fernando  Cento .Nuncio 

64 


Post  Name  Rank 

Polandf 
Warsaw Most  Rev.  Filippo  Cortesi  Nuncio 

Portugal 
Lisbon   Most  Rev.  Peter  Ciriaci Nuncio 

Rumania 
Bucharest Most  Rev.  Andrea  Cassulo Nuncio 

Salvador 
San  Salvador Most  Rev.  Joseph  Beltrami Nuncio 

Santo  Domingo 
Port  au  Prince,  Haiti   ....  Most  Rev.  Maurilio  Silvani   Nuncio 

Slovakia 
Bratislava  Most  Rev.  Giuseppe  Burzio  . .  Charge  d'Affaires 

Spain 
Madrid Most  Rev.  Gaetano  Cicognano  Nuncio 

Switzerland 
Berne  Most  Rev.  Philip  Bernardini Nuncio 

Uruguay 
Montevideo,  Uruguay Most  Rev.  Albert  Levame  Nuncio 

Venezuela 
Caracas   Most  Rev.  Giuseppe  Misuraca  .         ...  Nuncio 

Yugoslavia 
Belgrade   Most  Rev.  Hector  Felici  Nuncio 


fResidence  at  post  rendered  impossible  because  of  the  European  War. 
APOSTOLIC   DELEGATES 

Country  Name         Most  Rev.  Resides 

Africa  (for  the  missions) Anthony  Riberi Mombasa 

Albania   John  Baptist  Leo  Nigris Scutari 

Australasia John  Panico North  Sidney 

Belgian  Congo John  Baptist  Dellepiane Leopoldville 

Bulgaria**    Joseph  Mazzoli  Sofia 

Canada  and  Newfoundland* . .  Hildebrand  Antoniutti Ottawa 

China  Mario  Zanin Peiping 

Egypt,  Arabia,  Eritrea, 

Abyssinia  and  Palestine** .  Gustave  Testa Cairo  and  Jerusalem 

Great  Britain* William  Godfrey London 

Greece**   Angelo  Joseph  Roncalli Athens 

India Leo  Peter  Kierkeis Bangalore,  India 

Indo-China   Anthony  Drapier,  O.  P Hue,  Annam 

Iran**  Alcides  Marina,  C.  M Teheran 

Iraq  (Mesopotamia,  Kurdis- 
tan, and  Armenia)** George  De  Jonghe  D'Ardoye  . .  Bagdad,  Iraq 

Italian  East  Africa** John  M.  Castellani,  O.  F.  M.     .  Addis  Ababa 

Japan Paul  Marella Tokio 

Mexico* Luis  Martinez Mexico  City 

Philippines  and  Guam* William  Piani,  S.  S Manila 

South  Africa  Jordan  Gijlswijk,  O.  P Bloemfontein 

Syria**    Remy  Lepretre,  O.  F.  M Beirut 

Turkey**    Angelo  Joseph  Roncalli Istanbul 

United  States*  Amleto  John  Cicognani  . .  Washington,  D.  C. 

Note:   The 
acter. 

the  Consi   .    ,  .  .  .        .     _   _ 

Church  and  of  the  Propaganda ;  the  others  depend  solely  on  the  Propaganda. 

65 


DIPLOMATIC  REPRESENTATIVES  AT  THE  VATICAN 

The  diplomatic  corps  of  the  Vatican  has  representatives  from  most  of 
the  countries  of  the  world.   They  are  as  follows: 

Country  Name  Rank* 

Argentina   Jose  Manuel  Llobet A.  E.  and  P. 

Belgium   M.  Adrian  Nieuwenhuys   A.  E.  and  P. 

Bolivia    Gen.  Carlos  Quintanilla  A.  E.  and  P. 

Brazil   Senor  Ildebrando  Accioly  A.  E.  and  P. 

Chile  Dr.  Luis  Cruz  Ocampo A.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Colombia  Dr.  Dario  Echandia A.  E.  and  P. 

Costa  Rica  Dr.  Luis  Dobles  Segreda E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Cuba   Senor  Nicholas  Rivero  y  Alonzo E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Ecuador Lusimaco  Guzdman   E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

France    Leon  Berard  A.  E,  and  P. 

Germany Baron  Diego  Von  Bergen  A.  E.  and  P. 

Great  Britain  Francis  Osborne  D'Arcy  A.  E.  and  P. 

Guatemala  . Senor  Francis  Figueroa  E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Haiti Abel  Nicolas  Leger  E.  E.  and  M,  P. 

Honduras    Baron  Paul  Adolph  de  Groote E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Hungary    Baron  Gabriel  Apor E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Ireland   Mr.  William  J.  B.  Macaulay E.  E.  and  M.  P, 

Italy   Bernardo  Attolico   A.  E.  and  P. 

Liberia  Mr.  Corneille  Bosman  Van  Oudkarspel .  E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Lithuania Stanislaus  Girdvainis  E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Luxemburg N E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Monaco M.  Emile  Laurent  Dard  E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Nicaragua  Dr.  Constantine  Herdocia  Teran E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Order  of  Malta Count  Stanislaus  Pecci  E,  E.  and  M.  P, 

Panama   General  Nicanor  de  Obarrio  E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Peru   Diomedes  Arias  Schreiber A,  E.  and  P. 

Poland   Casimir  Papee   A.  E.  and  P. 

Portugal    Senhor  Antonio  Carneiro  Pacheco  ....  A.  E.  and  P. 

Rumania    Gen.  Daniel  Papp   A.  E.  and  P. 

Salvador    Senor  Raoul  Contreras E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

San  Marino   Marchese  Filippo  Serlupi  Crescenzi  E.  E.  and  M,  P. 

Santo  Domingo  Marquis  Edward  Persichetti  Ugolini 

di  Castelcolbuccaro  E.  EJ.  and  M.  P. 

Slovakia    Dr.  Karol  Sidor  E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Spain JDon  Jose  de  Janguas  Messia, 

Viscount  of  Santa  Clara  de  Avedillo  . .  A.  E,  and  P, 

Uruguay    Senor  Secco  Ylla   E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Venezuela    Dr.  Santos  Dominici  E.  E.  and  M.  P. 

Yugoslavia Mr.  Niko  Mlrosevic  Sorgo B.  E.  and  M.  P, 

United  States Myron  C.  Taylor, 

Personal  Representative  of  President 

of  the  United  States 


*  A.    E.,    Ambassador    Extraordinary;    P.,    Plenipotentiary;    E.    E.»    Envoy    Extraordinary; 
M,  P,»  Minister  Plenipotentiary. 

66 


AMERICAN  CARDINALS 

Six  prelates  of  American  birth  have  been  created  Cardinals.  The  list 
of  American  princes  of  the  Church,  however,  also  includes  those  Car- 
dinals who  became  naturalized  Americans  and  those  of  French,  Irish  and 
Italian  birth  who  served  the  Church  in  the  United  States. 

Created            Name                                           Birthplace             American  Service  Death 

1836  .    .  Jean  Cheverus   France First  Bishop  of  Boston   .  ..  1836 

1875         .  John  McCloskey Brooklyn     .    .    .  .Archbishop  of  New  York  .   1885 

1886   ....  James   Gibbons    Baltimore Archbishop  of  Baltimore  .  .    .   1921 


1886  Camillo  Mazella,  S.  J Italy  ...       .  Jesuit  Teacher  in  New  York 

1893  .      .  Ignatius  Persico,  O.F.M.Cap..  .Italy Bishop  of  Savannah        .      . 

1895   .    . .  Francesco  Satolli  Italy Apostolic  Delegate  to  U.  S. 

1902  Sebastian  Martmelli,  O.  S.  A.  .Italy  .                 .Apostolic  Delegate  to  U.  S 


1900 
1895 
1910 
_______    1918 

1911         .  John  Farley   ......' Ireland    ..       .    ".Archbishop  of" New' York"       .1918 

1911   .      .  Diomede  Falconio,  O.  F.  M.  .  .Italy    Apostolic  Delegate  to  U.  S.        1917 

1911  William  O'Connell  ...      .       Lowell,  Mass.   .  .Archbishop  of  Boston 

1916     .       Donati  Sbaretti   Italy    Auditor  of  the  Apostolic  Dele- 
gation in  the  U.  S 1939 

1921  ..    .  Dennis   Dougherty    Girardville,  Pa.  .Archbishop  of  Philadelphia... 

1922  . .       John  Bonzano   Italy    Apostolic  Delegate  to  U.  S.  . .  1927 

1924  .    ..  George  Mundelein      .  .New  York       ...Archbishop  of  Chicago   ..       .  1939 

1924       .     Patrick   Hayes    New  York  . .    .  .Archbishop  of  New  York     .    .  1938 

1933     .    .  Pietro  Fumasoni-Biondi   Italy    Apostolic  Delegate  to  U.  S. . . 

His  Eminence,  William  Cardinal   O'Connell 

Senior  Ranking  Prelate:  Dean  of  the  American  Hierarchy. 

Office  —  Cardinal  Archbishop  of  Boston. 

Born  —  December  8,  1859,  in  Lowell,  Mass. 

Training  —  Graduate  of  Boston  College,  1880;  North  American  College, 
Rome,  1884;  ordained,  June  8,  1884. 

Priestly  Career  —  Assistant  at  St.  Joseph's  Church,  Medford,  Mass.; 
assistant  at  St.  Joseph's  Church,  Boston;  rector  of  North  American  Col- 
lege, Rome. 

Episcopal  Elevation  —  Consecrated  Bishop  of  Portland,  Maine,  1901; 
made  Assistant  to  the  Pontifical  Throne,  1905;  Papal  Envoy  to  Japan, 
1905;  named  Archbishop  of  Constantia,  1906;  Archbishop  of  Boston,  1907. 

Episcopal   Motto  —  Vigor  in  Ardms. 

Career  as  Cardinal  —  Created,  November  27,  1911;  Papal  Legate  to  Holy 
Name  Convention,  1924.  Senior  Cardinal  Priest  of  the  Sacred  College, 
1938. 

Work  Summarized  —  Has  established  over  100  new  parishes;  increased 
the  efficiency  and  service  of  educational  and  charitable  institutions;  re- 
organized St.  John's  Ecclesiastical  Seminary  as  a  model  for  the  world. 

Attai n ments  —  Vigorous  administrator,  outstanding  citizen,  forceful 
speaker  (ten  volumes  of  Sermons  and  Addresses),  author  ("Passion  of 
Our  Lord,"  a  translation;  "Recollection  of  Seventy  Years,"  autobiog- 
raphy), musician  (Holy  Cross  Hymnal).  Received  the  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Laws  from  Harvard  University  in  1937. 

His  Eminence,  Dennis  Cardinal  Dougherty 

Office  —  Cardinal  Archbishop  of  Philadelphia. 

Born — August  16,  1865,  in  Girardville,  Pa. 

Training  —  Classical  studies,  St.  Mary's  College,  Montreal,  Canada; 
theological  studies,  St.  Charles  Seminary,  Overbrook,  Pa.,  and  American 
College,  Rome;  ordained,  May  31,  1890. 

Priestly  Career  —  Faculty  member  of  American  College,  Rome;  faculty 
member  of  Philadelphia  Seminary. 

Episcopal  Elevation  —  Consecrated  Bishop  of  Nueva  Segovia,  June  10, 
1903;  rehabilitated  the  Seminary  at  Vigan,  Philippine  Islands,  and  re- 
founded  the  diocese,  1903;  made  Bishop  of  Jaro,  1908;  Bishop  of  Buffalo, 
1915;  Archbishop  of  Philadelphia,  1918. 

67 


Career  as  Cardinal  —  Created,  March  7,  1921.  Dignities:  President 
o£  the  Bureau  of  Catholic  Indian  Missions,  Commission  I'or  Catholic  Mis- 
sions among  the  colored  people  and  Indians;  Trustee  of  the  National 
Shrine  of  the  Immaculate  Conception,  Washington,  D.  C.;  member  of  the 
Board  of  Governors  of  the  Catholic  Church  Extension  Society;  Grand 
Officer  of  the  Crown  of  Italy;  Papal  Legate  to  International  Eucharistic 
Congress,  Manila,  P.  L,  1937. 

Work  Summarized  —  Educator;  Colonial  Church  organizer;  mediator; 
humanitarian;  has  founded  almost  100  new  parishes;  opened  over  fifty 
new  churches,  erected  one  of  the  finest  preparatory  seminaries  in  the 
world;  founded  diocesan  high  schools,  colleges,  academies,  hospitals,  or- 
phanages, home  for  aged  and  poor,  home  for  business  women,  industrial 
school  for  girls  and  an  institute  for  the  blind;  built  over  100  new 
parochial  schools. 


BIOGRAPHIES  OF   THE   CATHOLIC   HIERARCHY   OF 
CONTINENTAL  UNITED  STATES 


Adrian,  William  Lawrence  —  b. 
April  16,  1883,  Sigourney,  Iowa; 
educ.  St.  Ambrose  College  (Daven- 
port, Iowa),  North  American  Col- 
lege (Rome),  State  University  of 
Iowa  (Iowa  City,  Iowa);  ord.  April 
15,  1911;  cons.  Bishop  of  Nashville, 
April  16,  1936. 

Albers,  Joseph  Henry  —  b.  March 
18,  1891,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  educ.  St. 
Gregory  Prep.  Sem.  (Cincinnati, 
Ohio),  Pontifical  Institute  of  the 
Appolinaris  (Rome) ;  ord.  June  17, 
1916;  cons.  Dec.  27,  1929;  trans- 
lated to  the  newly  erected  See  of 
Lansing  in  1937. 

Alter,  Karl  Joseph  —  b.  Aug.  18, 
1885,  Toledo,  Ohio;  educ.  St.  John's 
University  (Toledo,  Ohio),  St. 
Mary's  Seminary  (Cleveland, 
Ohio);  ord.  June  4,  1910;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Toledo,  June  17,  1931. 

Althoff,  Henry  — b.  Aug.  28,  1873, 
Aviston,  111.;  educ.  St.  Joseph's  Col- 
lege (Teutopolis,  111.),  St.  Francis 
Solanus  College  (Quincy,  111.),  Uni- 
versity of  Innsbruck  (Austria); 
ord.  July  26,  1902;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Belleville,  Feb.  24,  1914. 

Armstrong,  Robert  John  —  b. 
Nov.  17, 1884,  San  Francisco,  Calif.; 
educ.  Gonzaga  University  (Spo- 
kane, Wash.),  Grand  Seminary 
(Montreal,  Canada);  ord.  Dec.  17, 
1910;  cons.  Bishop  of  Sacramento, 
Mar.  12,  1929. 

Beckman,  Francis  Joseph  —  b. 
Oct.  25,  1875,  Cincinnati,  Ohio; 
educ.  Seminary  of  Mt  St.  Mary  of 


the  West  (Cincinnati,  Ohio),  Uni- 
versity of  Louvain  (Belgium),  the 
Gregorian  University  (Rome) ;  ord. 
June  20,  1902;  cons.  May  1,  1924; 
app.  Archbishop  of  Dubuque,  Jan. 
17,  1930. 

Bergan,  Gerald  Thomas  —  b.  Jan. 
6,  1892,  Peoria,  111.;  educ.  St.  Via- 
tor's College  (Bourbonnais,  111.), 
North  American  College  (Rome) ; 
ord.  Oct.  28,  1915;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Des  Moines,  June  13,  1934. 

Bohachevsky,  Constant!  ne  —  b. 
June  17,  1884,  Manajiw,  Austria; 
educ.  Greek-Ruthenian  Seminary  of 
Lemberg  (Austria),  University  of 
Innsbruck  (Austria),  University  of 
Munich  (Germany) ;  ord.  Jan.  21, 
1909;  cons.  June  15,  1924,  and  ap- 
pointed Ordinary  of  the  Catholic 
Ruthenians  of  the  Greek  Rite  in 
the  U.  S.  A. 

Boland,  Thomas  A.  —  b.  Feb.  17, 
1896,  Orange,  N.  J.;  educ.  Seton 
Hall  College  (South  Orange,  N.  J.), 
North  American  College  (Rome); 
ord.  Dec,  23,  1922;  cons,  as  Auxil- 
iary Bishop  of  Newark,  July  25, 1940. 

Bona,  Stanislaus  Vincent  —  b. 
Oct.  1,  1888,  Chicago,  VI1L;  educ.  St. 
Stanislaus  College  (Chicago,  111.), 
North  American  College  (Rome) ; 
ord.  Nov.  1,  1912;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Grand  Island,  Feb.  25,  1932. 

Boyle,  Hugh  Charles  —  b.  Oct.  8, 
1873,  Cambria  City,  Pa.;  educ.  St. 
Vincent's  College  and  Seminary 
(Beatty,  Pa.);  ord.  July  2,  1898; 
cons.  Bishop  of  Pittsburgh,  June 
29,  1929. 


68 


Brady,  Matthew  Francis  —  b.  Jan. 
15,  1893,  Waterbury,  Conn.;  educ. 
American  College  (Louvain,  Bel- 
gium), St.  Bernard's  Seminary 
(Rochester,  N.  Y.);  ord.  June  10, 
1916;  cons.  Bishop  of  Burlington, 
Oct.  26,  1938. 

Brady,  William  Otterwell  —  b. 
Feb.  1,  Fall  River,  Mass.;  educ.  St. 
Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore,  Md.), 
Catholic  University  (Washington, 
D.  C.),  Collegio  Angelico  (Rome); 
ord.  Dec.  21,  1923;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Sioux  Falls,  Aug.  21,  1939. 

Brennan,  Andrew  James  Louis  — 
b.  Dec.  14,  1877,  Towanda,  Pa.; 
educ.  Holy  Cross  College  (Worces- 
ter, Mass),  St.  Bernard's  Seminary 
(Rochester,  N.  Y.),  North  American 
College  (Rome);  ord.  Dec.  17,  1904; 
cons.  April  25,  1923;  appointed 
Bishop  of  Richmond,  June  21,  1926. 

Buddy,  Charles  Francis  —  b.  Oct. 

4,  1887,  St.  Joseph,  Mo.;  educ.  St. 
Benedict's  College  (Atchison, 
Kans.),  St.  Mary's  College  (St. 
Mary's,  Kans.),  North  American 
College  (Rome) ;  ord.  Sept.  19, 
1914;  cons.  Bishop  of  San  Diego, 
Dec.  21,  1936. 

Busch,  Joseph  Francis  —  b.  April 
18,  1866,  Red  Wing,  Minn.;  educ. 
Sacred  Heart  College  (Prairie  du 
Chien,  Wis.),  University  of  Inns- 
bruck (Austria),  Catholic  Univer- 
sity (Wash.,  D.  C.)J  ord.  July  28, 
1899;  cons.  May  19,  1910;  app. 
Bishop  of  St.  Cloud,  Jan.  22,  1915. 

Byrne,   Christopher    Edward  —  b. 

April  21,  1867,  Byrnesville,  Jeffer- 
son, Co.,  Miss.;  educ.  St.  Mary's 
College  (St.  Mary's,  Kans),  St. 
Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore,  Md.) ; 
ord.  Sept  23,  1891;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Galveston,  Nov.  10,  1918. 

Cantwell,  John  Joseph  —  b.  Dec. 
1,  1874,  Limerick,  Ireland;  educ. 
School  of  the  Patrician  Brothers 
(Fethard,  Ire.),  St.  Patrick's  Col- 
lege (Thurles,  Ire.) ;  ord.  June  18, 
1899;  cons.  Dec.  5,  1917;  app.  Arch- 
bishop of  Los  Angeles,  July  11, 
1936. 

Cassidy,  James  Edwin  —  b.  Aug. 
1,  1869,  Woonsocket,  R.  I.;  educ. 
St.  Charles  College  (Ellicott  City, 


Md.);  St.  Mary's  Seminary  (Balti- 
more, Md.),  Johns  Hopkins  Univer- 
sity (Baltimore,  Md.) ;  ord.  Sept 
8,  1898;  cons.  May  27,  1930;  suc- 
ceeded as  Bishop  of  Fall  River, 
July  28,  1934. 

Condon,     William    Joseph   —   b. 

April  7,  1895,  Cotton,  Wash.;  educ. 
Gonzaga  University  (Spokane, 
Wash.);  St.  Patrick's  Seminary, 
(Menlo  Park,  Calif.);  ord.  Oct.  4, 
1917;  cons.  Bishop  of  Great  Falls, 
Oct.  18,  1939. 

Connolly,  Thomas  Arthur  —  b. 
Oct.  5,  1899,  San  Francisco,  Calif.; 

educ.  St.  Patrick's  Seminary  (Men- 
lo Park,  Calif.) ;  Catholic  University 
(Wash.,  D.  C.);  ord.  June  11,  1926; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  San 
Francisco,  August  24,  1939. 

Corrigan,  Joseph  Moran  —  b.  May 

18,  1879,   Philadelphia,   Pa.;    educ. 
La  Salle  College  (Philadelphia,  Pa.), 
St.  Charles  Seminary  (Philadelphia, 
Pa.),    Pontifical    College    (Rome); 
ord.  1903;  Rector,  Catholic  Univer- 
sity   of    America,    1936  — ;     cons. 
Titular  Bishop  of  Bilta,  1940. 

Cotton,  Francis  Ridgely — b.  Sept 

19,  1895,  Bardstown,  Ky.;  educ.  St. 
Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore,  Md.) ; 
Sulpician     Seminary      (Cath.     U., 
Wash.,  D.  C.) ;   Pontifical  Institute 
of   the   Appolinaris    (Rome);    ord. 
June    17,    1920;     cons.    Bishop    of 
Owensboro,  Feb.  24,  1938. 

Curley,  Michael  Joseph  —  b.  Oct. 
12,  1879,  Athlone,  Ireland;  educ. 
Royal  University  (Dublin),  Urban 
College  of  the  Propaganda  (Rome) ; 
ord.  March  19,  1904;  cons.  June  30, 
1914;  app.  Archbishop  of  Baltimore, 
Nov.  21,  1921;  title  changed  to  Arch- 
bishop of  Baltimore  and  Washing- 
ton, Oct.,  1939. 

Gushing,  Richard  James — b.  Aug. 
24,  1895,  South  Boston,  Mass.;  educ. 
Boston  College  (Mass.),  St.  John's 
Seminary  (Brighton,  Mass.) ;  ord. 
May  26,  1921;  cons,  as  Auxiliary 
Bishop  of  Boston,  June  28,  1939. 

Desmond,  Daniel  Francis  —  b. 
April  4,  1884,  Haverhill,  Mass.; 
educ.  Holy  Cross  College  (Wor- 
cester, Mass.)  Duquesne  Univer- 
sity (Pittsburgh,  Pa.),  St.  John's 
Seminary  (Brighton,  Mass.) ;  ord. 


69 


June  9,  1911;  cons.  Bishop  of  Alex- 
andria, Jan.  5,  1933. 

Donahue,  Stephen  Joseph  —  b. 
Dec.  10,  1893,  New  York,  N.  Y.; 
educ.  Cathedral  College  (New  York, 
N.  Y.),  St.  Joseph's  Seminary,  (Dun- 
woodie,  N.  Y.),  North  American 
College  ('Rome);  ord.  May  25,  1918; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  New 
York,  May  1,  1934. 

Donnelly,  George  J.  —  b.  April 
23,  1889,  Maplewood,  Mo.;  educ. 
Kenrick  Seminary  (Webster  Groves, 
Mo.);  ord.  June  12,  1921;  cons,  as 
Auxiliary  Bishop  of  St.  Louis,  April 
23,  1940. 

Dougherty,  Denis  Joseph  —  See 
American  Cardinals,  (pp.  66-67). 

Duffy,  John  Aloysius  —  b.  Oct.  29, 
1884,  Jersey  City,  N.  J. ;  educ.  Seton 
Hall  College  (South  Orange,  N.  J.), 
North  American  College  (Rome) ; 
ord.  June  13,  1908;  cons.  June  29, 
1933;  app.  Bishop  of  Buffalo,  April 
14,  1937. 

Espelage,  O.  F.  M.,  Bernard- — b. 
Feb.  16,  1892,  Cincinnati,  Ohio; 
educ.  St.  Francis  College  (Cincin- 
nati, Ohio) ;  received  into  the  Order 
of  Friars  Minor,  1910;  ord.  May  16, 
1918;  cons.  Bishop  of  Gallup,  Oct. 
9,  1940. 

Eustace,  Bartholomew  Joseph  — 
b.  Oct.  9,  1887,  New  York,  N.  Y.; 
educ.  College  of  St.  Francis  Xavier 
(New  York  City),  St.  Joseph's  Sem- 
inary (Dunwoodie,  N.  Y.),  North 
American  College  (Rome) ;  ord. 
Nov.  1,  1914;  cons.  Bishop  of  Cam- 
den,  March  25,  1938. 

Fitzmaurice,  Edmond  John  —  b. 
June  24,  1881,  Torbert,  Co.  Kerry, 
Ireland;  educ.  St.  Brendan's  Col- 
lege (Killarney,  Ire.),  College  of 
St.  Trond  (Belgium),  North  Amer- 
ican College  (Rome) ;  ord.  May  20, 
1904;  cons.  Bishop  of  Wilmington, 
Nov.  30,  1925. 

FitzSimon,  Laurence  J.  —  b.  Jan. 
31,  1895,  San  Antonio.  Texas;  educ. 
St.  Anthony's  College  (San  An- 
tonio, Texas),  North  American  Col- 
lege (Rome),  St.  Meinrad  Seminary 
(St.  Meinrad,  Ind.) ;  ord.  May  17, 
1921;  cons.  Bishop  of  San  Antonio, 
Oct.  22,  1941. 

Fletcher,  Albert  Louis  — b,  Oct. 
28,  1896,  Little  Rock,  Ark.;  educ. 


Little  Rock  College  (Little  Rock, 
Ark.),  St.  John's  Seminary  (Little 
Rock,  Ark.);  ord.  June  8,  1920; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Little 
Rock,  April  25,  1940. 

Floersh,  John  Alexander  —  b.  Oct. 

5,  1886,  Nashville,  Term.;  educ.  Ur- 
ban   College    of    the    Propaganda 
(Rome);  ord.  June  10,  1911;  cons. 
April  8,   1923:    app.  Archbishop  of 
Louisville,  Dec.  13,  1937. 

Foery,  Walter  Andrew —  b.  July 

6,  1890,  Rochester,  N.  Y.;  educ.  St. 
Andrew's     Preparatory     Seminary 
(Rochester,    N.    Y.),    St.   Bernard's 
Seminary  (Rochester,  N.  Y.) ;   ord. 
June  10,  1916;  cons.  Bishop  of  Syra- 
cuse, Aug.  18,  1937. 

Gannon,  John  Mark  —  b.  June  12, 
1877,  Erie,  Pa.;  educ.  St.  Bonaven- 
ture's  College  (St.  Bortaventure, 
N.  Y.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.),  Pontifical  Institute  of  the 
Appolinaris  (Rome),  University  of 
Munich  (Munich,  Germany) ;  ord. 
Dec.  21,  1901;  cons.  Feb.  6,  1918; 
succeeded  as  Bishop  of  Erie,  Aug- 
ust 26,  1920. 

Garriga,  Mariano  Simon  —  b.  May 
31,  1886,  Point  Isabel,  Tex.;  educ. 
St.  Mary's  College  (St.  Mary's, 
Kans.),  St.  Francis  Seminary  (Mil- 
waukee, Wis.),  St.  Edward's  Uni- 
versity (Austin,  Texas) ;  ord.  July 

2,  1911;  cons,  as  Coadjutor  Bishop 
of  Corpus   Christi,   Sept.   21,   1936. 

Gercke,    Daniel    James  —  b.    Oct. 

9,  1874,    Holmsburg,    Philadelphia, 
Pa.;     educ.    St.    Joseph's    College 
(Philadelphia,    Pa.);     St.    Charles 
Borromeo     Seminary     (Overbrook, 
Pa.);    ord.    June    11,    1901;    cons. 
Bishop    of    Tucson,    Nov.    6,    1923. 

Gerken,  Rudolph  Aloysius  —  b. 
March  7,  1887,  Dyers ville,  Iowa; 
educ.  St.  Joseph's  College  (Rennse- 
laer,  Ind.),  University  of  Dallas 
(Dallas,  Texas),  Kenrick  Seminary 
(Webster  Groves,  Mo.);  ord.  June 

10,  1917;  cons.  April  26,  1927:  app. 
Archbishop  of  Santa  Fe,   June   2, 
1933. 

Gerow,  Richard  Oliver  —  b.  May 

3,  1885,  Mobile,  Ala.;  educ.  McGill 
Institute    (Mobile,    Ala.),    Mt.    St. 
Mary's  College  (Emmitsburg,  Md.), 
North  American  College    (Rome) ; 


70 


ord.  June  5,  1909;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Natchez,  Oct.  15,  1924. 

Gibbons,  Edmund  Francis  —  b. 
Sept.  16,  1868,  White  Plains,  N.  Y.; 
educ.  Niagara  University  (Niagara, 
N.  Y.),  North  American  College 
(Rome);  ord.  May  27,  1893;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Albany,  March  25,  1919. 

Gilmore,  Joseph  Michael  —  b. 
Mar.  23,  1893,  New  York,  N.  Y.; 
educ.  St.  Joseph's  College  (Du- 
buque,  Iowa),  Urban  College  of 
Propaganda  (Rome) ;  ord.  July  25, 
1915;  cons.  Bishop  of  Helena,  Feb. 
19,  1936. 

Glennon,  John  Joseph  —  b.  June 

14,  1862,  Westmeath,  Ireland;  educ. 
St.     Mary's     College      (Mullingar, 
Ire.) ;  All  Hallows  College  (Dublin, 
Ire.);  ord.  Dec.  20,  1884;  cons.  June 

29,  1896:  succeeded  as  Archbishop 
of  St.  Louis,  Oct.  13,  1903. 

Gorman,  Thomas  Kiely — b.  Aug. 

30,  1892,  Pasedena,  Calif.;  educ.  St. 
Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore,  Md.) ; 
Catholic  University  (Wash.,  D.  C.), 
University  of  Louvain  (Belgium) ; 
ord.  June  23,  1917;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Reno,  July  22,  1931. 

Griffin,  James  Aloysius  —  b.  Feb. 
27,  1883,  Chicago,  111.;  educ.  St.  Ig- 
natius College  (Chicago,  111.),  North 
American  College  (Rome);  ord. 
July  4,  1909 :  cons.  Bishop  of  Spring- 
field, 111.,  Feb.  24,  1924. 

Griffin,  William  A.  —  b.  Nov.  20, 
1885,  Elizabeth,  N.  J.;  educ.  Seton 
Hall  College  (South  Orange,  N.  J.), 
Immaculate  Conception  Seminary 
(South  Orange,  N.  J.);  ord.  August 

15,  1910;    cons.  May  1,  1938:   app. 
Bishop   of  Trenton,   May  21,   1940. 

Griffin,  William  Richard  —  b. 
Sept.  1,  1883,  Chicago,  111.;  educ. 
St.  Ignatius  College  (Chicago,  111.), 
De  Paul  University  (Chicago,  111.), 
Kenrick  Seminary  (Webster  Groves, 
Mo.);  ord.  May  25,  1907;  cons,  as 
Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Lacrosse,  May 
1,  1935. 

Guilfoyle,  Richard  Thomas  —  ft. 
Dec.  22,  1892,  Adrian,  Pa.;  educ. 
St.  Bonaventure's  College  and  Semi- 
nary (St.  Bonaventure,  N.  Y.) ;  ord. 
June  2,  1917;  cons.  Bishop  of  Al- 
toona,  Nov.  30,  1936. 

Hartley,  James  Joseph  —  b.  June 
19,  1888,  Springfield,  Mass.;  educ. 
Holy  Cross  College  (Worcester, 


Mass.),  Mt.  St.  Mary's  College 
(Emmitsburg,  Md.);  ord.  June  16, 
1914;  cons.  June  24,  1925;  suc- 
ceeded as  Bishop  of  Scranton,  Mar. 
25,  1938. 

Hartley,  James  Joseph  —  b.  June 
5,  1858,  Columbus,  Ohio;  educ.  Mt. 
St.  Mary  of  the  West  Seminary 
(Cincinnati,  Ohio),  Seminary  of 
Our  Lady  of  the  Angels  (Niagara, 
N.  Y.);  ord.  July  10,  1882;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Columbus,  Feb.  25,  1904. 

Heelan,  Edmond-— b.  Feb.  5, 1868, 
Elton,  Co.  Limerick,  Ireland;  educ. 
All  Hallows  College  (Dublin,  Ire.) ; 
ord.  June  24,  1890;  cons.  April  8, 
1918;  app.  Bishop  of  Sioux  City, 
Mar.  8,  1920. 

Hoban,  Edward  Francis  —  b.  June 
17,  1878,  Chicago,  111.;  educ.  St. 
Ignatius  College  (Chicago,  111.);  St. 
Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore,  Md.) ; 
Gregorian  University  (Rome) ;  ord. 
July  11,  1903;  cons.  Dec.  21,  1921; 
app.  Bishop  of  Rockford,  Feb.  10, 
1928. 

Howard,  Edward  Daniel  —  b.  Nov. 

5,  1877,    Cresco,    Iowa;    educ.    St. 
Joseph's  College  (Dubuque,  Iowa); 
St.    Mary's    College     (St.    Mary's, 
Kans.);     St.    Paul    Seminary    (St. 
Paul,  Minn.);    ord.  June   12,  1906; 
cons.  April  8, 1924 ;  app.  Archbishop 
of    Oregon,    April    30,    1926;    title 
changed  to  Archbishop  of  Portland, 
Sept.  26,  1928. 

Howard,  Francis  William  —  b. 
June  21,  1867,  Columbus,  Ohio; 
educ.  Mt.  St.  Mary  of  the  West 
Seminary  (Cincinnati,  Ohio);  ord. 
June  16,  1891;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Covington,  July  15,  1923. 

Hunt,  Duane  Garrison  —  b.  Sept. 
19,  1884,  Reynolds,  Neb.;  educ.  Cor- 
nell College  (Mt.  Vernon,  Iowa), 
University  of  Iowa,  (Iowa  City, 
Iowa);  St.  Patrick's  Seminary 
(Menlo  Park,  Calif.);  ord.  Jan.  27, 
1920;  cons.  Bishop  of  Salt  Lake, 
Oct.  28,  1927. 

Hurley,  Joseph  Patrick  —  b.  Jan. 
21,  1894,  Cleveland,  Ohio;  educ.  St. 
Ignatius  College  (Cleveland,  Ohio), 
St.  Bernard's  Seminary  (Rochester, 
N.  Y.),  St.  Mary's  Seminary  (Cleve- 
land, Ohio);  ord.  May  29,  1919; 
cons.  Bishop  of  St.  Augustine,  Oct. 

6,  1940. 


71 


Ireton,  Peter  Leo  —  b.  Sept.  21, 
1882,  Baltimore,  Md.;  educ.  St. 
Charles  College  (Ellicott  City,  Md.), 
St.  Mary's  Seminary,  (Baltimore, 
Md.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.);  ord.  June  20,  1906;  cons,  as 
Coadjutor  Bishop  of  Richmond,  Oct. 
23,  1935. 

Jeanmard,  Jules  Benjamin  —  b. 
Aug.  15,  1897,  Pont-Breaux,  La.; 
educ.  Holy  Cross  Seminary  (New 
Orleans,  La.) ;  Kenrick  Seminary 
Webster  Groves,  Mo.),  St.  Louis 
Seminary  (New  Orleans,  La.);  ord. 
June  10,  1903;  cons.  Bishop  of  La- 
fayette, Dec.  8,  1918. 

Kearney,  James  Edward  —  b.  Oct. 
28,  1884,  Red  Oak,  Iowa;  educ.  St. 
Joseph's  Seminary  (Dunwoodie,  N. 
Y.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.);  ord.  Sept.  19,  1908;  cons. 
Oct.  28,  1932;  app.  Bishop  of  Ro- 
chester, July  31,  1937. 

Kearney,  Raymond  Augustine  — 
b.  Sept.  25,  1902,  Jersey  City,  N.  J.; 
educ.  Holy  Cross  College  (Wor- 
cester, Mass),  North  American  Col- 
lege (Rome),  Catholic  University 
(Wash.,  D.  C.) ;  ord.  March  12, 1927; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Brook- 
lyn, Feb.  25,  1935. 

Keiley,  Francis  Clement  —  b.  Oct. 
23,  1870,  Vernon  River,  Prince  Ed- 
ward Island,  Canada;  educ.  Laval 
University  (Quebec,  Canada),  St. 
Raphael's  Seminary  (Chicoutimi, 
Canada),  Nicolet  Seminary  (Nico- 
let,  Canada);  ord.  Aug.  23,  1893; 
founded  the  Catholic  Church  Ex- 
tension Society,  1905;  cons.  Bishop 
of  Oklahoma  City,  Oct.  2,  1924, 
title  changed  to  Bishop  of  Okla- 
homa City  and  Tulsa,  Nov.  14,  1930. 

Kelly,  Edward  Joseph  —  b.  Feb. 
26,  1890,  The  Dalles,  Ore,;  educ. 
Columbia  University  (Portland, 
Ore.),  St.  Patrick's  Seminary  (Men- 
lo  Park,  Calif.),  North  American 
College  (Rome);  ord.  June  2,  1917; 
cons.  Bishop  of  Boise,  March  6, 
1929. 

Kelly,  Francis  Martin  —  b.  Nov. 
15,  1886,  Houston,  Minn.;  educ.  St. 
Paul's  Seminary  (St.  Paul,  Minn.), 
Catholic  University  (Wash,,  D.  C,), 
Urban  College  of  the  Propaganda 
(Rome);  ord.  Nov.  11,  1912;  cons. 
June  9,  1926;  app.  Bishop  of  Wi- 
nona,  Feb,  10,  1928, 


Keough,  Francis  Patrick  —  b. 
Dec.  30,  1890,  New  Britain,  Conn.; 
educ.  St.  Thomas  Preparatory  Semi- 
nary (Hartford,  Conn.),  Seminary 
of  St.  Sulpice  (Issy,  France),  St. 
Bernard's  Seminary  (Rochester,  N. 
Y.);  ord.  June  10,  1916;  cons.  Bish- 
op of  Providence,  May  22,  1934. 

Kiley,  Moses  Elias  —  b.  Nov.  13, 
1876,  Margaree,  Nova  Scotia;  educ. 
St.  Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore, 
Md.);  North  American  College 
(Rome);  ord.  June  10,  1911;  cons. 
March  17,  1934;  app.  Archbishop  of 
Milwaukee,  Jan.  5,  1940. 

Kucera,  Louis  Benedict  —  b.  Aug. 
24,  1888,  Wheatland,  Minn.;  educ. 
St.  Paul's  Seminary  (St.  Paul, 
Minn.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.),  University  of  Minnesota 
(Minneapolis,  Minn.) ;  ord.  June  8, 
1915;  cons.  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  Oct. 
28,  1930. 

Lamb,  Hugh  Louis  —  b.  Oct.  6, 
1890,  Modena,  Pa.;  educ.  St.  Charles 
Borromeo  Seminary  (Overbrook, 
Pa.),  North  American  College 
(Rome) ;  Catholic  University 
(Wash.,  D.  C.);  ord.  May  29,  1915; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Phila- 
delphia, March  19,  1936. 

Lawler,  John  Jeremiah  —  b.  Aug. 
4,  1862,  Rochester,  Minn.;  educ.  St. 
Francis  Seminary  (Milwaukee, 
Wis.),  College  of  St.  Nicholas  (Bel- 
gium), University  of  Louvain  (Bel- 
gium);  ord.  Dec.  19,  1885;  cons. 
Feb.  8,  1910;  app.  Bishop  of  Rapid 
City,  Aug.  1,  1930. 

Le  Blond,  Charles  Hubert  ~  b. 
Nov.  21,  1883,  Celina,  Ohio;  educ. 
St.  Ignatius  High  School  (Cleve- 
land, Ohio),  John  Carroll  Univer- 
sity (Cleveland,  Ohio),  St.  Mary's 
Seminary  (Cleveland,  Ohio) ;  ord. 
June  29,  1909;  cons.  Bishop  of  St. 
Joseph,  Sept.  21,  3933. 

Ledvina,  Emmanuel  Boleslaus  — 
b.  Oct.  28,  1868,  Evansville,  Ind.; 
educ.  St.  Meinrad's  College  and 
Seminary  (St.  Meinrad,  Ind.) ;  orcl. 
March  18,  1893;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Corpus  Christi,  June  14,  1921. 

Leech,  George  Leo- — b.  May  21, 
1890,  Ashley,  Pa.;  educ.  St.  Charles 
Borromeo  Seminary  (Overbrook, 
Pa.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.) ;  ord.  May  29,  1920;  cons.  Oct. 
17,  1935;  succeeded  as  Bishop  of 
Harrisburg,  Dec.  19,  1935. 


72 


Lucey,  Robert  Emmet  —  b.  March 
16,  1891,  Los  Angeles,  Calif.;  educ. 
St.  Vincent's  College  (Los  Angeles, 
Calif.),  St.  Patrick's  Seminary 
(Menlo  Park,  Calif.),  North  Amer- 
ican College  (Rome) ;  ord.  May  14, 
1916;  cons.  May  1,  1934;  app.  Arch- 
bishop of  San  Antonio,  Jan.  23, 
1941. 

Lynch,  Joseph  Patrick  —  b.  Nov. 
16,  1872,  St.  Joseph,  Mich.;  educ. 
St.  Charles  College  (Ellicott  City, 
Md.),  St.  Mary's  Seminary  (Balti- 
more, Md.),  Kenrick  Seminary 
(Webster  Groves,  Mo.) ;  ord.  June 
9,  1900;  cons.  Bishop  of  Dallas,  July 
12,  1911. 

Magner,  Francis  J.  —  b.  March 
18,  1887,  Wilmington,  111.;  educ.  St. 
Ignatius  College  (Chicago,  111.),  St. 
Mary's  College  (St.  Mary's,  Kans.), 
North  American  College  (Rome); 
ord.  May  17,  1913;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Marquette,  Feb.  24,  1941. 

McAuliffe,  Maurice  Francis  —  b. 
June  17,  1875,  Hartford,  Conn.; 
educ.  Mt.  St.  Mary's  College  (Em- 
mitsburg,  Md.),  Seminary  of  St. 
Sulpice  (Paris),  St.  Willibrord's 
Seminary  (Eichstadt,  Germany) ; 
ord.  July  27,  1900;  cons.  April  28, 
1926:  succeeded  as  Bishop  of  Hart- 
ford, April  23,  1934. 

McCarthy,  Joseph  Edward  —  b. 
Nov.  14,  1876,  Waterbury,  Conn.; 
educ.  Holy  Cross  College  (Worces- 
ter, Mass.),  Catholic  University 
(Wash.,  D.  C.),  Seminary  of  St.  Sul- 
pice (Paris);  ord.  July  4,  1903; 
cons.  Bishop  of  Portland,  Me.,  Aug. 
24,  1932. 

McFadden,  James  Augustine  — 
b.  Dec.  24,  1880,  Cleveland,  Ohio; 
educ.  St.  Ignatius  College  (Cleve- 
land, Ohio),  St.  Mary's  Seminary 
(Cleveland,  Ohio);  ord.  Jan,  17, 
1905;  cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of 
Cleveland,  Sept.  8,  1932. 

McGavick,  Alexander  Joseph  — 
b.  Aug.  22,  1863,  Fox  Lake,  Lake 
Co.,  111.;  educ.  St.  Viator's  College 
and  Seminary  (Bourbonnais,  111.); 
ord.  June  11,  1887;  cons.  May  1, 
1899;  app.  Bishop  of  Lacrosse,  Nov. 
1,  1921. 

McGovern,  Patrick  Aloysius  AI- 
phonsus  —  b.  Oct.  14,  1872,  Omaha, 
Neb.;  educ.  Creighton  University 
(Omaha,  Neb.),  Seminary  of  Mt 
St.  Mary  of  the  West  (Cincinnati, 


Ohio);  ord.  Aug.  18,  1895;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Cheyenne,  April  11,  1912. 

McGrath,  Joseph  Francis  —  b. 
Mar.  1,  1871,  Kilmacow,  Ireland; 
educ.  St.  Kieran's  College  (Ireland), 
Grand  Seminary  (Canada) ;  ord. 
Dec.  21,  1895;  cons.  Bishop  of  Baker 
City,  March  25,  1919. 

McGucken,  Joseph  T.  —  b.  March 
13,  1902,  Los  Angeles,  Calif.;  educ. 
St.  Patrick's  Seminary  (Menlo  Park, 
Calif.),  North  American  College 
(Rome);  ord.  Jan.  15,  1928;  cons. 
as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Los  Angeles, 
March  19,  1941. 

McGuinness,  Eugene  Joseph  —  b. 
Sept.  6,  1889,  Hollertown,  Pa.;  educ. 
St.  Charles  Borromeo  Seminary 
(Overbrook,  Pa.);  ord.  May  22, 
1915;  cons.  Bishop  of  Raleigh,  Dec. 
31,  1937. 

Mclntyre,  J.  Francis  A.  —  b.  June 
25,  1886;  New  York,  N.  Y.;  educ. 
College  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
Cathedral  College  (New  York,  N. 
Y.),  St.  Joseph's  Seminary  (Dun- 
woodie,  N.  Y.);  ord.  May  21,  1921; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  New 
York,  May  8,  1941. 

McLaughlin,  Thomas  Henry  —  b. 
July  25,  1881,  New  York,  N.  Y.; 
educ.  St.  Francis  Xavier  College 
(New  York,  N.  Y.),  University  of 
Innsbruck  (Austria) ;  ord.  July  26, 
1904;  cons.  July  25,  1935;  app.  Bish- 
op of  Paterson,  N.  J.,  Dec.  16,  1937. 

McNamara,  John  Michael  —  b. 
Aug.  12,  1878,  Baltimore,  Md.;  educ. 
Loyola  College  (Baltimore,  Md.), 
St.  Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore, 
Md.) ;  ord.  June  21,  1902;  cons,  as 
Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Baltimore, 
March  29,  1928. 

McNicholas,  John  Timothy,  O.  P. 
—  b.  Dec.  15,  1877,  Mayo,  Ireland; 
educ.  St.  Joseph's  Convent  (Somer- 
set, Ohio),  the  Minerva  University 
(Rome) ;  received  the  Dominican 
habit  Oct.  10,  1894;  ord.  Oct.  10, 
1901;  cons.  Sept.  8,  1918;  app.  Arch- 
bishop of  Cincinnati,  July  8,  1925. 

Metzger,  Sidney  Matthew  —  b. 
July  11,  1902,  Predericksburg,  Tex- 
as; educ.  St.  John's  Seminary  (San 
Antonio,  Texas),  North  American 
College  (Rome);  ord.  April  3,  1926; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Santa 
Fe,  April  10,  1940. 

Mitty,  John  Joseph  —  b.  Jan.  20, 
1884,  New  York,  N.  Y.;  educ.  Man- 


73 


hattan  College  (New  York,  N.  Y.), 
St.  Joseph's  Seminary  (Dunwoodie, 
N,  Y.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.)J  ord.  Dec.  22,  1906;  cons. 
Sept.  8,  1926;  succeeded  as  Arch- 
bishop of  San  Francisco,  March  5, 
1935. 

MoIIoy,  Thomas  Edward  —  b. 
Sept.  4,  1885,  Nashua,  N.  H.;  educ. 
St.  Anselm's  College  (Nashua,  N. 
H.),  St.  Francis  College  (Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.),  St.  John's  Seminary  (Brook- 
lyn, N.  Y.),  North  American  College 
(Rome);  ord.  Sept.  19,  1908;  cons. 
Oct.  3,  1920;  app.  Bishop  of  Brook- 
lyn, Nov.  2,  1921. 

Monaghan,  Francis  Joseph  —  b. 
Oct.  30,  1890,  Newark,  N.  J.;  educ, 
Seton  Hall  College  (South  Orange, 
N.  J.),  North  American  College 
(Rome);  ord.  May  29,  1915;  cons. 
June  29,  1936;  succeeded  as  Bishop 
of  Ogdensburg,  March  20,  1939. 

Mooney,  Edward  Francis  —  b. 
May  9,  1882,  Mount  Savage,  Md.; 
educ.  St.  Mary's  Seminary  (Balti- 
more, Md.),  North  American  Col- 
lege (Rome);  ord.  April  10,  1909; 
cons.  Jan.  31,  1926;  app.  Archbishop 
of  Detroit,  May  31,  1937. 

Morris,  John  Baptist  —  b.  June 
29,  1866,  Hendersonville,  Tenn.; 
educ.  St.  Mary's  College  (Marion 
Co.,  Ky.),  North  American  College 
(Rome);  ord.  June  11,  1892;  cons. 
June  11,  1906;  app.  Bishop  of  Little 
Rock,  Feb,  21,  1907. 

Muench,  Aloysius  Joseph  —  b. 
Feb.  18,  1889,  Milwaukee,  Wis.; 
educ.  University  of  Oxford  (Eng- 
land), University  of  Cambridge 
(England),  University  of  Paris 
(France);  ord.  June  8,  1913;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Fargo,  Oct.  15,  1935. 

Murphy,  William  Francis  —  b. 
May  11,  1885,  Kalamazoo,  Mich.; 
educ.  Assumption  College  (Sand- 
wich, Ont,  Canada),  Urban  College 
of  the  Propaganda  (Home) ;  Pon- 
tifical Institute  of  the  Appolinaris 
(Rome);  orcl.  June  13,  1908;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Saginaw,  May  17,  1938. 

Murray,  John  Gregory  —  b.  Feb. 
26,  1877,  Waterbury,  Conn.;  educ. 
Holy  Cross  College  (Worcester, 
Mass.),  North  American  College 
(Rome),  University  of  Louvain 
(Belgium);  ord.  April  14,  1900; 
cons.  April  28,  1920;  app.  Arch- 


bishop  of   St.   Paul,   Oct.  29,   1931. 

Noll,  John  Francis  —  b.  Jan.  25, 
1875,  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.;  educ.  St. 
Lawrence  College  (Mt.  Calvary, 
Wis.),  Seminary  of  Mt.  St.  Mary 
of  the  West  (Cincinnati,  Ohio) ;  ord. 
June  4,  1898;  cons.  Bishop  of  Fort 
Wayne,  June  30,  1925. 

O'Brien,  William  David  —  b.  Aug. 
3,  1878,  Chicago,  111.;  educ.  De  Paul 
University  (Chicago,  111.),  Kenrick 
Seminary  (Webster  Groves,  Mo.) ; 
ord.  July  11,  1903;  cons,  as  Aux- 
iliary Bishop  of  Chicago,  April  25, 
1934. 

O'Brien,  Henry  Joseph  —  b.  July 
21,  1896,  New  Haven,  Conn.;  educ. 
St.  Thomas  Seminary  (Hartford, 
Conn.),  St.  Bernard's  Seminary 
(Rochester,  N.  Y.),  University  of 
Louvain  (Belgium);  ord.  July  8, 
1923;  cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of 
Hartford,  May  14,  1940. 

O'Connell,  William  Henry  —  See 
American  Cardinals  (p.  66). 

O'Hara,  Edwin  Vincent  —  b.  Sept. 
6,  1881,  Lanesboro,  Minn.;  educ.  St. 
Paul's  Seminary  (St.  Paul,  Minn.), 
Catholic  University  (Wash.,  D.  C.), 
Institute  Catholique  (Paris);  ord. 
June  9,  1905;  cons.  Oct.  28,  1930: 
translated  to  See  of  Kansas  City, 
April  15,  1939, 

O'Hara,  Gerald  Patrick  Aloysius 
—  b.  May  4,  1895,  Scranton,  Pa.; 
educ.  St.  Charles  Borromeo  Semi- 
nary (Overbrook,  Pa,),  Pontifical 
Roman  Seminary  (Rome),  Pontifi- 
cal Institute  of  the  Appolinaris 
(Rome);  ord.  April  2,  1920;  cons. 
May  20,  1929;  app.  Bishop  of  Savan- 
nah, Nov.  16,  1935,  title  changed  to 
Bishop  of  Savannah-Atlanta,  April, 
1937. 

O'Hara,  John  Francis,  C.  S.  C. — 
b.  May  1,  1888,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.; 
educ.  University  of  Notre  Dame 
(South  Bend,  Ind.),  Catholic  Uni- 
versity (Wash.,  D.  C.),  University 
of  Pennsylvania  (Philadelphia,  Pa.) ; 
ord.  Sept.  9, 1916;  cons,  as  Auxiliary 
Bishop  of  Army  and  Navy,  Jan.  15, 
1940. 

O'Leary,  Thomas  Michael  —  b. 
Aug.  16,  1875,  Dover,  N.  H,,  educ. 
Mungret  College  (Limerick,  Ire* 
land) ;  Grand  Seminary  (Montreal, 
Canada);  ord.  Dec.  18,  1897;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  Sept. 
8,  1921. 


74 


Peschges,  John  Hubert  —  b.  May 
11,  1881,  West  Newton,  Minn.;  educ. 
St.  John's  University  (Collegeville, 
Minn.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.);  ord.  April  15,  1905;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Crookston,  Nov.  9,  1938. 

Peterson,  John  Bertram  —  b.  July 
15,  1871,  Salem,  Mass.;  educ.  St. 
Anselm's  College  (Manchester,  N. 
H.),  St.  John's  Seminary  (Brighton, 
Mass.),  Catholic  University  of  Paris 
(France);  ord.  Sept.  15,  1899;  cons. 
Nov.  10,  1927:  app.  Bishop  of  Man- 
chester, May  13,  1932. 

Plagens,  Joseph  Casimir  —  b.  Jan. 
29,  1880,  Poland;  educ.  University 
of  Detroit,  St.  Mary's  Seminary 
(Baltimore,  Md.);  ord.  1903;  cons. 
Sept.  30,  1924;  app.  Bishop  of  Mar- 
quette,  Nov.  16,  1935;  trans.  Grand 
Rapids,  Dec.  16,  1940. 

Rehring,  George  John  —  b.  June 
10,  1890,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  educ. 
Seminary  of  Mt.  St.  Mary  of  the 
West  (Cincinnati,  Ohio),  College 
of  the  Angelico  (Rome) ;  ord.  Mar. 
28,  1914;  cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop 
of  Cincinnati,  Oct.  7,  1937. 

Rhode,  Paul  Peter — b.  Sept.  18, 
1871,  Wejherowo,  Newstadt,  Ger- 
many; St.  Mary's  College  (Marion 
Co.,  Ky.),  St.  Ignatius  College  (Chi- 
cago, 111.),  St.  Francis  Seminary 
(Milwaukee,  Wis.) ;  ord.  June  17, 
1894;  cons.  July  29,  1908;  translated 
to  the  See  of  Green  Bay,  July  5, 
1915. 

Ritter,  Joseph  Elmer  —  b.  July  20, 
1892,  New  Albany,  Ind.;  educ.  St. 
Meinrad's  (St.  Meinrad,  Ind.);  ord. 
May  20,  1917;  cons.  Mar.  24,  1933; 
succeeded  as  Bishop  of  Indiana- 
polis, Mar.  24,  1934. 

Rohlman,  Henry  Patrick  —  b. 
March  17,  1876,  Appelhulsen,  West- 
phalia, Germany;  educ.  St.  Joseph's 
College  (Dubuque,  Iowa),  Grand 
Seminary  (Montreal,  Canada),  Cath- 
olic University  (Wash.,  D.  C.) ;  ord. 
Dec.  21,  1901;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Davenport,  July  25,  1927. 

Rummel,  Joseph  Francis  —  b. 
Oct.  14,  1876,  Baden,  Germany; 
educ.  St.  Anselm's  College  (Man- 
chester, N.  H.),  St.  Joseph's  Semi- 
nary (Yonkers,  N.  Y.),  North  Amer- 
ican College  (Rome) ;  ord.  May  24, 
1902;  cons.  May  29,  1928;  app. 
Archbishop  of  New  Orleans,  March 
9,  1935. 


Ryan,  James  Hugh  —  b.  Dec.  15, 

1886,  Indianapolis,  Ind.;  educ.  Semi- 
nary of  Mount  St.  Mary  of  the 
West  (Cincinnati,  Ohio),  North 
American  College  (Rome),  Urban 
College  of  the  Propaganda  (Rome) ; 
ord.  June  5,  1909;  cons.  Oct.  25, 
1933;  app.  Bishop  of  Omaha,  Aug. 

6,  1935. 

Ryan,  Vincent  J.  —  b.  Arlington, 
Wis.;  educ.  St.  Francis  Seminary 
(Milwaukee,  Wis.),  St.  Paul  Semi- 
nary (St.  Paul,  Minn.);  ord.  June 

7,  1912;  cons.  Bishop  of  Bismarck, 
May  28,  1940. 

Scher,  Philip  George— -b.  Feb.  22, 
1880,  Belleville,  111.;  educ.  Pontifical 
College  of  the  Josephimim  (Colum- 
bus, Ohio),  Urban  College  of  the 
Propaganda  (Rome) ;  ord.  June  6, 
1904;  cons.  Bishop  of  Monterey- 
Fresno,  June  29,  1933. 

Schlarman,  Joseph  Henry  Leo  — 
b.  Feb.  23,  1879,  Breese  Township, 
Clinton  Co.,  111.;  educ.  St.  Francis 
Solanus  College  (Quincy,  111.),  Uni- 
versity of  Innsbruck  (Austria),  Pon- 
tifical Gregorian  University 
(Rome);  ord.  June  29,  1904;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Peoria,  June  17,  1930. 

Schrembs,  Joseph — b.  March  12, 
1866,  Wuzelhofen,  Germany;  educ. 
St.  Vincent's  College  (Beatty,  Pa.), 
Grand  Seminary  (Canada),  Laval 
University  (Canada) ;  ord.  June  29, 
1889;  cons.  Feb.  22,  1911:  app. 
Bishop  of  Cleveland,  Jan.  16,  1921: 
raised  to  the  dignity  of  an  Arch- 
bishop, March  25,  1939. 

Schuler,  Anthony  Joseph,  S.  J. — 
b.  Sept.  30,  1869,  St.  Mary's,  Elk 
Co.,  Pa.;  educ.  St.  Stanislaus  Novi- 
tiate and  Juniorate  (Florissant, 
Mo.),  St.  Louis  University  (St. 
Louis,  Mo.),  College  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  (Woodstock,  Md.) ;  ord.  June 
27,  1901;  cons.  Bishop  of  El  Paso, 
Oct.  28,  1915. 

Schulte,  Paul  Clarence  —  b.  Mar. 
18,  1890,  Fredericktown,  Mo.;  educ. 
St.  Francis  Solanus  College  (Quin- 
cy, 111.),  Kenrick  Seminary  (Web- 
ster Groves,  Mo.) ;  ord.  June  11, 
1915;  cons.  Bishop  of  Leavenworth, 
Sept.  21,  1937. 

Shaughnessy,  Gerald,  S.  M.  —  b. 
May  19,  1887,  Everett,  Mass.;  educ. 
All  Hallows  College  (Salt  Lake, 
Utah),  Marist  College  and  Seminary 
(Wash.,  D.  C.),  Catholic  University 
(Wash.,  D.  C.);  ord.  June  20,  1920; 


75 


cons.  Bishop   of   Seattle,   Sept.   19, 
1933. 

Sheil,    Bernard    James  —  b.    Feb. 

18,  1888,  Chicago,  III.;  educ.  St  Vi- 
ator's College  and  Seminary  (Bour- 
bonnais,  111.);    ord.  May  21,  1910; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  Chi- 
cago, May  1,  1928. 

Spellman,  Francis  Joseph — b.  May 
4, 1899,  Whitman,  Mass.;  educ.  Ford- 
ham  College  (New  York,  N.  Y.), 
North  American  College  (Rome) ; 
ord.  May  14,  1916;  cons.  Sept.  8, 
1932;  app.  Archbishop  of  New  York, 
April  15,  1939;  Bishop  Ordinary  for 
the  Army  and  Navy  of  the  United 
States,  Dec.  10,  1939. 

Stritch,  Samuel  Alphonsus  —  b. 
August  17,  1887,  Nashville,  Tenn.; 
educ.  St.  Gregory's  Preparatory 
Seminary  (Cincinnati,  Ohio),  North 
American  College  (Rome) ;  ord. 
May  21,  1909;  cons.  November  30, 
1921;  app.  Archbishop  of  Chicago, 
Jan.  5,  1940. 

Swint,  John  Joseph — b.  Dec.  15, 
1879,  Pickens,  W.  Va.;  educ.  St 
Charles  College  (Ellicott  City,  Md.), 
St.  Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore, 
Md.),  Catholic  University  (Wash., 
D.  C.);  ord.  June  21,  1904;  cons. 
May  11,  1922;  app.  Bishop  of  Wheel- 
ing, Dec.  11,  1922. 

Takach,  Basil— b.  Oct.  27,  1879, 
Vrickovoje,  Maramorisska  Zupa, 
Hungary;  educ.  Uzhorod  Gymna- 
sium (Uzhorpd,  Hungary),  Greek 
Catholic  Seminary  (Uzhorod) ;  ord. 
Dec.  12,  1902;  elected  to  the  Titular 
See  of  Zela,  May  20,  1924,  and 
named  first  Bishop  of  the  Carpatho- 
Russians,  Hungarians  and  Croa- 
tiansin  America;  cons.  June  15, 1924. 

Taylor,  Vincent  George  —  b.  Sept. 

19,  1877,  Norfolk,  Va.;    educ.  Bel- 
mont  Abbey  College  and  Seminary 
(Belmont,    N.    C.);    ord.    May   24, 
1902;    elected    Abbot    Ordinary   of 
Belmont  Abbey  Nullius,   Aug.   20, 
1924;    confirmed  Abbot-ordinary, 
Dec.    12,    1924;    blessed    Mar.    19, 
1925. 

Thill,  Francis  Augustine  —  b.  Oct. 
12,  1893,  Dayton,  Ohio;  educ.  Uni- 
versity of  Dayton  (Dayton,  Ohio), 
Seminary  of  Mt.  St.  Mary  of  the 
West  (Cincinnati,  Ohio),  Collegio 
Angelico  (Rome);  ord.  Feb.  28, 
1920;  cons.  Bishop  of  Concordia, 
Oct.  28,  1938, 


Toolen,  Thomas  Joseph — b.  Feb. 
28,  1886,  Baltimore,  Md.;  educ.  Loy- 
ola College  (Baltimore,  Md.),  St. 
Mary's  Seminary  (Baltimore,  Md.), 
Catholic  University  (Wash.,  D.  C.) ; 
ord.  Sept.  27,  1910;  cons.  Bishop  of 
Mobile,  May  4,  1927. 

Vehr,  Urban  John  —  b.  May  30, 
1891,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  educ.  Semi- 
nary of  Mt.  St.  Mary  of  the  West 
(Cincinnati,  Ohio),  Catholic  Uni- 
versity (Wash.,  D.  C.),  Collegio  An- 
gelico (Rome);  ord.  May  29,  1915; 
cons.  Bishop  of  Denver,  June  10, 
1931. 

Walsh,  Emmet  Michael  —  b. 
March  6,  1892,  Beaufort,  S.  C.;  educ. 
Chatham  Academy  (Savannah,  Ga.), 
St.  Bernard's  Seminary  (Rochester, 
N.  Y.);  ord.  Jan.  15,  1916;  cons. 
Bishop  of  Charleston,  Sept.  8,  1927. 

Walsh,  Thomas  Joseph  —  b.  Dec. 
6,  1873,  Parker's  Landing,  Pa.;  educ. 
St.  Bonaventure's  College  and  Semi- 
nary (St.  Bonaventure,  N.  Y.)  Pon- 
tifical Institute  of  the  Apollinaris 
(Rome);  ord.  Jan.  27,  1900;  cons. 
July  25,  1918;  app.  Archbishop  of 
Newark,  Dec.  13,  1937;  raised  to  the 
dignity  of  Archbishop,  Nov.  27,  1941. 

Welch,  Thomas  Anthony  —  b. 
Nov.  2, 1884,  Faribault,  Minn.;  educ. 
College  of  St.  Thomas  (St.  Paul, 
Minn.),  St.  Paul's  Seminary  (St. 
Paul,  Minn);  ord.  June  11,  1909; 
cons.  Bishop  of  Duluth,  June  23, 
1926. 

White,  Charles  Daniel  —  b.  June 
5,  1879,  Grand  Rapids,  Mich.;  educ, 
St.  Francis  Seminary  (Milwaukee, 
Wis.),  Urban  College  of  the  Propa- 
ganda (Rome);  ord.  Sept.  24,  1910; 
cons.  Bishop  of  Spokane,  Feb.  24, 
1927. 

Winkelmann,  Christian  Herman 
—  b.  Sept.  12,  1883,  St.  Louis,  Mo.; 
educ.  St.  Francis  College  (Quincy, 
111.),  Kenrick  Seminary  (Webster 
Groves,  Mo.);  ord.  June  11,  1907; 
cons.  Nov.  30,  1933;  app.  Bishop  of 
Wichita,  Jan.  6,  1940. 

Woznicki,  Stephen  Stanislaus  — 
b.  August  17,  1894,  Miners  Falls, 
Pa.;  educ.  Seminary  of  Ss.  Cyril 
and  Methodius  (Orchard  Lake, 
Mich.),  Seminary  of  St.  Paul  (St. 
Paul,  Minn.);  ord.  Dec.  22,  1917; 
cons,  as  Auxiliary  Bishop  of  De- 
troit, Jan.  25,  1938. 


76 


Boston,  Mass 1808 . 

Chicago,  111 1843 . 


Cincinnati,  Ohio 1821. 


Louisville,  Ky 1841 . . 

Milwaukee,  Wis 1848 . 


HIERARCHY   OF  THE   UNITED   STATES 
See  Formed  Archbishops  Consecrated 

Baltimore,  Md 1789 . .  .Michael  J.  Curley   1914 

. .  .John  M.  McNamara,  V.  G.,  Aux.  Bp.  1928 

.William  Cardinal  O'Connell 1901 

.Richard   J.    dishing,   Auxiliary   Bp.  1939 

.  Samuel  A.  Stritch  1921 

.Bernard  J.  Shell,  Auxiliary  Bp 1928 

.William  D.  O'Brien,  Auxiliary  Bp...   1934 

.John  T.  McNicholas,  O.  P 1918 

.George  J,  Rehring,  Auxiliary  Bp 1937 

Denver,  Colo 1887. . . Urban  J.  Vehr 1931 

Detroit,  Mich 1833. .  .Edward  F.  Mooney 1926 

. . .  Stephen  S.  Woznicki,  Auxiliary  Bp. .   1938 

Dubuque,  Iowa   1837. .  .Francis  J.  L.  Beckman 1924 

Los  Angeles,  Cal 1922 . .  .John  J.  Cantwell  1917 

. .  .Joseph  T.  McGucken,  Auxiliary  Bp.   1941 

.  .John  A.  Floersn   1923 

.  .Moses  E.  Kiley 1934 

.  .Thomas  J.  Walsh 1918 

..Thomas  A.  Boland,  Auxiliary  Bp.  ..   1940 

.  .Joseph  F.  Rummel 1928 

.  .Francis  J.  Spellman  1932 

. .  Stephen  J.  Donahue,  Auxiliary  Bp.  1934 
..J.   Francis    A.    Mclntyre,   Aux.    Bp.  1941 

.Dennis  Cardinal  Dougherty  1903 

.  Hugh  L.  Lamb,  Auxiliary  Bp 1936 

.Edward  D.  Howard 1924 

..John  J.   Glennon    1896 

.  .George  J.  Donnelly,  Auxiliary  Bp.  . .  1940 

.  .John  G.  Murray  1920 

.  .Robert  E.  Lucey 1934 

.  .John  J.  Mitty 1926 

.  .Thomas  A.  Connolly,  Auxiliary  Bp.  1939 

.  .Rudolph  A.  Oprken   1P27 

..Sidney  M.  Metzger,  Auxiliary  Bp...  1940 

..Michael  J.  Curley  1914 

Bishops 

.  .Edmund  F.  Gibbons 1919 

Alexandria,  La 1853. .  .Daniel  F.  Desmond  1933 

Altoona,  Pa 1901. .  .Richard  T.  Guilfoyle 1936 

Amarillo,  Tex 1926. .  .Lawrence  J.  FitzSimon  1941 

Baker  City,  Ore 1903. .  .Joseph  F.  McGrath  1919 

..Henry  A  1th off 3914 

.  .Vincent  J.  Ryan 1940 

.  .Edward  J.  Kelly 1928 

.  .Thomas  E.  Molloy 1920 

.  .Raymond  A,  Kearney,  Auxiliary  Bp.  1935 

.  .John  A.  Duffy 1933 

.  .Matthew  Francis  Brady 1938 

.Bartholomew  J.  Eustace  1938 

.Emmet  M.  Walsh -. 1927 

Cheyenne,  Wyo 1887. .  .Patrick  A.  McGovern  1912 

Cleveland,  Ohio   1847 . .  .Joseph  Schrembs,  Archbishop-Bp. . .  1911 

...James  A.  McFadden,  Auxiliary  Bp.  1932 

.  .James  J.  Hartley  1904 

.  .Francis  A.  Thill 1938 

. .  Emmanuel  B.  Ledvina  1921 

..Mariano  Garriga,  Coadjutor  Bp.  ...  1936 
77 


Newark,  N.  J. 

New  Orleans,  La. 
New  York,  N.  Y.  . 


Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Portland,  Ore 

St.  Louis,  Mo 

St.  Paul,  Minn 

San  Antonio,  Tex.  . . 
San  Francisco,  Cal.  . 

Santa  Fe,  N.  M 

Washington,  D.  C. 
Albany,  N.  Y. 


1853. 

1793. 

1808. 


1808.. 

1846!! 
1826.. 

1850 !' 

1874. 

1853. 

1850* 
1939.* 

1847. 


Belleville,  111 1887. 

Bismarck,  N.  Dak 1909  . 

Boise,  Idaho    1893. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y 1853. 

Buffalo,  N.  Y 1847. 

Burlington,  Vt 1853  . 

Camden,  N.  J 1937. 

Charleston,  S.  C 1820.. 


Columbus,  Ohio 
Concordia,  Kans.  . . . 
Corpus  Christi,  Tex. 


3868. 
1887. 
1912. 


See 

Covington,  Ky 

Crookston,  Minn.  . . . 

Dallas,  Tex 

Davenport,  Iowa  .... 
Des  Moines,  Iowa  . . . 

Duiuth,  Minn 

El  Paso,  Tex 

Erie,  Pa 

Pall  River,  Mass.  . . . 

Fargo,  N.  Dak 

Fort  Wayne,  Ind.  . . . 

Gallup,  N.  M 

Galveston,  Tex 

Grand  Island,  Neb.  . 
Grand  Rapids,  Miclx. 
Great  Falls,  Mont.  . 

Green  Bay,  Wis 

Harrisburg,  Pa 

Hartford,  Conn 


Helena,  Mont.  . . . 
Indianapolis,  Ind. 
Kansas  City,  Mo. 
La  Crosse,  Wis.  . 


Lafayette,  La 

Lansing,  Mich 

Leaven  worth,  Kans. 

Lincoln,  Neb 

Little  Rock,  Ark.  . . . 


CaL, 


Manchester,  N.  H. 
Marquette,  Mich.   . 

Mobile,  Ala 

Monterey-Fresno, 

Nashville,  Tenn , 

Natchez,  Miss 

Ogdensburg,  N.  Y 

Oklahoma  City  and 

Tulsa,  Okla 

Omaha,  Neb 

Owensboro,  Ky 

Paterson,  N.  J 

Peoria,  111 

Pittsburgh,  Pa 

Portland,  Me 

Providence,  R.  I 

Pueblo,  Colo 

Raleigh,  N.  C 

Rapid  City,  S.  Dak.  . . . 

Reno,  Nev 

Richmond,  Va 


Rochester,  N.  Y 1868. 

Rockford,  111 1908. 

Sacramento,  Cal 1886. 

Saginaw,  Mich 1938 . 


Formed  Bishops  Consecrated 

.  1853. .  .Francis  W.  Howard  1923 

.  1909... John  Hubert  Peschges 1938 

.  1890. .  .Joseph  P.  Lynch 1911 

.  1881. .  .Henry  P.  Rohlman 1927 

.  1911. .  .Gerald  T.  Bergan 1934 

.  1889 . .  .Thomas  A.  Welch  1926 

.  1914 . .  .Antony  J.  Schuler,  S.  J 1915 

.  1853. .  .John  M.  Gannon 1918 

.  1904. .  .James  B.  Cassidy 1930 

.  1889. . .  Aloysius  J.  Muench 1935 

.  1857. .  .John  F.  Noll  1925 

.  1940  .Bernard  T.  Espelage,  O.  F.  M 1940 

.  1847 . . .  Christopher  E.  Byrne  1918 

.  1912 . . .  Stanislaus  V.  Bona  3932 

.  1882.  .  .Joseph  C.  Plagens 1924 

.  1904  . .  .William  J.  Condon  1939 

.  1868. .  .Paul  P.  Rhode 1908 

.  1868. .  .George  L.  Leech  1935 

.  1843. .  .Maurice  F.  McAuliffe  1926 

. .  .Henry  J.  O'Brien,  Auxiliary  Bp.  ...  1940 

.  1884... Joseph  M,  Gilmore  iy36 

.  1834. .  .Joseph  B.  Ritter  1933 

.  1880 . .  .Edwin  V.  O'Hara 1930 

.  1868... Alexander  J.  McGavick  . .  1899 

. .  .William  R.  Griffin,  Auxiliary  Bp.  ...  1935 

.  1918. .  .Jules  B.  Jeaninaru 1918 

.  1937. .  .Joseph  H.  Albers 1929 

.  1877. .  .Paul  C.  Schulte  1937 

.  1887. .  .Louis  B.  Kucera  1930 

.  1843. .  .John  B.  Morris 1906 

. .  .Albert  L.  Fletcher,  Auxiliary  Bp.. . .  1940 

.  1884. .  .John  B.  Peterson 1927 

.  1857. .  .Francis  J.  Magner 1941 

.  1829. .  .Thomas  J.  Toolen  1927 

.  1922. .  .Philip  G.  Scher 1933 

.  1837. .  .William  L.  Adrian 1936 

.  1837. .  .Richard  O.  Gerow  1924 

.  1872 . .  .Francis  J.  Monaghan  1936 

.  19 05... Francis  C.  Kelley   1924 

.  1885. .  .James  H,  Ryan 1933 

.  1937 . .  .Francis  R.  Cotton  1938 

.  1937. ,  .Thomas  H.  McLaughlin 1935 

.   1875 . .  .Joseph  H.  Schlarman 1930 

.   1843. .  .Hugh  C.  Boyle  1921 

.  1853 . .  .Joseph  E.  McCarthy  1932 

.   1872, .  .Francis  P.  Keough 1934 

.   1941 

.  1924 . .  .Eugene  J.  McGuinness 1937 

.   1902 . .  .John  J.  Lawler 1910 

.   1931 . .  .Thomas  K.  Gorman 1931 

.   1820. .  .Andrew  J.  Brennan 1923 

. .  .Peter  L.  Ireton,  Coadjutor 1935 

.James  E.  Kearney 1932 

.Edward  F.  Hoban  1921 

.Robert  J.  Armstrong 1929 

.William  F.  Murphy 1938 


See  Formed  Bishops  Consecrated 

St.  Augustine,  Fla 1870 . .  .Joseph  P.  Hurley   1940 

St.  Cloud,  Minn 1889. .  .Joseph  F.  Busch 1910 

St.  Joseph,  Mo 1868 ...  Charles  H.  Le  Blond 1933 

Salt  Lake,  Utah 1891. .  .Duane  G.  Hunt 1937 

San  Diego,  Cal 1936 ...  Charles  F.  Buddy 1936 

Savannah-Atlanta,  Ga.. .   1850. .  .Gerald  P.  O'Hara 1929 

Scranton,  Pa 1868. .  .William  J.  Hafey    1925 

Seattle,  Wash 1850. . .  Gerald  Shaughnessy,  S.  M 1933 

Sioux  City,  Iowa   1902 . . .  Edmond  Heelan   1919 

Sioux  Falls,  S.  Dak.  . . .   1889 . .  William  O.  Brady   1939 

Spokane,  Wash 1913. .  Charles  D.  White 1927 

Springfield.  Ill 1857  . .  .James  A.  Griffin    1924 

Springfield,  Mass 1870. .  Thomas  M.  O'Leary 1921 

Superior,  Wis 1905. . .  Msgr.  Charles  J.  Weber,  Adm 

.  .Walter  A.  Foery 1937 

.  .Karl  J.  Alter 1931 

.  .William  A.  Griffin  1938 

1923 
1922 

Wichita,  Kans 1887 . . .  Christian  H.  Winkelmann   1933 

Wilmington,  Del 1868. .  .Edmond  J.  Fitzmaurice  .  .         1925 

Winona,  Minn 1889. . .  Francis  M.  Kelly ...         1926 


Syracuse,  N.  Y 1886 . 

Toledo,  Ohio  1910. 

Trenton,  N.  J. 1881 . 

Tucson,  Ariz 1897. .  .Daniel  J.  Gercke 

Wheeling,  W.  Va 1850. .  .John  J.  Swint 


Army  and  Navy 


1917. .  .Francis  J.  Spellman 1932 

...John  F.  O'Hara,   C.  S.  C.,  Military 

Delegate    1940 

1910. .  .Vincent  G.  Taylor,  0.  S.  B 


Belmont,  N.  C. 

(Abbacy  Nullius) 
Philadelphia,  Pa. 
(Ukrainian  Greek 

Catholic  Diocese)    . . .  1913. . .  Constantine  Bohachevsky 1924 

Pittsburgh,  Pa.  •  •  • Jolm  Buczko>  Auxiliary  Bp 1929 

(Greek  Rite)   1924-  •  -Basil  Takach 1924 

HIERARCHY  OF  U.  S.  POSSESSIONS  AND  PHILIPPINES, 
BAHAMAS,  JAMAICA,  HONDURAS,  AND  SIERRA  LEONE 
See                               Formed                 Bishops                        Consecrated 
Alaska 
(Vicariate  Apostolic).  1916. .  .Joseph  R.  Crimont,  S.  J 1917 

„       ,   „  . .  .Walter  J.  Fitzgerald,  S.  J.,  Coadjutor  1939 

Canal  Zone 

(under   Archbishop    of 

Panama)    John  J.  Maiztegui,  C.  M.  F 1926 

Guam 

Leo  A,  Olano,  O.  F.  M.  Cap 1935 


(Vicariate  Apostolic).  1911 
Hawaiian  Islands 

Diocese  of  Honolulu  .  1941 
Philippine  Islands 

Archdiocese  of  Manila  1579 


.James  J.  Sweeney  1941 


.Michael  J.  O'Doherty,  Archbishop..  1911 

.Cesar  M.  Guerrero,  Auxiliary  Bp —  1929 

.Gabriel  M.  Reyes,  Archbishop  ..    ..  1932 

.Casimiro  M.  Lladoc 1933 

.James  T.  G.  Hayes,  S.  J 1933 

.Miguel   Acebedo    1938 

.James  P.  McCloskey 1917 


Archdiocese  of  Cebu. .  1595. 
Diocese  of  Bacolod . . .  1932  . 
Diocese  of  Cagayan..  1933. 
Diocese  of  Calbayog. .  1910. 

Diocese  of  Jaro  1865. 

Diocese  of  Lingayen . . 

Diocese  of  Lipa  

Diocese  of  Nueva 

Caceres   1595. ,  .Pedro  A.  Santos 

Diocese  of  Nueva 

Segovia   1595. .  .Santiago  C.  Sancho 1917 

79 


1928. . .  Mariano   Madriaga    1938 

1910. .  .Alfredo  Verzosa  1917 

1938 


See  Formed  Bishops  Consecrated 

Diocese  of  Palo  1937 . .  .Manuel  Mascannas  1938 

Diocese  of  Surigao  ..  1939  ..  .J.  T.G.Hayes,  S.J.,  Administrator  ..  1933 

Diocese  of  Tuguegarao  1910. .  -Constancio  Jurgens,  I.  C,  M 1928 

Dioefw  of  ftarobonnea  1910. . .  Luis  del  Rosario,   S.  J 1933 

Prefecture  Apostolic  of 

Mindoro    1936 . .  .William  T.  Finnemann,  S.  V.  D 1929 

Prefecture  Apostolic  of 
Mountain  Province.  1932. .  .Joseph    Billiet,    C.  I.  C.  M.,    Prefect 

Apostolic    

Prefecture  Apostolic  of 

Palawan    1910. .  .Leandro  da  S.  Nicola  da  Tolentino, 

O.  R.  S.  A,,  Prefect  Apostolic  

Puerto  Rico 

Diocese  of  Ponce 1924. .  .Aloysiua  J,  Willinger,  C.  SS.  R.    ...   1929 

Diocese  of  San  Juan. .   1511. .  .Edwin  V.  Byrne  1925 

Samoa 

(Vicariate  Apostolic) .   1929 . .  .Joseph  Darnand,  S.  M 1920 

Bahamas 

(Vicariate  Apostolic).   1941. .  .Bernard  J.  Kevenhoerster,  O.  S.  B.  .   1933 
British  Honduras 
Vicariate  Apostolic  of 

Belize  1893 . .  .William  A.  Rice,  S.  J 1939 

Jamaica 

(Vicariate  Apostolic) .   1837. .  .Thomas  A.  Emmet,  S.  J 1930 

Sierra  Leone 
(Vicariate  Apostolic) .  1858. .  .Ambrose  Kelly,  C.  S.  Sp 1937 

ECCLESIASTICAL  PROVINCES  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

For  the  better  government  of  the  Church,  dioceses  in  one  locality  are 
grouped  together  under  the  headship  of  an  archdiocese;  such  a  forma- 
tion is  called  a  province.  Without  special  faculty  from  the  Holy  See, 
the  archbishop  or  metropolitan  has  no  direct  jurisdiction  over  the  dio< 
ceses  or  bishops  in  his  province;  he  is  the  first  among  equals,  a  presi- 
dent. This  division  into  provinces  is  made  in  order  to  care  more  im- 
mediately for  the  local  needs,  to  correct  more  easily  local  abuses,  and 
to  co-ordinate  the  work  of  the  bishops.  The  following  are  the  provinces 
in  the  United  States  proper. 

Province  of  Baltimore  includes  the  states  of  Maryland,  Delaware,  Virginia, 
West  Virginia,  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina  and  Georgia,  the  eastern 
part  of  Florida,  and  the  District  of  Columbia;  Archdioceses  of  Balti- 
more, Md.,  and  Washington,  D.  C.;  the  dioceses  of  Charleston,  S.  C., 
Raleigh,  N.  C.,  Richmond,  Va.,  St.  Augustine,  Fla.,  Savannah-Atlanta, 
G-a.,  Wheeling,  W.  Va,,  Wilmington,  Del.,  and  the  Abbacy  Nullius  of 
Belmont,  N.  C. 

Province  of  Boston  includes  the  New  England  States:  Archdiocese  of  Bos- 
ton, Mass;  the  dioceses  of  Burlington,  Vt,  Fall  River,  Mass.,  Hartford, 
Conn.,  Manchester,  N.  H.,  Portland,  Me.,  Providence,  R.  I.,  Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Province  of  Chicago  includes  the  state  of  Illinois:  Archdiocese  of  Chicago, 
111.;  the  dioceses  of  Belleville,  111.,  Peoria,  111.,  Rockford,  111.,  and  Spring- 
field, 111. 

Province  of  Cincinnati  includes  the  states  of  Ohio  and  Indiana:  Arch- 
diocese of  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  the  dioceses  of  Cleveland,  Ohio,  Columbus, 
Ohio,  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.,  Indianapolis,  Ind.,  and  Toledo,  Ohio. 
Province  of  Denver  includes  the  states  of  Colorado  and  Wyoming:  Arch- 
diocese of  Denver,  Colo.;  the  dioceses  of  Cheyenne,  Wyo.,  and  Pueblo, 
Qolo. 

80 


Province  of  Detroit  Includes  the  state  of  Michigan:  Archdiocese  of  De- 
troit, Mich.;  the  dioceses  of  Grand  Rapids,  Mich.,  Lansing,  Mich.,  Mar- 
quette,  Mich.,  and  Saginaw,  Mich. 

Province  of  Dubuque  includes  the  states  of  Iowa  and  Nebraska:  Arch- 
diocese of  Dubuque,  Iowa;  the  dioceses  of  Davenport,  Iowa,  Des  Moines, 
Iowa,  Grand  Island,  Neb.,  Lincoln,  Neb.,  Omaha,  Neb.,  and  Sioux  City, 
Iowa. 

Province  of  Los  Angeles  includes  southern  California  and  the  state  of 
Arizona:  Archdiocese  of  Los  Angeles,  CaL;  the  dioceses  of  Monterey- 
Fresno,  Cal.,  San  Diego,  CaL,  and  Tucson,  Ariz. 

Province  of  LouSsvi!le  includes  the  states  of  Kentucky  and  Tennessee: 
Archdiocese  of  Louisville,  Ky.;  the  dioceses  of  Covington,  Ky.,  Owens- 
boro,  Ky.,  and  Nashville,  Tenn. 

Province  of  Milwaukee  includes  the  state  of  Wisconsin  and  northern 
Michigan:  Archdiocese  of  Milwaukee.;  the  dioceses  of  Green  Bay, 
Wis.,  La  Crosse,  Wis.,  and  Superior,  Wis. 

Province  of  Newark  includes  the  state  of  New  Jersey:  Archdiocese  of 
Newark,  N.  J.;  the  dioceses  of  Camden,  N.  J.,  Paterson,  N.  J.,  and 
Trenton,  N.  J. 

Province  of  New  Orleans  includes  the  states  of  Louisiana,  Alabama, 
Mississippi,  Arkansas  and  western  Florida:  Archdiocese  of  New  Or- 
leans, La.;  the  dioceses  of  Alexandria,  La.,  Lafayette,  La.,  Little  Rock, 
Ark.,  Mobile,  Ala.,  and  Natchez,  Miss. 

Province  of  New  York  includes  the  state  of  New  York:  Archdiocese  of 
New  York,  N.  Y.;  the  dioceses  of  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  Buf- 
falo, N.  Y.,  Ogdensburg,  N.  Y.,  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  and  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Province  of  Philadelphia  includes  the  state  of  Pennsylvania:  Archdiocese 
of  Philadelphia,  Pa.;  the  dioceses  of  Altoona,  Pa.,  Erie,  Pa.,  Harris- 
burg,  Pa.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  Scranton,  Pa. 

Province  of  Portland  in  Oregon  includes  the  states  of  Oregon,  Washing- 
ton, Idaho,  Montana  and  Alaska  Territory:  Archdiocese  of  Portland, 
Ore.;  the  dioceses  of  Baker  City,  Ore.,  Boise,  Idaho,  Great  Falls,  Mont., 
Helena,  Mont.,  Seattle,  Wash.,  Spokane,  Wash.;  and  the  Vicariate- 
Apostolic  of  Alaska. 

Province  of  St.  Louis  includes  the  states  of  Missouri  and  Kansas:  Arch- 
diocese of  St.  Louis,  Mo.;  the  dioceses  of  Concordia,  Kans.,  Kansas 
City,  Mo.,  Leavenworth,  Kans.,  St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  and  Wichita,  Kans. 

Province  of  St.  Paul  includes  the  states  of  Minnesota,  South  Dakota  and 
North  Dakota:  Archdiocese  of  St.  Paul,  Minn.;  the  dioceses  of  Bis- 
marck, N.  Dak.,  Crookston,  Minn.,  Duluth,  Minn.,  Fargo,  N.  D.,  Rapid 
City,  S.  Dak.,  St.  Cloud,  Minn.,  Sioux  Falls,  S.  Dak.,  and  Winona,  Minn. 

Province  of  San  Antonio  includes  the  states  of  Texas  (except  the  Diocese 
of  El  Paso)  and  Oklahoma:  Archdiocese  of  San  Antonio,  Tex.;  the 
dioceses  of  Amarillo,  Tex.,  Corpus  Christi,  Tex.,  Dallas,  Tex.,  Gal- 
veston,  Tex.,  and  Oklahoma  City  and  Tulsa,  Okla. 

Province  of  San  Francisco  includes  northern  California,  the  states  of 
Nevada  and  Utah,  and  Hawaii:  Archdiocese  of  San  Francisco,  Cal.;  the 
dioceses  of  Reno,  Nev.,  Sacramento,  CaL,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah,  and 
Honolulu,  Hawaii. 

Province  of  Sante  Fe  includes  the  state  of  New  Mexico  and  the  diocese 
of  El  Paso,  Tex.:  Archdiocese  of  Santa  Fe,  N,  M.;  the  dioceses  of  El 
Paso,  Tex.,  and  Gallup,  N.  M. 

81 


Cfmrti)  anfr 


Primarily  an  institution  devoted  to  the  salvation  of  souls,  the  Church 
nevertheless  performs  many  secondary  functions,  one  of  which  is  the 
preservation  of  the  social  order.  She  has  always  thrown  her  full 
weight  against  the  destruction  of  society.  Ceaselessly  has  she  preached 
the  duty  of  obedience  to  civil  authority,  respect  for  property  rights  and 
respect  for  human  dignity. 

The  religious,  social  and  political  upheaval  of  the  sixteenth  century, 
known  as  the  Reformation  (1517-1648),  destroyed  Christian  unity,  and 
bitter  antagonisms  arose.  During  the  eighteenth  and  nineteenth  cen- 
turies the  obvious  opposition  to  Catholicism  declined.  Formerly  the 
Church  was  reprobated  for  her  form  of  worship,  her  sacraments  ana 
her  credence  in  miracles.  With  the  rise  of  the  Protestant  states  to 
power  and  leadership  and  what  was  thought  to  be  the  decline  of  the 
Catholic  countries,  a  more  tolerant  and  patronizing  attitude  was  assumed. 
The  twentieth  century,  however,  has  brought  many  problems  and  difficul- 
ties superficially  blamable  on  the  first  World  War  but  remotely  traceable 
to  the  principles  forming  the  basis  of  the  anti-Catholic  culture.  Confused 
and  bewildered  at  the  blow  struck  their  boasted  superiority  these  forces 
have  now  been  confronted  with  the  definite  Catholic  political,  social  and 
economic  philosophy  which  they  have  so  long  disregarded.  That  they 
will  embrace  the  Catholic  teaching  seems  too  sanguine  a  hope.  That 
there  is  need  for  a  united  Christian  front  to  oppose  the  attacks  of  a 
pagan  Socialism  and  Communism  has  been  pointed  out  by  Pope  Pius 
XI  and  Pope  Pius  XII  in  their  encyclicals.  The  Church  will  continue  its 
opposition  to  these,  as  well  as  to  extreme  Nationalism. 

The  Catholic  citizen  is  in  conscience  bound  to  respect  and  obey  the  duly 
constituted  authority  provided  faith  and  morals  are  thereby  not  endan- 
gered. Under  no  circumstances  may  the  Church  be  subjugated  by  the 
State.  Whatever  their  form  may  be,  states  are  not  conceded  the  right 
to  force  the  observance  of  immoral  or  irreligious  laws  upon  a  people. 
That  there  is  grave  danger  that  certain  states  encroach  upon  the  realm 
of  faith  and  morals  the  following  record  for  1941  testifies. 

of  the  Benedictine  Missionary  Con- 
gregation of  St.  Ottilien  were  closed 
in  the  spring.  Two  houses  of  the 
Jesuits  in  Muenster  were  expropri- 
ated in  July,  and  the  priests  and 
Brothers  banished  from  Westphalia. 
The  famed  liturgical  center  at  Ma- 
ria-Laach  was  confiscated,  only  the 
Abbot  and  five  elderly  priests  and 
Brothers  being  permitted  to  remain. 
Younger  members  of  the  orders 
were  conscripted  for  military  serv- 


GERMANY 

War  had  increased  the  ills  of  the 
Church  in  Germany.  Oppression  by 
the  State  continued,  though  millions 
of  German  Catholics  were  bearing 
arms  for  their  country,  forced  to 
sacrifice  their  blood  and  lives.  Dur- 
ing the  year  numerous  Church  prop- 
erties were  seized.  The  Swiss  Bene- 
dictine Fathers  were  evicted  from 
Bregenz,  Austria,  Jan,  3.,  All  houses 


ice.  Some  of  the  monasteries  were 
used  as  military  hospitals.  Where 
churches  were  attached  to  religious 
institutions  they  were  closed; 
schools  were  taken  over  for  opera- 
tion by  the  State.  To  date,  more 
than  25  orders  of  men  and  women 
had  been  affected  by  the  Nazi  seiz- 
ure of  some  70  abbeys,  seminaries, 
convents  and  other  religious  houses, 
about  one-third  m  Germany  and  the 
others  in  former  Austria.  It  was 
estimated  that  1,100  priests  of  Ger- 
man, Austrian,  Czech,  Dutch  and 
Polish  nationality  were  in  Nazi  con- 
centration camps.  Of  these  the  ma- 
jority were  Poles  and  about  25  were 
Germans.  By  Nazi  decree  in  1941 
those  fit  to  work  were  not  to  be 
permitted  to  enter  religious  orders. 

A  pastoral  of  Archbishop  Groeber 
of  Freiburg-im-Breisgau  early  in 
1941  said  these  last  years  had 
brought  to  German  Catholics  "great 
changes,  restrictions  and  ruin  al- 
most without  precedent,"  that  when 
unity  and  concord  were  most  need- 
ed in  the  nation,  difficulties  caused 
by  non-Christian  conceptions  and 
principles  had  increased,  and  religi- 
ous convictions  honored  by  millions 
and  millions  of  German  forefathers 
were  despised.  Wrongs  against 
honor,  against  God,  against  the  sal- 
vation of  souls  and  against  the 
Christian  future  of  a  people  cannot 
be  met,  he  said,  by  resignation 
without  defense.  The  German  hier- 
archy meeting  at  Fulda  in  June  is- 
sued a  joint  pastoral  letter  which 
they  succeeded  in  making  public, 
declaring  the  very  existence  of 
Christianity  was  threatened  by  Na- 
zism, and  specifically  referring  to 
suppression  of  Catholic  papers,  clos- 
ing of  religious  houses,  prohibition 
of  religious  instruction  and  the 
propaganda  for  apostasy  carried  on 
chiefly  by  circulation  of  leaflets 
stating  that  one  must  decide  "to 
be  either  a  Christian  or  a  German." 

On  July  14  Count  von  Galen, 
Bishop  of  Muenster,  telegraphed  the 
Minister  of  the  Reich  denouncing 
the  Gestapo  confiscation  of  proper- 
ties and  eviction  of  families  in 
Muenster  which  was  then  undergo- 
ing severe  enemy  air  raids,  and 


asking  protection  from  their  arbi- 
trary action.  Dr.  Lammers  replied 
that  he  had  turned  the  matter  over 
to  the  Chief  of  German  Police  for 
further  action.  The  Bishop  then 
addressed  a  letter  to  Dr.  Lammers 
stating  that  it  was  from  this  secret 
State  Police  that  he  had  asked  pro- 
tection, and  warning  that  domestic 
enemies  were  ruining  people  and 
fatherland.  He  enclosed  copies  of 
two  sermons  he  had  delivered 
against  the  persecutory  methods  of 
the  Gestapo.  Later  he  delivered  a 
third  sermon.  These  were  widely 
circulated  and  created  such  a  stir 
that  it  is  reported  Himmler  sought 
to  have  him  seized  but  Hitler  de- 
cided against  such  action,  knowing 
the  Bishop's  immense  influence.  His 
denunciation  of  injustices  that  cried 
to  heaven  included  the  secret  kill- 
ing of  those  deemed  socially  unfit, 
patients  having  vanished  from  hos- 
pitals and  asylums.  In  fact,  the 
Bishop  asserted,  with  the  consent 
of  national  leaders  all  the  com- 
mandments of  Christian  morals 
were  being  regularly  broken,  as  in 
this  instance,  by  murder,  and  also 
by  idolatry,  the  Sabbath  being  dis- 
regarded, by  adultery,  soldiers  be- 
ing urged  to  become  "war  fathers," 
and  by  theft,  persons  in  command 
enriching  themselves  by  appropri- 
ated property.  He  called  on  all 
Christians  to  stand  fast,  with  the 
assurance  that  in  the  last  resort 
God  will  judge.  In  August  Bishop 
Bornewasser  of  Trier  delivered  a 
sermon  against  Gestapo  expulsion 
of  religious  from  his  diocese,  and 
stated  these  lawless  agressions 
were  "laying  the  axe  to  the  root 
of  the  state." 

At  the  end  of  the  year,  "Nord- 
land,"  organ  of  the  so-called  "God- 
believers,"  Nazis  not  affiliated  with 
any  church,  set  forth  nine  points 
which  it  stated  constitute  the  Na- 
tional Socialist  "Creed."  According 
to  the  statement,  "We  National  So- 
cialists believe  in  :(1)  the  Divine; 
(2)  the  unity  of  the  universe;  (3) 
Mother  Earth;  (4)  destiny;  (5)  the 
creative  power  of  blood;  (6)  our 
people  and  its  mission;  (7)  our 
Fuehrer;  (8)  the  National  Socialist 


83 


Community  of  the  People;  (9)  our- 
selves." The  document  as  a  whole 
makes  it  clear  that  the  Divine  does 
not  signii'y  a  personal  God.  On  this 
neo-paganism  the  Nazis  would  build 
the  National  Reich's  Church  of  Ger- 
many. 

BELGIUM 

Since  the  first  days  of  the  Ger- 
man occupation,  all  meetings  and 
activities  of  Catholic  organizations 
in  Belgium  were  forbidden,  and 
Gestapo  agents  searched  their  head- 
quarters, and  residences  of  bishops 
and  priests  and  carried  away  many 
documents.  The  press  was  under 
rigorous  control  by  Nazi  authorities 
and  in  the  Brussels  newspaper, 
"Soir,"  it  was  stated  that  "the  new 
order  can  neither  recognize  nor 
tolerate  a  Catholic  party  nor  Catho- 
lic syndicates  nor  Catholic  econo- 
mic institutions,"  and  will  not  per- 
mit any  "resistance  to  the  National 
Socialist  revolution  in  the  form  oi" 
confessional  schools  where  confes- 
sional youth  organizations  refuse  to 
accept  the  discipline  asked  from 
everyone."  In  the  state  universities 
of  Ghent  and  Liege  the  National 
Socialist  spirit  was  injected  into 
lecture  courses.  At  Louvain  sev- 
eral professors  known  for  their  sup- 
port of  Catholic  social  teaching 
were  dismissed,  but  attempts  to  in- 
filtrate Nazi  doctrines  in  the  insti- 
tution met  with  firm  opposition 
from  Cardinal  Van  Roey,  Primate 
of  Belgium. 

In  a  pastoral  issued  in  July  the 
Cardinal  called  upon  his  people  to 
bear  up  under  steadily  increasing 
physical  and  moral  sufferings,  "re- 
strictions imposed  everywhere  and 
in  everything,"  deprivation  of  the 
necessities  of  life,  and  constant 
worry.  In  an  address  at  a  Jo  cist 
Congress  he  declared  that  the 
Church  adapts  herself  to  any  tol- 
erable regime  that  maintains  and 
safeguards  her  liberties  but  cannot 
adapt  herself  if  a  regime  violates 
the  rights  of  conscience.  "Actually," 
he  said,  "there  is  a  threat  to  the 
liberty  of  the  Church;  there  is  a 
threat  to  the  sacred  rights  of  con- 
science  We  have  a  duty  of  con- 


science to  combat  and  to  strive  for 

the  defeat  of  these  dangers 

Reason,  good  sense,  both  direct  us 
towards  confidence,  towards  resist- 
ance; for  we  have  assurance  that 
our  country  will  be  restored,  that 
it  will  rise  again." 

The  Jocists  had  abandoned  all  ex- 
ternal manifestations,  but  worked 
constantly  for  the  needy,  obtaining 
food  and  clothing,  seeking  missing 
members  of  families,  or  going  from 
door  to  door  to  announce  the  time 
and  place  of  church  services,  which 
information  could  no  longer  be  print- 
ed in  Belgium.  The  work  of  restor- 
ing 140,326  private  residences,  dam- 
aged in  the  18-day  invasion,  and  re- 
building some  of  the  9,832  destroy- 
ed, was  going  forward,  as  was  re- 
storation of  2,853  industrial  proper- 
ties and  3,060  public  buildings  dam- 
aged or  destroyed  and  1,455  bridges, 
locks  and  other  public  works.  Pro- 
duction and  consumption  were  rig- 
idly controlled  by  decree,  and  labor 
was  requisitioned  for  Germany. 
Food  was  so  scarce,  rations  became 
nominal  and  many  faced  starvation. 

King  Leopold  III,  a  voluntary 
prisoner  in  the  Chateau  of  Laeken, 
near  Brussels,  morganatically  mar- 
ried, on  Sept.  11,  Mile.  Marie  Lil- 
lian Baels,  daughter  of  a  former 
Belgian  Minister  of  Agriculture. 
Queen  Astrid  died  in  1935. 

NETHERLANDS 

On  Jan.  26,  1941,  the  Catholic 
hierarchy  of  the  Netherlands  issued 
a  joint  pastoral  which  was  secretly 
circulated  and  read  from  all  pul- 
pits, reminding  that  regulations 
against  Catholic  participation  in 
Liberal,  Socialist,  Communist  and 
National  Socialist  movements,  ex- 
pounded in  1940,  remained  "fully 
and  totally  in  force"  and  that  par- 
ticipants would  be  refused  the  last 
sacraments  and  Catholic  burial. 
Moreover,  they  added:  "With  ref- 
erence to  the  National  Socialist 
movement,  we  must  emphasize  with 
greater  insistency  what  we  said 
previously,  because  since  that  time 
everyone  has  been  able  to  compre- 
hend with  increasing  clarity  that 
this  movement  not  only  threatens 
the  Church  in  the  free  exercise  of 


84 


her  essential  mission,  but  also  con- 
stitutes a  grave  danger  to  those 
belonging  to  this  movement,  In  ev- 
erything that  pertains  to  the  tul- 
filment  of  their  duties  as  Christ- 
ians." During  the  year  a  severe 
blow  struck  at  the  Church  in  the 
suspension  of  all  activities  of  the 
council  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Workers'  Union,  with  200,000  mem- 
bers, and  their  replacement  by  a 
Nazi  Commissar  was  taken  cogni- 
zance of  by  the  Bishops  in  another 
pastoral,  which  stated: 

"We  have  long  maintained  silence, 
that  Is  to  say,  publicly,  about  the 
many  injustices  to  which  we  Catho- 
lics have  been  submitted  during  re- 
cent months.  We  have  been  for- 
bidden to  hold  collections,  even 
among  those  of  our  own  faith,  for 
our  own  charitable  and  cultural  in- 
stitutions, so  that  their  activities 
and  very  existence  are  threatened. 
Our  Catholic  broadcast,  for  which 
we  made  so  many  sacrifices  for  so 
many  years,  has  been  taken  away 
from  us.  Our  Catholic  daily  press 
has  either  been  suspended  or  has 
been  so  limited  in  its  freedom  of 
expression,  that  it  is  hardly  possi- 
ble any  longer  to  speak  of  a  Catho- 
lic press.  The  religious,  to  whom 
so  many  parents  wish  to  entrust  the 
education  of  their  children,  have 
had  their  salaries  cut  by  40  per 
cent,  which  has  hit  them  hard; 
some  of  them  will  find  it  difficult 
to  fulfill  their  financial  obligations; 
in  any  case,  they  will  no  longer  be 
able  to  support  the  many  charities 
for  which  appeals  were  made  in  the 
first  place  to  them.  Many  priests 
and  members  of  religious  communi- 
ties are  no  longer  allowed  to  be 
heads  of  schools,  not  because  they 
do  not  possess  the  necessary  and 
lawful  qualifications,  but  because 
they  are  priests  and  members  of 
religious  communities.  Under  a  de- 
cree concerning  non-commercial  so- 
cieties and  institutions,  some  of 
our  institutions  have  been  com- 
pelled to  pay  a  very  high  levy 

Youth  clubs,  such  as  the  Catholic 
Scouts,  the  Young  Guard  and  the 
Crusade,  have  simply  been  disband- 
ed. But  now  something  has  hap- 


pened about  which  we  may  no  long- 
er be  silent  without  betraying  our 

spiritual     office The     Catholic 

Workers*  Union  is  forced  into  the 
service  of  the  National  Socialist 
movement,  it  becomes,  in  fact,  one 
of  its  organizations. . . .  For  this  rea- 
son the  Holy  Sacraments  must  be 
refused  to  those  who  remain  mem- 
bers of  any  of  the  organizations  affi- 
liated with  the  Catholic  Workers' 
Union  in  its  new  guise.  Beloved 
members  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Workers  Union,  beloved  Brethren: 
it  is  with  hearts  bleeding  that  we 
have  said  all  this  to  you.  We  un- 
derstand so  well  the  sacrifices  de- 
manded of  you.  But  the  salvation 
of  your  immortal  souls  is  at 
stake. . . ." 

The  courage  of  their  Bishops 
strengthened  the  spirit  of  the  Butch 
people,  and  their  spiritual  fervor 
was  renewed. 

YUGOSLAVIA 

The  Kingdom  of  the  Serbs,  Croats 
and  Slovenes,  known  as  Yugoslavia, 
came  under  Nazi  control  in  April, 
1941.  A  kingdom  was  established 
in  Croatia,  with.  Aimone,  Duke  of 
Spoleto,  nephew  of  King  Victor  Em- 
manuel of  Italy,  as  King.  Serbia 
and  Slovenia  became  German. 

The  Germanization  of  Slovenia 
was  ruthlessly  carried  out.  The  in- 
habitants were  a  religious  and 
highly  cultured  people,  97  per  cent 
Catholic,  their  land  adorned  with 
many  churches.  Immediately  after 
Nazi  occupation  the  Gestapo  were 
installed  and  local  authorities  were 
told  that  priests  there  must  cease 
their  activities  and  if  there  were 
need  for  clergymen  German  priests 
would  be  supplied.  The  Slovenian 
priests  were  then  systematically 
imprisoned  and  expelled;  in  the 
Diocese  of  Ljubljana,  for  instance, 
which  had  about  200  priests,  105 
were  imprisoned  in  the  Women's 
Reformatory  at  Lesce,  with  crim- 
inals and  prostitutes,  and  about  60 
had  been  expelled  by  May  16.  Par- 
ish houses  were  looted  and  paro- 
chial funds  confiscated,  sacred  ves- 
sels were  stolen  from  churches  and 
Sacred  Hosts  were  desecrated.  All 
monasteries  and  religious  houses 


85 


were  seized  and  the  religious  im- 
prisoned or  expelle'd.  Congregations 
disbanded  included  Franciscans, 
Jesuits,  Capuchins,  Lazarists  and 
Salesians,  Many  mayors,  jurists, 
physicians  and  professors  were  ar- 
rested, the  Slovenian  attorneys 
were  forbidden  to  practice  and  pro- 
fessional equipment  was  taken  from 
doctors.  In  civil  service,  officials 
were  replaced  by  Germans.  Mer- 
chants, tradesmen  and  industrialists 
were  imprisoned  and  their  property 
confiscated.  Decrees  of  seizures 
were  issued  by  the  "Commissioner 
for  the  Promotion  of  German  Cul- 
ture in  the  Occupied  Territory." 
Many  Slovenian  boys  were  sent  to 
German  camps  to  be  instructed  as 
Hitler  Youth.  In  the  public  schools 
instruction  was  partly  resumed  on 
May  1,  but  entirely  in  German,  and 
the  day  began  with  the  raising  and 
saluting  of  the  Nazi  flag. 

Forced  emigration  of  Slovenes 
from  their  native  soil  reached  a 
total  of  100,000.  The  victims  were 
sent  into  Serbia,  where  malaria  is 
rampant  and  the  inhabitants  ex- 
tremely poor  and  primitive.  The 
common  people  were  transported  in 
mass  groups.  They  were  rounded 
up  late  at  night,  given  ten  minutes 
to  take  the  worst  of  their  clothing, 
some  food  and  at  most  250  dinars 
(about  $4).  Houses,  furnishings, 
clothing,  jewelry,  food  and  money 
were  left  for  the  families  who  came 
from  Germany  to  take  possession. 
Driven  like  cattle  to  the  railroad 
depot,  they  were  crowded  into 
freight  cars,  so  they  could  neither 
stand  nor  lie  down,  and  the  cars 
sealed  for  the  journey  1,000  miles 
southward.  The  suffering  en  route 
was  frightful.  All  this  had  one  pur- 
pose, that  the  Slovenian  nation  be 
wiped  off  the  face  of  the  earth.  In 
Serbia  there  was  great  unrest  un- 
der Nazi  rule. 

LITHUANIA 

A  revolt  against  the  Soviet  in 
June,  1941,  reestablished  a  sho'rt- 
lived  independent  Lithuanian  Gov- 
ernment, which  was  smothered  by 
Nazi  tyranny.  With  the  seizure  of 


Lithuania  in  1940  the  Soviets  had 
confiscated  all  farms  larger  than  70 
acres,  the  better  buildings,  printing 
presses,  bank  deposits  and  home 
furnishings,  burned  patriotic  books 
and  liquidated  the  intelligentsia.  In 
1941  the  invading  Germans,  making 
war  on  Russia,  seized  these  prop- 
erties, and  did  not  permit  the  re- 
turn of  influential  patriots  who  had 
fled  the  Russian  terror.  The  border 
was  closed  and  postal  and  telegra- 
phic communication  with  the  out- 
side world  was  not  permitted. 
There  were  about  100,000  homeless 
people  in  Lithuania  and  no  means 
by  which  they  could  be  given  aid. 
Some  200,000  Lithuanians  had  been 
deported  to  the  "slow  death"  of  the 
Soviet  concentration  camps. 

The  great  majority  of  the  people 
are  Catholic  and  under  Russian  per- 
secution had  grown  more  fervent. 
During  the  Soviet  regime  there  was 
a  semblance  of  religious  liberty, 
with  churches  permitted  to  remain 
open  and  priests  allowed  to  preach, 
but  a  close  watch  was  kept  on  what 
they  said.  The  schools  were  taken 
over  by  the  Reds  and  used  as  an 
avenue  of  atheistic  instruction. 
Communities  of  Sisters  were  dis- 
persed and  their  convents  confis- 
cated. The  nuns,  however,  donned 
secular  garb  and  secretly  continued 
to  teach  when  possible.  Many 
priests  were  seized  and  information 
exacted  from  them  about  their  par- 
ishioners. Under  the  Nazis  their 
persecution  continued.  In  July  it 
was  reported  that  the  Most  Rev. 
Justin  Staugaitis,  Bishop  of  Tel- 
siai,  and  three  priests  had  been 
slain,  and  350  priests  arrested  and 
deported  from  Lithuania  and  other 
Baltic  States. 

POLAND 

All  of  Poland  came  under  Nazi 
domination  with  the  German  ad- 
vance into  Russian  territory,  iii 
1941.  Under  both  the  Soviet  and 
Nazi  regimes,  divided  Poland  had 
suffered  persecution.  Godless  prop- 
aganda having  no  effect  in  Soviet- 
occupied  Poland,  authorities  applied 
repressive  administrative  and  econ- 


86 


ornic  measures,  churches  being 
seized  for  inability  to  pay  exorbi- 
tant taxes,  and  workers  who  at- 
tended church  being  threatened 
with  deportation.  Clergy  were  sev- 
erely restricted  and  there  were  many 
priests  among  the  thousands  of 
Poles  exiled  to  Siberia,  where  bit- 
ter cold  and  lack  of  food,  clothing 
and  proper  habitation  caused  fright- 
ful suffering.  While  the  adult  popu- 
lation was  subjected  to  physical 
death,  the  youth  faced  moral  de- 
struction. 

In  Nazi-occupied  Poland,  German- 
ization  of  the  western  area  incor- 
porated into  the  Reich  had  evicted 
about  1,500,000,  or  300,000  families, 
from  their  homes,  forcing  them  to 
seek  refuge  in  the  central  Govern- 
ment General  whose  population  was 
thus  swelled  beyond  accomodations. 
In  March,  1940,  according  to  Gov- 
ernor General  Frank,  it  totalled  14,- 
500,000,  of  whom  12,000,000  were 
Poles,  2,000,000  Jews,  400,000  Ukra- 
inians and  60,000  Germans.  With- 
out money,  occupation  or  household 
goods  the  plight  of  these  people  was 
pitiable.  There  was  neither  ade- 
quate housing  nor  food.  Destruction 
of  part  of  Warsaw  already  necessi- 
tated congested  living  and  its  popu- 
lation alone  was  increased  by  400- 
000,  to  1,600,000.  A  quarter  of  a 
million  people  were  reported  on 
soup  lines  daily.  Efforts  to  send 
desperately  needed  aid  were  made 
impossible,  despite  persistent  at- 
tempts by  the  Holy  See.  Ecclesias- 
tical administration  was  practically 
destroyed,  with  several  bishops  ar- 
rested, many  priests  executed  or  in- 
terned, Church  properties  seized, 
the  Catholic  press  suppressed  and 
religious  organizations  placed  in 
utter  dependence  upon  the  will  of 
the  presiding  Nazi  official.  Church- 
es were  permitted  to  open  for  Mass 
from  8  to  11  a.  m.  on  Sundays  and 
holydays,  and  from  8  to  9  a.  m.  on 
week  days.  Religious  instruction 
was  limited  to  2  to  4  p.  m.  on  Wed- 
nesdays. Moreover,  it  was  reported 
that  the  moral  foundations  of  the 
people  were  being  systematically 
weakened,  by  immoral  literature 
and  theatre,  cabarets,  gambling 


houses,  houses  of  ill  repute  and 
even  payment  for  labor  in  part  by 
alcohol.  For  any  trace  of  Polish 
patriotism  citizens  were  executed. 

RUSSIA 

The  fate  of  the  Church  in  Russia 
under  the  Soviet  regime  is  indicated 
by  the  fact  that  of  the  thirteen 
Apostolic  Administrators  appointed 
since  1926,  eleven  are  in  prison  or 
in  exile  and  information  is  wanting 
about  the  other  two.  The  six  ec- 
clesiastical jurisdictions  of  Euro- 
pean and  Asiatic  Russia  have  been 
under  Apostolic  Administrators 
since  the  Bolshevik  revolution, 
when  Communists  refused  to  toler- 
ate the  presence  of  a  bishop,  but 
even  this  provisional  arrangement 
was  unsuccessful. 

The  Most  Rev.  Boleslao  Sloskan, 
elected  Apostolic  Administrator  of 
Mohilew  in  1926,  was  imprisoned 
in  1927,  then  exiled  to  Siberia  and 
last  reported  in  Riga,  Latvia.  The 
Most  Rev.  Eugene  Neveu,  of  Mos- 
cow, could  not  be  exiled  because  of 
his  French  nationality,  but  was  not 
permitted  to  remain  in  Russia  and 
is  now  in  Paris.  The  Most  Rev. 
Theophilus  Matulanis,  appointed  to 
Leningrad  in  1918,  was  imprisoned 
from  1923  to  1926  and  again  from 
1929  to  1933  and  was  last  reported 
in  exile  in  Lithuania.  The  Most 
Rev.  Vincent  Ilgin,  of  Kharkov,  was 
imprisoned  in  1926  and  ha's  been 
in  Lithuania  since  1933.  The  Most 
Rev.  Michael  Jodokas,  Apostolic 
Administrator  in  Kazan,  Samara 
and  Simbirsk,  has  been  imprisoned 
since  1929.  From  the  Diocese  of 
Zytomir,  Msgr.  Theophilus  Skalski 
and  the  Vice-Administrator,  Msgr. 
Casimir  Naskrecky,  have  been  in 
exile  since  1932.  The  Rev.  John 
Swiderski,  of  Kamieniec,  was  im- 
prisoned in  1930  and  exiled  in  1932; 
his  Vicar,  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Wierzbicki,  was  imprisoned  in  1932 
and  as  far  as  known  is  still  there. 
The  two  Apostolic  Administrators  in 
Tiraspol  have  been  in  prison  since 
1930:  Msgr.  Augustine  Baumtrog,  of 
the  Volga,  and  Msgr.  John  Roth,  of 
the  Caucausus.  Of  the  two  Vicars 


87 


ad  intenm  in  this  diocese,  the  Rev. 
Stephen  Demurof  and  Msgr.  Cara- 
pet  Dirlughian,  nothing  is  known. 

The  vast  majority  of  the  Russians 
were  Orthodox  or  Greek  Catholics, 
and  these  too  have  been  deprived 
of  their  ministers.  But  after  more 
than  two  decades  of  religious  perse- 
cution, some  Communist  leaders 
acknowledge  that  "even  though  the 
Church  is  driven  into  obscurity  it 
is,  however,  one  of  the  most  power- 
ful institutions  in  contemporary 
Russia."  There  is  an  underground 
religious  organization,  with  serv- 
ices, observances  and  rites  prac- 
ticed in  strict  secrecy.  Yaroslavsky, 
leader  of  the  Russian  Godless 
Movement,  admitted  that  there 
were  30,000  church  communities  in 
existence  in  Soviet  Russia.  This 
despite  anti-religious  teaching  in 
the  schools  and  a  vast  increase  in 
the  number  of  anti-religious  muse- 
ums. According  to  Soviet  data  of 
Jan.  1,  1941,  the  Godless  Union  had 
93,061  cells.  During  the  preceding 
year  195,217  lectures  had  been  de- 
livered to  more  than  6,000,000  and 
a  total  of  469  anti-religious  courses 
were  conducted,  with  12,380  pupils 
graduated  from  them.  The  German 
invasion,  begun  June  22,  1941,  had 
driven  Soviet  leaders  from  Moscow 
to  Kuibyshev,  and  brought  Great 
Britain  into  alliance  with  Russia. 
The  United  States  Government  too 
was  sympathetic  to  the  Soviet 
cause,  aiding  financially  and  with 
munitions.  Between  aid  to  the  peo- 
ple of  Russia  and  support  of  Com- 
munism a  distinction  was  made. 

FRANCE 

Assuring  his  fellow  countrymen 
that  "all  is  not  lost,"  Cardinal  Baud- 
rillart,  rector  of  the  Catholic  Insti- 
tute of  Paris,  urged  them  to  "rally 
around  our  Chief"  and  be  glad  they 
have  such  a  man  of  honor  as  Mar- 
shal Petain.  Cardinal  Lienart  de- 
clared without  the  armistice  France 
might  have  disappeared  from  the 
map  of  Europe.  A  pledge  of  loyalty 
to  the  established  power  of  the  Gov- 
ernment of  France  was  contained  in 


a  joint  letter  of  the  French  hierar- 
chy issued  by  the  Cardinals  and 
Archbishops  meeting  in  two  separ- 
ate groups:  in  Paris,  occupied 
France,  in  January,  and  in  Lyon,  un- 
occupied France,  in  February.  The 
letter  was  addressed  to  the  Holy 
Father  and  after  expressing  filial 
devotion  to  him  spoke  of  the 
"wounds  of  our  bleeding,  suffering 
and  disturbed  country,"  but  said: 
"Already  the  fruits  of  salvation  are 
apparent;  souls  are  opening  to  di- 
vine light;  some  endowments  es- 
sential to  eternal  morals  have  been 
officially  restored,  and  in  the  do- 
main of  social  welfare,  a  wide  ap- 
peal has  been  made  to  our  groups; 
finally,  in  their  distant  camps,  num- 
bers of  prisoners  are  giving  them- 
selves to  recollection  and  prayer." 

This  fervor  of  the  French  in  the 
German  prison  camps  was  remark- 
ed by  those  returned  to  their  fam- 
ilies in  large  numbers  in  August, 
1941.  The  religious  life  in  the 
camps  was  described  as  savoring 
of  the  monastic  due  to  the  large 
number  of  priests  and  intellectuals, 
many  attending  daily  services  and 
lectures  on  liturgy,  theology,  scrip- 
ture and  canon  law.  In  one  camp 
97  priests  said  Mass  daily  on  16 
portable  altars  from  5:45  to  9  a.  m. 
There  were  also  vespers,  compline, 
evening  prayers  and  Benediction. 
In  some  concentration  camps  in- 
credible hardships  were  endured. 

The  Jocists,  with  135,000  mem- 
bers, were  active  in  relief  work  and 
helping  the  unemployed,  and  the 
J.  A,  C.  were  engaged  in  the  rehab- 
ilitation of  French  rural  life.  Their 
principles  were  to  be  incorporated 
in  the  French  laws  affecting  labor. 
Legislation  to  protect  motherhood 
was  passed  by  the  Vichy  govern- 
ment during  the  year,  and  govern- 
ment subsidies  were  provided  for 
free,  private  and  denominational 
schools.  A  daily  salute  to  the  flag 
ceremony,  which  originated  in  Cath- 
olic schools,  was  adopted  in  all 
French  schools.  Children  from  the 
cities  where  distress  was  greatest 
were  being  taken  into  peasant 
home  through  placement  by  the 
Catholic  Agricultural  League  and 


88 


the  Catholic  Labor  League  and  re- 
muneration by  their  families.  The 
food  situation  was  acute,  and  great- 
ly handicapped  by  lack  of  trans- 
portation facilities.  There  was  an 
effort  throughout  France  to  stimul- 
ate vocations  to  supply  the  great 
need  of  priests.  The  religious  solid- 
arity of  the  people  was  reported, 
whole  villages  formerly  separated 
from  the  Church  having  returned  to 
the  practice  of  their  religion. 

MEXICO 

Under  President  Avila  Camacho 
the  situation  of  the  Catholic  Church 
in  Mexico  was  made  easier.  Though 
laws  restricting  freedom  of  religion 
were  still  in  effect,  there  was  leni- 
ency in  enforcement  and  religious 
groups  were  permitted  to  carry  on 
their  activities.  The  scarcity  of 
priests  presented  a  serious  prob- 
lem, as  in  one  parish  where  22,000 
souls  were  dependent  upon  the 
ministrations  of  the  chancellor  of 
the  diocese.  To  the  students  at  the 
Montezuma  Seminary  Mexico  looks 
for  the  future.  Though  clergy  are 
required  to  wear  lay  clothing,  at 
the  great  Guadalupe  Festival  on 
Oct.  12,  the  Day  of  the  Race,  the 
visiting  prelate,  Archbishop  Cant- 
well  of  Los  Angeles,  and  nearly  100 
priests  accompanying  him  were 
permitted  to  wear  clerical  garb  and 
provided  a  special  Pullman  train 
from  the  border.  The  high  Mass 
at  the  shrine  and  the  ceremonies 
of  the  blessing  of  the  roses  and 
the  blessing  of  the  flags  of  all  na- 
tions of  the  Americas  were  most 
impressive,  as  was  the  devout  at- 
tendance of  thousands  of  the  faith- 
ful. The  Eucharistic  Congress  at 
Chihuahua  in  June  was  officially 
diocesan  but  actually  a  national 
demonstration  attended  by  mem- 
bers of  the  Mexican  hierarchy  and 
many  of  the  clergy  from  various 
parts  of  the  country,  and  for  the 
first  time  since  persecution  of  the 
Church  in  Mexico  began,  the  Bish- 
ops went  in  procession  to  the  ca- 
thedral for  the  solemn  services, 
which  were  carried  over  the  radio. 

In  May  the  Central  Union  of 
Mexican  Catholic  Action  held  a 


week  of  social  study  to  commem- 
orate the  fiftieth  anniversary  of 
"llerum  Novarum."  In  August  the 
National  Sinarchist  Union,  a  nation- 
alist movement  founded  in  1937  to 
restore  the  social  order  through  the 
reestablishment  of  moral  customs 
for  the  individual  and  in  the  fam- 
ily, circulated  throughout  the  capi- 
tal handbills  appealing  for  "the 
union  of  all  Mexicans  for  the  pres- 
ervation of  Mexico."  Sinarchism 
encourages  "passive  resistance"  to 
governmental  impositions  contrary 
to  its  ideals,  and  is  particularly  in- 
terested in  the  peasants  and  work- 
ers, though  intellectuals,  people  of 
wealth  and  members  of  the  profes- 
sions are  enrolled  in  the  move- 
ment, with  a  total  membership  of 
about  700,000.  It  opposes  Commun- 
ism and  warns  of  the  Communist 
cells  in  the  offices  of  the  Govern- 
ment and  of  official  commissions. 
Spanish  refugees,  numerous  in  Mex- 
ico, were  actively  Communist. 

In  his  address  at  the  opening  of 
Congress,  on  Sept.  1,  President 
Camacho  spoke  of  the  need  of  a  re- 
surgence of  spiritual  values  in  the 
world,  and  expressed  his  desire  for 
a  regulatory  law  on  education, 
which  would  provide  "a  Mexican 
school  based  upon  tradition,  popu- 
lar sentiment  and  common  con- 
sent" Revision  of  Article  3  of  the 
Mexican  Constitution  as  amended 
in  October,  1934,  enforcing  "social- 
istic" education,  had  been  strongly 
urged.  Incapable  teachers  held 
positions  for  political  reasons,  Com- 
munist textbooks  were  used,  religi- 
ous instruction  was  prohibited, 
schools  were  coeducational  and  sex 
education  was  approved.  A  marked 
increase  in  juvenile  delinquency 
was  attributed  to  it:  the  number 
of  delinquent  minors  was  1,033  in 
1931  and  2,987  in  1940.  In  Novem- 
ber the  Minister  of  Education,  Oc- 
tavio  Vejar  Vasquez,  sought  to  as- 
certain the  attitude  of  different  so- 
cial groups,  of  directors  of  private 
schools  and  of  parents  toward  modi- 
fying the  existing  law. 

New  hopes  for  the  Church  in 
Mexico  rose,  but  reforms  remained 
to  be  seen. 


89 


STATUS  OF  THE  CHURCH 
IN  VARIOUS  COUNTRIES  OF  THE  WORLD 


Afghanistan — Practically  all  the 
inhabitants  are  Mohammedans  sub- 
ject to  the  law  of  Islam.  No  priest 
is  allowed  to  enter.  Population, 
10,000,000. 

Alaska  —  Originally  Christianized 
by  the  Franciscans  and  Russian 
missionaries,  the  territory  is  now 
subject  to  the  ministrations  of  the 
Jesuits  and  secular  priests  from 
the  United  States.  Population,  59,- 
278;  Catholics,  32,650. 

Albania  (Italian)  — Friendly  rela- 
tions between  the  Church  and  Slate 
were  established  in  1936.  The  ma- 
jority of  the  people  are  Mohamme- 
dans. Population  (1938),  1,057,000; 
Catholics,  100,320. 

Algeria  —  Most  of  the  inhabitants 
are  Mohammedans.  The  missionary 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  White  Fa- 
thers. Population,  7,234,684;  Catho- 
lics, 814,740. 

Andorra  —  All  the  inhabitants 
are  Catholics,  living  under  the 
sovereign  rule  of  the  Bishop  of 
Urgel,  Spain.  Population,  5,231; 
Catholics,  5,231. 

Angola  (Portuguese)  —  Mission- 
ary work  is  in  charge  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  Fathers.  Population,  4,000,- 
000;  Catholics,  500,000. 

Arabia  —  Once  Catholic,  the 
Arabs  fell  into  heresy  and  finally 
became  Mohammedans.  The  region 
is  now  a  missionary  territory  in 
charge  of  the  Capuchins.  Popula- 
tion, 10,000,000;  Catholics,  688. 

Argentina — Preponderantly  Cath- 
olic since  the  sixteenth  century, 
the  State  supports  the  Church. 
Freedom  of  religion  nevertheless  is 
granted  to  all.  To  be  elected  to  the 
office  of  President  or  Vice-Presi- 
dent the  candidate  must  be  a  Cath- 
olic. Population,  13,129,723;  Catho- 
lics, 12,018,790. 

Australia  —  The  Catholic  popula- 
tion has  gradually  increased  since 
1836  when  religious  freedom  was 
established.  Population,  7,014,915; 
Catholics,  1,500,000. 

Azores  (Portuguese)  —  Adminis- 
tration is  subject  to  the  ecclesiasti- 
cal provinces  of  Portugal.  Popula- 
tion, 262,073;  Catholics,  262,073. 


Bahamas,  Br.  W.  Indies  — The 
islands  are  included  in  a  Prefecture 
Apostolic  established  in  1929  and 
confided  to  the  Benedictines.  Pop- 
ulation, 67,726;  Catholics,  3,801. 

Balearic  Islands  (Spanish)  —The 
islands  are  divided  into  self-gov- 
erning dioceses.  Population,  381,- 
594;  Catholics,  381,594. 

Basutoland  (British)  —  Mission 
work  is  confided  to  the  Oblates  of 
Mary  Immaculate.  Population,  562,- 
311;  Catholic,  146,000. 

Bechuanaland  (British)  —  The 
outlook  for  Catholicism  has  im- 
proved since  the  acquisition  by  the 
British  of  the  territory.  Popula- 
tion, 262,756;  Catholics,  25,265. 

Belgium  (occupied  by  Germany) 
— The  population  is  preponderantly 
Catholic  but  all  religions  are  toler- 
ated. Population,  8,330,000;  Catho- 
lics, 7,968,431. 

Bohemia- Moravia  (German)  — 
Nazism  persecutes  the  Catholic 
faith,  and  there  is  a  great  scarcity 
of  priests.  Population,  6,804,875; 
Catholics,  4,862,706. 

Bolivia  —  The  State  recognizes 
and  supports  the  Roman  Catholic 
religion  but  permits  the  free  ex- 
ercise of  other  religions.  Popula- 
tion, 3,457,000;  Catholics,  2,779,000. 

Borneo  (Dutch)  —  Missionary 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  Capuchins, 
Population,  2,168,661;  Catholics,  7- 
584. 

Brazil — All  religions  have  been 
equally  recognized  since  1890.  Pop- 
ulation, 45,002,176;  Catholics,  40,- 
000,000. 

Bulgaria — The  Bulgarian  Church, 
resembling  the  Orthodox,  sepa- 
rated from  Rome  for  political  rea- 
sons. Population,  6,720,000;  Catho- 
lics, 44,240. 

Burma  (British)  —  Over  80  per 
cent  of  the  people  are  Buddhists. 
Mission  work  is  in  charge  of  the 
Society  of  Foreign  Missions  of 
Paris.  Population,  15,797,000;  Cath- 
olics, 134,897. 

Cameroon  (French)  —  Mission- 
ary work  is  in  charge  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  Fathers  and  the  Priests  of 


90 


the  Sacred  Heart.  Population,  2,- 
516,623;  Catholics,  263,755. 

Cameroons  (British)  —  Mission- 
ary work  is  in  charge  of  St.  Jos- 
eph's Society  for  Foreign  Missions 
of  Mill  Hill.  Population,  831,103; 
Catholics,  24,807. 

Canada  —  Oppression  of  Catho- 
lics officially  ceased  with  the  Que- 
bec Act  of  1774  but  full  religious 
freedom  was  not  granted  until  1829. 
Population,  11,315,000;  Catholics,  4,- 
285,388. 

Canary  Islands  (Spanish) — Dio- 
ceses are  subject  to  the  Spanish 
Province  of  Seville.  Population 
286,154;  Catholics,  200,000. 

Cape  Verde  Island  (Portuguese) 
—  The  diocese  is  subject  to  the 
Province  of  Lisbon.  Population, 
165,000;  Catholics,  145,300. 

Celebes,  Dutch  E.  Indies  —  Mis- 
sion work  is  in  charge  of  the  Mis- 
sionaries of  the  Sacred  Heart.  Pop- 
ulation, 4,231,906;  Catholics,  21,435. 

Ceylon  (British)  —  Mission  work 
is  carried  on  by  the  Oblates,  Bene- 
dictines and  Jesuits.  Population, 
5,780,000;  Catholics,  443,665. 

Chile  —  Church  and  State  were 
separated  in  1925.  Population,  5,- 
000,782;  Catholics,  3,682,591. 

China — Buddhism,  Confucianism, 
Taoism  and  Mohammedanism 
claim  most  of  the  population.  Pop- 
ulation, 466,785,856;  Catholics,  3,- 
250,000. 

Colombia  —  Catholicism  is  recog- 
nized as  the  religion  of  the  nation. 
Other  religions  are  granted  free- 
dom of  worship.  Population,  8,724,- 
839;  Catholics,  6,880,000. 

Congo  (Belgian)  —  Missionary 
work  carried  on  by  various  reli- 
gious orders  is  rapidly  converting 
the  natives.  United  with  the  Belgian 
Congo  administratively  are  the  Bel- 
gian mandates  of  Ruanda  and 
ITrundi.  Population,  10,329,284; 
Catholics,  3,000,000. 

Costa  Rica  —  Catholicism  enjoys 
the  support  of  the  State.  All  other 
religions  may  be  freely  practised. 
Population,  639,197;  Caldiolics,  440,- 
695. 

Crete  —  Most  of  the  inhabitants 
profess  the  Greek  Orthodox  faith. 
Population,  386,427;  Catholics,  800. 


Croatia  —  A  kingdom  was  set  up 
in  this  portion  of  Yugoslavia  after 
occupation  by  Germany  in  1943. 
The  Croats  are  mainly  Catholic. 
Population,  4,000,000. 

Cuba  —  The  Church  is  complete- 
ly separated  from  the  State.  Free- 
dom of  religion  is  granted  to  all. 
Population,  4,227,597;  Catholics,  2,- 
003,017. 

Dahomey  (French)  — Mission 
work  is  carried  on  by  the  African 
Mission  Society  of  Lyons.  Popula- 
tion, 1,289,128;  Catholics,  38,307. 

Denmark  (occupied  by  Germany) 
—  Protestantism  was  forced  upon 
the  people  shortly  after  the  Refor- 
mation. Of  recent  years  Catholics 
have  increased  in  number.  Popu- 
lation, 3,825,000;  Catholics,  25,702. 

Dominican  Republic  —  Catholi- 
cism is  the  State  religion,  though 
other  religions  are  tolerated.  The 
See  of  Santo  Domingo  is  the  oldest 
bishopric  in  the  New  World.  A 
serious  shortage  of  priests  is  re- 
ported. Population,  1,655,779;  Cath- 
olics, 1,580,000. 

Dutch  East  Indies  —  This  group 
of  islands  comprises  Java  and  Ma- 
dura, Sumatra,  Celebes,  adjacent 
smaller  islands  and  part  of  Borneo. 
Mission  work  is  carried  on  by  sev- 
eral religious  orders.  Population, 
60,727,233;  Catholics,  601,570. 

Dutch  West  indie's  —  These  is- 
lands comprise  Curacao,  Bonaire, 
Aruba,  St.  Eustatius,  Saba  and  part 
of  St.  Martin.  The  Dominicans  are 
in  charge  of  mission  work  in  Cu- 
racao, which  has  a  large  Catholic 
population.  Population,  101,021; 
Catholics,  65,825. 

Ecuador — The  majority  of  the 
inhabitants  are  Catholic.  Natives 
in  the  interior  suffer  from  an  in- 
adequate number  of  priests.  Popu- 
lation, 2,921,688;  Catholics,  1,140,- 
639. 

Egypt  —  The  Church  lost  most  of 
her  members  during  the  Moham- 
medan invasion.  Population,  16,- 
522,000;  Catholics,  156,000. 

England — After  various  persecu- 
tions since  the  time  of  Henry  VIII, 
the  Church  is  showing  a  rebirth. 
Population  (1931),  37,794,003;  Cath- 
olics, 2,206,419. 


91 


Fiji  Islands  (British)  —  Mission 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  Marist 
Fathers.  Population,  210,518;  Cath- 
olics, 15,709. 

Finland — The  country  fell  with 
Sweden  to  Protestantism.  The  gov- 
ernment is  very  friendly  to  the 
Church.  Population  (1938),  3,834,- 
662;  Catholics,  3,000. 

Formosa  (Japanese)  —  Mission 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  Domini- 
cans. Population,  5,451,863;  Catho- 
lics, 7,193. 

France  (partly  occupied  by  Ger- 
many) —  The  Church  was  perse- 
cuted in  the  eighteenth  century  and 
Catholicity  restored  by  the  Concor- 
dat of  Napoleon,  1799.  There  is  no 
State  Church.  Population  (1938), 
41,980,000;  Catholics,  29,000,000. 
Bst.  pop.,  Aug.,  1940,  Unoccupied 
France,  14,027,000. 

French  Equatorial  Africa  —  Mis- 
sion work  is  in  charge  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  Fathers  and  the  Priests  of 
the  Sacred  Heart  Population,  3,- 
422,815;  Catholics,  587,724. 

French  India  —  Mission  work  is 
carried  on  by  the  Paris  Foreign 
Mission  Society.  Population,  300,- 
000;  Catholics,  250,000. 

French  Indo-China  —  Catholicism 
has  been  too  closely  allied  to  the 
French  government  to  be  popular. 
At  present  there  is  a  movement 
for  a  native  Church.  Population, 
23,229,200;  Catholics,  1,441,124. 

French  West  Africa  —  Mission 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  White  Fa- 
thers, the  Holy  Ghost  Fathers  and 
the  African  Mission  Society  of  Ly- 
ons. Population,  14,944,830;  Catho- 
lics, 200,000. 

Gambia  (British) — Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Holy  Ghost  Fa- 
thers. Population,  199,520;  Catho- 
lics, 3,000. 

Germany — St.  Boniface  and  Irish 
and  Scottish  monks  evangelized  the 
land.  Since  the  Reformation  the 
North  has  been  Protestant;  the 
South  and  East  have  remained  for 
the  most  part  Catholic.  During  the 
Nazi  regime  the  Catholic  as  well  as 
the  Protestant  Church  has  been  op- 
pressed and  neo-paganism  is  rife. 
Population,  91,584,385;  Catholics, 
45,000,000. 


Gibraltar  (British)  —  The  popula- 
tion is  predominantly  Catholic. 
Population,  20,339;  Catholics,  15,- 
410. 

Goa,  India  (Portuguese) — Secu- 
lar clergy  are  in  charge  of  mission 
work.  Population,  600,000;  Catho- 
lics, 346,341. 

Gold  Coast  (British)  —  Mission 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  African 
Mission  Society  of  Lyons.  Popu- 
lation, 3,700,267;  Catholics,  103,651. 

Greece  (occupied  by  the  Axis)  — 
Greek  Orthodox  is  the  State  reli- 
gion but  other  faiths  are  tolerated. 
Population,  8,000,000;  Catholics,  54,- 
269. 

Greenland  (Danish) — From  the 
eleventh  to  the  sixteenth  century 
the  people  were  Catholic;  since 
1721  they  have  been  Lutheran. 
Population,  16,630. 

Guadeloupe,  Fr.  W.  Indies  — The 
Diocese  of  Guadeloupe  was  erected 
in  1850.  Population,  310,000;  Cath- 
olics, 266,357. 

Guam  (U.  S.)  —  Capuchin  Fathers 
are  in  charge  of  mission  work. 
Population,  23,067;  Catholics,  19,- 
045. 

Guatemala  —  Catholicism  was  in- 
troduced by  Spanish  missionaries. 
After  the  revolt  from  Spain  re- 
ligious orders  were  expelled.  While 
Catholicism  is  the  prevailing  re- 
ligion, freedom  of  worship  is 
granted.  Population,  3,284,269;  Cath- 
olics, 1,997,560. 

Guiana,  British  —  Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Jesuits.  Popu- 
lation, 337,521;  Catholics,  33,998. 

Guiana,  Dutch  —  Mission  work  is 
in  charge  of  the  Redemptorists. 
Population,  173,089;  Catholics,  30,- 
124. 

Guiana,  French  —  Mission  work 
Is  in  charge  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
Fathers.  Population,  30,906;  Catho- 
lics, 23,000, 

Guinea  (French)  —  Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Holy  Ghost  Fa- 
thers, Population,  2,065,527;  Cath- 
olics, 9,925. 

Guinea  (Spanish) — Mission  work 
is  In  charge  of  the  Missionary  Sons 
of  the  Immaculate  Heart  of  Mary, 
Population,  120,000;  Catholics,  49,- 
947. 


92 


Haiti — Dominicans  Christianized 
the  natives  in  the  fifteenth  century. 
Though  the  Revolution  destroyed 
the  missions,  the  government  now 
supports  the  Catholic  religion.  Pop- 
ulation, 3,000,000;  Catholics,  2,000,- 
000. 

Hawaiian  Islands  (U.  S.) — Mis- 
sion work  is  in  charge  of  the  Pious 
Fathers.  Population,  423,330;  Cath- 
olics, 116,000. 

Honduras  —  Franciscans  intro- 
duced Catholicism  which  is  the  pre- 
vailing religion.  Freedom  is  granted 
to  all  faiths.  Population,  1,038,061; 
Catholics,  760,000. 

Honduras,  British  —  Religious 
freedom  is  granted  to  all.  Popula- 
tion, 57,767;  Catholics,  31,350. 

Hungary  —  While  Catholicism 
has  been  the  religion  of  the  people 
since  the  eighth  century,  Josephin- 
ism  has  caused  a  certain  apathy 
to  religion  during  the  last  century. 
Priests  are  needed.  Population,  14,- 
733,000;  Catholics,  7,131,398. 

Iceland  —  The  population  became 
Catholic  in  the  tenth  century;  Luth- 
eran in  the  sixteenth.  Missionaries 
of  the  Company  of  Mary  are  sta- 
tioned there.  Population,  122,000; 
Catholics,  300. 

India  (British)  — The  majority  of 
the  inhabitants  are  Brahmins,  Mo- 
hammedans and  Buddhists.  Popu- 
lation, 365,900,000;  Catholics,  4,249,- 
000. 

Iran  (Persia) — The  Church  be- 
came Nestorian;  now  most  of  the 
Iranians  are  Mohammedans.  Popu- 
lation, 15,000,000;  Catholics,  5,813. 

Iraq —  Christianized  in  the  sec- 
ond century  the  inhabitants  be- 
came Mohammedans  in  the  six- 
teenth century.  Population,  3,670,- 
000;  Catholics,  73,144. 

Ireland  (Eire)  — Most  of  the  pop- 
ulation has  been  Catholic  since  St. 
Patrick  evangelized  the  natives  in 
432.  Population,  2,934,000;  Catho- 
lics, 2,751,269. 

Ireland,  Northern  —  In  the  time 
of  Cromwell  many  Scottish  immi- 
grants settled  in  the  north  of  Ire- 
land, where  the  population  was  de- 
pleted by  persecution;  hence  there 
are  many  Protestants  in  Northern 
Ireland.  Population,  1,279,745;  Cath- 
olics, 428,290. 


Italian  East  Africa  (occupied  oy 
the  British)  —  Established  by  de- 
cree of  June  1,  1936,  uniting  the 
Italian  colonies  of  Eritrea,  Ethi- 
opia and  Somaliland  in  one  admin- 
istrative unit.  Mission  work  is  in 
charge  of  Vincentians,  Capuchins 
and  Missionary  Institute  of  the  Con- 
solata.  Population,  12,100,000;  Cath- 
olics, 55,100. 

Italy  —  The  Italian  government, 
estranged  since  1870,  recognized 
the  Pope's  claim  to  sovereignty  in 
1929.  Church  and  State  are  now  in 
accord.  Population,  44,109,000;  Cath- 
olics, 43,513,329. 

Ivory  Coast  (French) — Mission 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  African 
Missionary  Society  of  Lyons.  Pop- 
ulation, 3,981,459;  Catholics,  44,265. 

Jamaica,  Br.  W.  Indies  —  Span- 
iards introduced  Catholicism.  The 
British  government  was  intolerant 
of  the  Church  until  1792  when  free- 
dom of  worship  was  extended  to 
Catholics.  Population,  1,173,645 
Catholics,  54,000. 

Japan  —  Religious  liberty  was 
granted  in  1889.  Population,  72,876,- 
000;  Catholics,  283,491. 

Java  and  Madura,  Dutch  E.  Indies 
—  Mission  work  has  increased  in 
recent  years.  Population,  41,718,- 
364;  Catholics,  103,828. 

Kenya  (British)  —  Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
Fathers.  Population,  3,365,888;  Cath- 
olics, 76,019. 

Korea  (Japanese) — Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Paris  Foreign 
Mission  Society,  Benedictines  of  St. 
Odile,  Maryknoll  Fathers  and  the 
Columbans  of  Nebraska.  Popula- 
tion, 23,000,000;  Catholics,  200,000. 

Liberia  —  Mission  work  is  in 
charge  of  the  African  Mission  So- 
ciety of  Lyons.  Population,  1,867,- 
055;  Catholics,  5,805. 

Libya  (Italian)  —  Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Franciscans. 
Population,  888,401;  Catholics,  51,- 
148. 

Luxemburg  (occupied  by  Ger- 
many) —  Nearly  all  the  people  are 
Catholic.  Population,  301,000;  Cath- 
olics, 295,000. 

Macao,  China  (Portuguese) — A 
suffragan  diocese  of  Goa.  Popula- 
tion, 200,000;  Catholics,  33,047. 


93 


Madagascar  (French)  —  Holy 
Ghost  Fathers,  Jesuits,  Vincentians 
and  La  Salette  Missionaries  minis- 
ter to  the  people.  Population,  3,- 
800,000;  Catholics,  590,000. 

Madeira  (Portuguese)  —The  Dio- 
cese of  Funchal  belongs  to  the 
Province  of  Lisbon.  Population, 
211,601;  Catholics,  150,528. 

MaJaya,  British,  comprising  the 
Straits  Settlement,  Federated  Ma- 
lay States  and  Unfederated  Malay 
States,  is  embraced  in  the  Diocese 
of  Malacca,  under  the  care  of  the 
Society  of  Foreign  Missions  of 
Paris.  Population,  5,444,833;  Cath- 
olics, 79,730. 

Malta  (British)  —  Catholicism  is 
the  prevailing  religion.  Population, 
268,668;  Catholics,  160,000. 

Mauritius  (English)  —  Mission 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  Fathers.  Population,  415,402, 
Catholics,  140,073. 

Mexico  — The  Church  has  been 
subject  to  the  persecution  of  an 
atheistic  government.  Population, 
19,848,322;  Catholics,  16,000,000. 

Monaco— -The  Principality  is  ec- 
clesiastically administered  as  the 
Diocese  of  Monaco.  Population,  23,~ 
973;  Catholics,  20,000. 

Morocco  (French)  —  Mission 
work  is  carried  on  by  the  Francis- 
cans who  brought  Catholicism  to 
this  region.  Population,  6,400,000; 
Catholics,  172,000. 

Morocco  (Spanish)-— Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  Spanish  Francis- 
cans. Population,  750,000;  Catho- 
lics, 59,669. 

Mozambique  (Portuguese  East 
Africa)  —  Secular  clergy  are  in 
charge  of  the  missions.  Population, 
4,995,750;  Catholics,  516,296. 

Nepal  —  Mission  work  is  in 
charge  of  the  Jesuits.  Population, 
5,600,000;  Catholics,  500. 

Netherlands  (occupied  by  Ger- 
many) —  The  Dutch  were  Chris- 
tianized in  the  seventh  century. 
In  the  sixteenth  century  Catholi- 
cism suffered  from  Calvinism,  Re- 
ligious liberty  was  granted  in  1848. 
Population,  8,833,000 ;  Catholics, 
2,293,563. 

New  Caledonia  —  Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Marist  Fathers. 


Population,    55,000;    Catholics,   28,- 

000. 

Newfoundland — The  Archdiocese 
of  St.  John  was  founded  in  1796. 
Population,  291,000;  Catholics,  87,- 
000. 

New  Guinea  (Australian)  —  Mis- 
sion work  is  carried  on  by  the  So- 
ciety of  the  Divine  Word.  Popu- 
lation, 560,935;  Catholics,  40,000. 

New  Guinea  (Dutch)  —  Mission 
work  Is  carried  on  by  the  Mission- 
aries of  the  Sacred  Heart.  Popu- 
lation, 513,982;  Catholics,  32,675. 

New  Hebrides  —  Mission  work  is 
carried  on  by  the  Marist  Fathers. 
Population,  43,205;  Catholics,  3,296. 

New  Zealand  —  The  Church  has 
striven  to  convert  the  Maoris  but 
in  the  race  wars  the  missions  were 
destroyed.  The  M arista  and  Mill 
Hill  Fathers  are  restoring  these 
missions.  Population,  1,626,486 ; 
Catholics,  187,000. 

Nicaragua  —  Catholicism  was  in- 
troduced by  the  Spaniards.  Popula- 
tion, 1,133,572;  Catholics,  576,608. 

Nigeria  (British)  — Mission  work 
is  carried  on  by  the  African  Mis- 
sionary Society  of  Lyons  and  the 
Holy  Ghost  Fathers,  Population, 
20,582,947;  Catholics,  208,170. 

Norway  (occupied  by  Germany) 
—  The  country  was  Christianized 
in  the  tenth  century;  in  the  six- 
teenth century  Catholicism  was 
superseded  by  Lutheranism.  Toler- 
ation was  granted  in  1845.  Popula- 
tion, 2,937,000;  Catholics,  3,226. 

NyasaSand  (British)  —  Missions 
are  in  charge  of  the  White  Fathers 
and  the  Society  of  Mary  of  Mont- 
fort.  Population,  1,679,977;  Catho- 
lics, 100,390. 

Palestine  —  The  region  is  still  a 
missionary  country.  The  clergy 
have  charge  of  the  Holy  Places. 
Population,  1,435,145;  Catholics,  17,- 
882. 

Panama  —  Catholicism  is  the  pre- 
vailing religion.  Population,  650,- 
000;  Catholics,  412,467. 

Papua  (British)  —  Missionaries 
of  the  Sacred  Heart  are  in  charge. 
Population,  338,608;  Catholics,  17,- 
882. 

Paraguay  —  The  Catholic  Faith 
is  recognized  as  the  chief  religion 


and  is  partly  supported  by  the 
State.  Population,  1,000,000;  Catho- 
lics, 800,000. 

Peru  —  Liberty  Is  granted  to  all 
religions  but  the  Catholic  Church 
is  partly  supported  by  the  State. 
Population,  7,500,000;  Catholics,  3,- 
678,110. 

Philippine  Islands  —  Though 
formerly  a  solidly  Catholic  nation, 
the  Philippines  suffered  some  de- 
fections from  the  Faith  when  the 
Spanish  missionaries  withdrew  af- 
ter the  revolution  in  1896.  The 
then  newly  established  Aglipayan 
sect  and  non-Catholic  bodies  in 
general  gained  adherents.  But 
with  the  arrival  of  large  numbers 
of  missionaries,  especially  Ameri- 
can, since  1921,  Catholicism  flour- 
ishes among  80  per  cent  of  the  pop- 
ulation. Population,  16,000,300; 
Catholics,  12,800,000. 

Poland  (occupied  by  Germany)  — 
The  Catholic  religion  prevails  but 
has  suffered  persecution  since  Ger- 
man occupation  in  1939.  Population 
(1938),  35,090,000;  Catholics,  24,300- 
000. 

Portugal  —  Catholicism  is  the 
principal  religion;  freedom  of  wor- 
ship is  granted.  Population,  7,460,- 
000;  Catholics,  5,612,000. 

Puerto  Rico  (U.  S.)  —  The  Catho- 
lic religion  is  dominant  but  more 
priests  and  Catholic  schools  are 
needed  to  sustain  the  Faith.  Popula- 
tion, 1,869,255;  Catholics,  1,700,000. 

Reunion  (French) — Mission  work 
is  in  charge  of  the  Holy  Ghost  Fa- 
thers. Population,  210,000;  Catho- 
lics, 189,361. 

Rhodesia  (British)  — Jesuits  and 
White  Fathers  are  engaged  in  mis- 
sion work.  Population,  1,379,962; 
Catholics,  118,970. 

Rumania  — The  Greek  Orthodox 
Church  is  the  State  Church.  Popula- 
tion, 12,958,269;  Catholics,  1,700,000 

Salvador,  El  —  Catholicism  is  the 
prevailing  religion;  other  faiths  are 
granted  freedom  of  worship.  There 
is  a  grave  scarcity  of  priests,  only 
one  to  every  12,000  souls.  Popula- 
tion, 1,800,000;  Catholics,  1,710,000. 

San  Marino  —  The  Republic  lo- 
cated within  Italy  originated  as  a 


religious  community.  Population, 
14,545;  Catholics,  13,000. 

S.  Thome  and  Principe  (Portu- 
guese) —  Secular  clergy  are  in 
charge  of  mission  work.  Population, 
59,000;  Catholics,  21,000. 

Scotland  —  The  Church  enjoys 
the  same  privileges  as  in  England. 
Population,  (1931),  4,842,980;  Cath- 
olics, 614,469. 

Senegal  (French)  —  The  Holy 
Ghost  Fathers  are  in  charge  of  the 
missions.  Population,  1,666,374; 

Catholics,  34,807. 

Seychelle     Islands     (British)   — 

Mission  work  is  in  charge  of  the 
Capuchins.  Population,  31,486;  Cath- 
olics, 24,995. 

Sierra  Leone  (British) — Mission 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  Fathers.  Population,  1,768,- 
480;  Catholics,  8,148. 

Slovakia  —  Predominantly  Catho- 
lic, cordial  relations  exist  with  the 
Holy  See.  Population,  2,414,163; 
Catholics,  1,500,000. 

Solomon  islands  (British  and 
Australian)  —  Marist  Fathers  are 
in  charge  of  the  missions.  Popu- 
lation, 139,976;  Catholics,  28,108. 

Somali  land  (British)  —  The  in- 
habitants are  all  Mohammedans. 
Population,  350,000. 

Somali  land  (French)  —  Mission 
work  is  carried  on  by  the  Capuchin 
Fathers.  Population,  44,240;  Cath- 
olics, 794. 

Southwest  Africa  (British)  — 
Missions  must  contend  with  polyg- 
amy and  Protestant  hostility.  Pop- 
ulation, 365,000;  Catholics,  12,000. 

Spain  —  Most  of  the  inhabitants 
profess  the  Catholic  religion. 
Church  and  State  have  been  sepa- 
rated since  1931,  Communism 
caused  great  internal  dissension 
and  Civil  War  waged  from  1936  to 
1939,  with  accompanying  horrors  of 
vandalism,  blasphemous  outrages, 
and  martyrdoms  of  priests  and  re- 
ligious. But  the  cause  of  the  Span- 
ish Nationalists  triumphed.  Popu- 
lation, 26,000,000;  Catholics,  25,000,- 
000. 


Sudan  (Anglo-Egyptian)  —  The 
Congregation  of  the  Sons  of  the 
Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus  is  in  charge 
of  the  missions.  Population,  6,342,- 
477;  Catholics,  16,892. 

Sudan  (French) — Mission  work  is 
in  charge  of  the  White  Fathers.  Pop- 
ulation, 3,635,073;  Catholics,  5,597. 

Sumatra,  Dutch  E.  Indies  —  Mis- 
sion work  is  in  charge  of  the  Priests 
of  the  Sacred  Heart  and  the  Cap- 
uchins. Population,  7,677,826;  Cath- 
olics, 27,943. 

Swaziland  (British)  —  Servite 
Fathers  conduct  the  missions.  Pop- 
ulation, 156,715;  Catholics,  4,125. 

Sweden  —  King  Gustav  Vasa  ac- 
cepted the  Reformation  in  1527 
largely  for  material  considerations. 
Lutheranism  is  the  State  Church. 
The  profession  of  the  Catholic  faith 
was  forbidden  until  1876.  Religious 
orders  are  banned.  Population,  6,- 
341,000;  Catholics,  4,031. 

Switzerland  —  Liberty  of  con- 
science is  granted  since  1884.  Popu- 
lation, 4,216,000;  Catholics,  1,677,317. 

Syria  and  Lebanon —Christianity 
has  suffered  through  continued  in- 
vasions of  the  region.  Population, 
3,349,600;  Catholics,  524,984. 

Tahiti  (French)  —  The  Picpus 
Fathers  are  in  charge  of  the  mis- 
sions. Population,  19,029;  Catholics, 
8,560, 

Tanganyika  (British)— The 
White  Fathers  and  Benedictines  are 
in  charge  of  the  missions.  Popula- 
tion, 5,260,484;  Catholics,  255,182. 

Thailand  (Siam)  —  Buddhism  is 
the  State  religion.  Population,  14,- 
900,000;  Catholics,  62,143. 

Trinidad,  Br.  W.  Indies  —  Under 
British  control,  the  State  contrib- 
utes to  the  support  of  the  clergy. 
Population,  464,889;  Catholics,  195,- 
000. 

Tunisia  (French)  —  Missionary 
work  is  in  charge  of  the  White 
Fathers  and  other  secular  clergy. 
Population,  2,700,000;  Catholics, 
194,856. 

Turkey  —  Islamism  is  the  State 
religion.  Missions  are  in  charge  of 
the  secular  clergy  and  Capuchins. 


Population,     17,869,901 ;     Catholics, 
41,391. 

Uganda  (British)  —  The  White 
Fathers  are  in  charge  of  the  mis- 
sions. Population,  3,745,165;  Cath- 
olics, 477,119. 

Union  of  South  Africa  (British) 
—  Mission  work  has  been  produc- 
ing better  results  in  the  last  dec- 
ade. Population,  10,160,000;  Catho- 
lics, 314,816. 

Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Repub- 
lics—  The  Russian  Orthodox  was 
the  prevailing  religion  and  the 
Church  suffered  persecution  since 
the  time  of  Peter  the  Great.  After 
the  Revolution  and  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Soviet  government  all 
religious  worship  was  forbidden. 
Persecution  ensued  and  church 
property  was  appropriated  in  1922. 
Anti-God  propaganda  is  carried  on. 
Population,  170,467,186;  Catholics, 
8,000,000. 

U  n  i ted  States  —  Though  perse- 
cuted under  Colonial  government, 
Catholics  now  enjoy  equal  rights 
with  their  fellow  citizens  as  guar- 
anteed in  the  first  amendment  to 
the  Constitution.  Population,  131,- 
669,275;  Catholics,  22,293,101. 

Uruguay  —  Catholicism  was  in- 
troduced by  the  Franciscans, 
Church  and  State  were  separated 
in  1917.  Population,  2,122,628;  Cath- 
olics, 1,568,000. 

Vatican  City  —  The  Holy  See  ex- 
ercises sovereignty  over  the  State. 
Population,  953;  Catholics,  953. 

Venezuela  —  Catholicism  is  the 
State  religion  but  all  faiths  are 
granted  freedom  of  worship.  Popu- 
lation, 3,552,000;  Catholics,  2,456,000. 

Wales  —  There  is  great  need  of 
Welsh-speaking  clergy.  Population 
(1931),  2,158,374;  Catholics,  102,921. 
Yugoslavia  (occupied  by  Germany) 
—  All  religions  recognized  by  law 
have  equal  rights.  A  concordat 
signed  with  the  Holy  See  in  1935 
is  not  yet  ratified.  Population,  lb,~ 
703,000;  Catholics,  6,031,156. 

Zanzibar  (British)  —  Holy  Ghost 
Fathers  are  in  charge  of  the  mis- 
sions. Population,  235,428;  Catho- 
lics, 19,137. 


96 


RELIGIOUS    LIBERTY    IN   THE    UNITED  STATES 

After  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  religious  liberty  was  not  granted  by 
all  the  colonies  at  once.  The  Continental  Congress  In  1774,  however, 
recommended  "that  all  former  differences  about  religion . . .  from  hence- 
forth cease  and  be  forever  buried  in  oblivion."  Some  colonies  then  re- 
moved the  religious  restrictions  on  Catholics.  Religious  equality  did  not 
become  universal  until  after  the  Philadelphia  Convention  of  1787  when 
the  Constitution  was  adopted. 

Due  largely  to  a  memorial  presented  by  the  Rev.  John  Carroll,  it  was 
provided  in  the  sixth  article  of  the  Constitution  that  religious  tests  as 
a  qualification  for  any  office  or  public  trust  be  abolished.  It  likewise 
was  provided  in  the  first  amendment  to  the  Constitution  that  "Congress 
shall  make  no  law  respecting  an  establishment  of  religion  or  prohibiting 
the  free  exercise  thereof." 

Still,  since  Catholics  were  not  admitted  to  any  state  office  unless  they 
renounced  both  civil  and  ecclesiastical  foreign  jurisdiction,  it  was  agreed 
to  have  an  ecclesiastical  superior  in  the  United  States  through  whom 
the  spiritual  jurisdiction  of  the  Holy  See  would  be  retained  but  in  whose 
office  nothing  might  be  found  objectionable  to  national  independence. 

In  the  second  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century  the  Know-nothing 
movement  challenged  Catholics  as  "un-American,  anti-American  and 
absolutely  disloyal!"  Riots  occurred,  but  the  agitation  soon  died  down. 

In  the  same  period  Catholics  found  that  the  elementary  school  system, 
controlled  by  Protestants,  constrained  their  children  to  participate  in 
non-Catholic  services.  Due  to  protests,  public  education  then  was  sepa- 
rated from  the  control  of  any  religious  body.  In  order  to  give  a  Catholic 
religious  education  to  their  children,  Catholics  were  forced  to  establish 
their  own  parochial  schools. 

Relations  between  the  Church  and  State  have  been  defined  at  the 
Plenary  or  National  Councils  at  Baltimore,  in  1852,  in  1866  and  in  1884. 

The  Apostolic  Delegation  was  established  at  Washington  in  1893. 

MILESTONES    OF   CATHOLICISM    IN    AMERICA 

1000  —  Leif  Ericson,  a  convert  to  Catholicism,  discovered  Vinland. 

1112  —  Vinland  and  Greenland  became  the  bishopric  of  Bishop  Gnupsson. 

1492  —  Christopher  Columbus  discovered  America  for  Catholic  Spain. 

1493  —  Fr.  Juan  Perez,  O.  F.  M.,  offered  Mass  for  the  first  time  in  the 

New  World. 

1510  —  Bartolome  de  Las  Casas,  first  priest  ordained  in  America.  Worked 

for  the  emancipation  of  the  Indians. 

1511  —  Antonio  de  Montesinos,  a  Dominican,  worked  to  abolish  slavery 

here. 

1513  —  Balboa  discovered  the  Pacific,  proving  America  to  be  a  New  World. 
1519  —  By  his  historic  cruise,  Magellan  proved  the  existence  of  a  New 

World. 
1528  —  The  Franciscans  began  to  convert  the  natives  in  Florida. 

1540  —  Franciscans  began  to  preach  to  the  Indians  of  New  Mexico. 

1541  —  Coronado,  advised  by  a  Franciscan  friar,  explored  as  far  as  Kansas. 

1542  —  De    Soto,    sailing    along    the    Gulf    of    Mexico,    discovered    the 

Mississippi. 

1544  —  pr>  Juan  de  Padilla,  O.  F.  M.,  was  slain  by  the  Quivira  Indians  of 
Kansas,  becoming  thereby  the  protomartyr  of  the  United  States. 

1565  —  The  first  Catholic  parish  was  established  at  St.  Augustine,  Florida. 

1598  —  The  first  hospital  in  the  United  States  was  erected  by  the  Cath- 
olics of  St.  Augustine,  Florida. 

1600  —  Franciscans  began  to  evangelize  the  California  coast. 

1609  —  Mass  was  offered  on  Neutral  Island,  off  the  coast  of  Maine, 

97 


1609. —  Franciscans  from  Mexico  founded  the  Mission  at  Santa  Fe. 
1615  —  Franciscans  came  to  evangelize  the  Hurons  and  the  Iroquois. 
1634 --St.  Mary's,  Maryland,  was  founded  by  English  and  Irish  Catholics. 
1634  -  -Missionaries  had  converted  thousands  from  Alabama  to  Virginia. 
1646- -A  Franciscan  mission  station  was  established  on  the  Penobscot, 

under  the  patronage  of  D'Aulney. 

1646  ™~~The  Jesuits  began  their  missionary  work  in  Maine. 
1665  —  A  number  of  Indians  in  the  Colony  of  New  York  were  converted, 
1673  —  The  Jesuit,  Fr.  Marguette,  and  Joliet  explored  the  Mississippi. 
1680  —  Penal   laws   were   generally   adopted   in   the   American    Colonies 

against  Catholics. 
1682  —  Thomas  Dongan,  a  Catholic,  was  appointed  Governor  of  New  York 

by  James  II. 
1769  —  The  Franciscan,  Fr.  Serra,  began  his  missionary  work  m  California. 

Alabama 

1519  —  Mass  was  offered  at  Mobile  Bay  by  Spanish  missionaries. 
1702  —  French  Jesuits  worked  at  Mobile  or  Old  Fort  Louis. 
1704  —  The  first  parish  church  was  erected  at  Fort  Louis. 
1709  —  Church  was  erected  for  Apalache  Indians. 

1722  — -  Parish  of  Mobile,  till  now  under  the  Diocese  of  Quebec,  was  given 
over  to  the  Order  of  Barefoot  Carmelites. 

1829  —  The  Diocese  of  Mobile  was  established. 

1830  —  Spring  Hill  College,  Mobile,  was  established. 

1832  —  Visitation  Nuns  came  to  Mobile  at  request  of  the  Bishop. 
1842  —  First  Girls'  Orphan  Asylum  was  opened  in  Mobile. 
1901  —  Catholic  College  for  colored  was  established, 
1940  —  Population,  2,832,961;  Catholics,  55,493. 

Alaska 

1779  —  The  Franciscans,  Fr.  John  Riobo  and  Fr.  Mathias,  chaplains  of 
Spanish  men-of-war  first  brought  Christianity  to  Alaska.  Russian 
Orthodox  priests  did  not  arrive  until  1794. 

1862  —  The  Oblate  Fathers  were  represented  at  Fort  Yukon  by  Fr.  Seguin, 
who,  however,  due  to  harsh  treatment,  returned  to  Canada. 

1872  —  After  Americans  took  possession  of  Fort  Yukon  Bishop  Isidore 

Glut  and  Fr.  August  Lecorre   of  Vancouver   began   active  mis- 
sionary work. 

1873  —  Bishop  Charles  J.  Seghers  made  a  survey  of  the  Southern  coast. 

1874  —  Alaska  was  assigned  to  the  jurisdiction  of  Vancouver  Island. 
1877  — •  The  Bishop  made  a  mission  survey  of  the  Northwest. 

1878 —  The  Rev.  John  Althoff  became  the  first  resident  missionary  in 

Alaska. 

1886  —  Archbishop  Seghers  was  murdered  by  a  guide. 
1886 -—The  Sisters  of  St.  Anne  were  the  first  nuns  to  come  to  Alaska. 
18$7  _  TWO  Jesuit  Fathers,  P.  Tosi  and  A.  Robaut,  took  up  the  work  of 

the  Archbishop. 
1892  —  More  Jesuit  priests  and  a  few  nuns  had  joined  the  mission  and 

had  baptized  416  Eskimo  children  and  enrolled  forty-five  adult 

communicants. 
3894  —  Pope  Leo  XIII  raised  the  territory  to  the  rank  of  a  Prefecture 

Apostolic. 
1900 — An  epidemic  supposed  to  have  been  wilfully  induced  from  Russia 

ruined  many  homes  and  hopes. 
1901 — The  Jesuits  reorganized  their  missions  and  established  a  Church 

at  Nome. 
1916 —  The  territory  was  erected  into  a  Vicariate  Apostolic. 

98 


1922  —  Alaska  boasted  twenty-two  churches,  many  boarding  and  voca- 
tional schools  for  the  natives,  a  number  of  day  schools  and  eight 
hospitals. 

1939  —  The  number  of  churches  had  doubled  since  1922,  and  there  were 

30  missions  with  chapels. 

1940  —  Population,  72,524;    Catholics,  12,650. 

Arizona 

1539  —  Fr.  Marcos  de  Niza,  O.  F.  M.,  explored  Arizona. 

1629  —  Spanish  Franciscans  began  missionary  work  among  the  Moki 
Indians. 

1699  —  The  Jesuit,  Fr.  Eusebius  Kino,  established  a  mission  at  San 
Xavier  del  Bac,  near  the  future  Tucson. 

1767  — -  The  Jesuits  were  expelled.  Franciscans  took  over  their  ten 
missions. 

1781  —  Fr.  Francisco  Garces,  O.  F.  M.,  was  killed  with  several  com- 
panions. A  statue  commemorating  him  has  been  erected  at  Ft. 
Yuma,  California. 

1797  • —  The  famous  Mission  Church  of  San  Xavier  del  Bac  was  con- 
structed by  the  Franciscans. 

1827  —  Spanish  missionaries  were  expelled  by  the  Mexican  government. 

1859  —  Fr.  Joseph  Macheboeuf  came  to  Tucson. 

1863  —  The  Jesuits  took  over  the  parish  and  abandoned  Franciscan 
Church  of  San  Xavier. 

1897  —  The  Diocese  of  Tucson  was  erected. 

1940  —  Population,  499,261;   Catholics,  100,000. 

Arkansas 

1673  —  Marquette  visited  the  Indians  of  East  Arkansas. 

1689  —  Other  Jesuit  missionaries  arrived. 

1702  —  Fr.  Nicholas  Foucault  of  the  Foreign  Seminary  worked  among  the 

Indians. 

1729  —  Fr.  Paul  du  Poisson,  S.  J.,  was  killed  by  Mississippi  Indians. 
1803  —  With  the  relapse  of  the  missions  few  Catholics  were  left  in  the 

region. 

1843  —  The  Diocese  of  Little  Rock  was  established  to  serve  700  Catholics. 
1940  —  Population,  1,949,387;  Catholics,  37,070. 

California 

1595  —  The  Franciscan,  Fr.  Francisco  de  la  Concepcion,  who  accompanied 
the  voyage  of  Cermeno,  said  the  first  Mass  in  California,  near  the 
site  of  San  Francisco. 

1602  —  Carmelites  accompanying  Vizcaino  celebrated  Mass  on  the  shore 
of  California. 

1769  —  The   Franciscan,   Fr.   Junipero   Serra,   founded   the   Mission   San 

Diego,  the  first  mission  in  what  is  now  California.    He  subse- 
quently founded  eight  other  missions. 

1770  —  The  Mission  of  San  Carlos  de  Monterey  was  founded  near  present 

Carmel-by-the-Sea. 

1771  —  The  Mission  of  San  Antonio  de  Padua  was  established  near  pres- 

ent Jolon. 

1771  —  Mission  San  Gabriel  was  founded  near  Los  Angeles. 

1772  —  Mission  San  Luis  Obispo  was  established  in  the  present  city  of 

the  same  name. 

1776  —  Mission  Dolores  was  founded  at  San  Francisco. 
1776  —  Mission  San  Juan  Capistrano  was  established  in  the  present  city 

of  the  same  name. 

99 


1777  —  Mission  Santa  Clara  was  founded  in  present  Santa  Clara* 
1782  —  Mission  San  Buenaventura  was  established  at  present  Ventura. 

1786  —  Mission  Santa  Barbara  was  founded  at  Santa  Barbara. 

1787  —  Mission  Purissima  Concepcion  was  founded  near  present  Lompoc. 
1791  —  Mission  Santa  Cruz  was  founded  in  present  Santa  Cruz  County, 
1791  —  Mission  Soledad  was  founded  near  the  present  city  of  Soledad. 
1797  —  Mission  San  Jose  was  established  near  present  Irvington. 

1797  —  Mission  San  Juan  Bautista  was  founded  near  present  Sargent. 
1797  —  Mission  San.  Miguel  was  established  in  the  present  San  Miguel. 

1797  —  Mission  San  Fernando  was  founded  in  present  Los  Angeles  County. 

1798  —  Mission  San  Luis  Rey  was  founded  near  present  Oceanside. 

1804  —  Mission  Santa  Inez  was  founded  in  present  Santa  Barbara  County. 

1816  —  Mission  San  Antonio  de  Pala  was  established  in  present  Pala. 

1817  —  Mission  San  Rafael  was  founded  in  the  present  city  of  that  name. 
1821  —  With  Mexican  independence  of  Spain,  California  became  part  of 

the  Mexican  Republic,  which  began  a  policy  of  interference  and 
aggression  toward  the  missions. 
1823  —  Mission  San  Francisco  Solano  was  established  at  Sonoma. 

1835  —  The  missions  were  secularized  and  finally  confiscated. 

1836  —  Mexico  authorized  a  petition  to  the  Holy  See  for  the  creation  of 

a  bishopric  of  California,  the  property  of  the  Pious  Fund  to  be 

placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  bishop. 
1840  —  Gregory  XVI  created  the  Diocese  of  Upper  and  Lower  California 

and  appointed  Francisco  Garcia  Diego,  O.  F.  M.,  the  first  bishop. 
1842  —  President  Santa  Ana  decreed  that  properties  of  the  Pious  Fund 

be  seized  and  sold,  the  proceeds  therefrom  to  be  incorporated  in 

the  national  treasury. 

1848  —  Upper  California  was  ceded  to  the  United  States. 
1850  —  The  Diocese  of  Los  Angeles  and  San  Diego  was  established. 
1853  —  The  Archdiocese  of  San  Francisco  was  established. 
1855  —  The  confiscated  California  missions  were  returned  to  the  Church 

by  the  United  States. 

1886  —  The  Diocese  of  Sacramento  was  established. 
1902  —  Diplomatic  negotiations  between  the  United  States  and  Mexico 

resulted  in  appeal  to  the  Permanent  Court  of  Arbitration  at  The 

Hague  for  adjudication  of  claims  to  the  Pious  Fund.  In  compliance 

with  provisions   of  The  Hague   award,   Mexico  paid  the   U.   S. 

$1,420,682.67  in  extinguishment  of  sums  due  as  annuities  previoxis 

to  1902,  and  was  to  pay  a  perpetual  annuity  for  the  use  of  Catholic 

prelates  in  California.  Since  1932  no  payments  have  been  made. 
1922  —  The  Diocese  of  Monterey-Fresno  was  established. 
1934  —  To  commemorate  the  sesquicentennial  of  Serra's  death,  1934  was 

officially  declared  as  Serra  Year  by  the  California  Legislature  and 

August  24  as  Serra  Day. 
1930  —  LOS  Angeles  was  erected  into  an  archdiocese  and  the  Diocese  of 

San  Diego  established. 
1937  —  The  city  of  San  Francisco  authorized  the  erection  of  a  heroic 

statue  of  its  patron,  St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  on  a  peak  overlooking 

the  city. 
1940  —  Population,  6,907,387;   Catholics,  1,222,510. 

Colorado 

1858  —  The  first  Catholic  church  was  built  at  Los  Conejos. 

1887  —  The  Diocese  of  Denver  was  established  to  cover  the  state. 

1940  —  Population,  1,123,296;  Catholics,  147,217. 

100 


Connecticut 

1648  —  Jesuits   were   expelled  and  threatened  with  hanging  if  they  re- 
turned to  the  colony. 

1818  —  Religious  freedom  was  established  by  the  new  Constitution,  al- 

though the  Congregational  Church  remained  in  practice  the  State 
Church. 

1819  —  Fanny  Allen,  daughter  of  Ethan  Allen,  the  Revolutionary  patriot, 

died  as  a  nun  in  Montreal. 

1828  —  The  first  resident  parish  was  founded  at  Hartford. 
1843  —  The  Diocese  of  Hartford  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  1,709,242;   Catholics,  633,124. 

Delaware 

1750  —  Jesuit  missions  at  Apoquinimininck  were  administered  from  Mary- 
land. 

1772  —  The  first  resident  parish  established  in  a  log  cabin  at  Coffee  Run. 
1792  —  French  Catholics  from  Santo  Domingo  settled  near  Wilmington. 
1816  —  St.  Peter's  Cathedral  was  built  at  Wilmington. 
1868  —  The  Diocese  of  Wilmington  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  266,505;   Catholics,  34,576. 

Florida 

1521  —  Missionaries  accompanied  Ponce  de  Leon  and  other  explorers  to 

the  region. 
1549  —  Fr.  Luis  Cancer  de  Barbastro,  a  Dominican,  was  slain  by  Indians 

near  Tampa  Bay. 
1565  —  Four  secular  priests  accompanied  Pedro  Menendez  de  Aviles  to 

the  site  of  St.  Augustine. 

1565  —  Fr.  Martin  Francisco  Lopez  Mendoza  Grajales  became  first  parish 

priest  of  St.  Augustine,  the  first  established  parish  in  the  United 
States. 

1566  —  Fr.  Pedro  Martinez,  S.  J.,  was  slain  by  the  Indians  in  northeastern 

Florida. 
1573  —  Franciscans  worked  in  Florida  until  expelled  by  the  English  in 

1763. 
1606  —  Bishop  Altamirano,  0.  F.  M.,   of  Cuba  made  official  visitation  of 

Florida,  the  first  episcopal  visitation  in  the  United  States,  and 

conferred  Orders  and  Confirmation. 
1612 —  The  first  Franciscan  Province  in  the  United  States  was  erected 

under  the  title  of  Santa  Elena. 
1647  —  Three  Franciscan  missionaries  were  killed  in  western  Florida, 

near  the  present  Tallahassee. 
1674  —  Bishop  Calderon  of  Cuba  ordained  seven  priests,  the  first  known 

ordination  in  the  present  territory  of  the  United  States. 
1693  —  The  Franciscans,  Rodrego  de  la  Barreda  and  Pedro  Galindes,  jour- 
neyed overland  from  Apalache  to  help  found  Pensacola.  Barreda's 

diary  of  the  expedition  is  most  informative. 
1857  —  Florida  was  made  a  Vicariate  Apostolic. 
1870  —  The  Diocese  of  St.  Augustine  was  erected. 
1913  —  Convent  Inspection  Bill  was  defeated  in  State  Legislature. 
1940  — .  Population,  1,897,414;  Catholics,  65,767. 

Georgia 

1597  —  The  Franciscans,  Frs.  Chozas  and  Verascola,  explored  the  interior 

of  Georgia. 
1597  —  pive  Franciscan  missionaries  were  killed  in  the  coastal  missions 

of  Georgia. 

101 


1616  —  First  Franciscan  Provincial  Chapter  was  held  in  the  United 
States,  in  San  Buenaventura  de  Guadalg.uinini,  in  southeastern 
Georgia. 

1655  —Franciscans  had  nine  flourishing  missions  among  the  Indians.  The 
conquest  by  the  English  wiped  out  the  missions.  During  colonial 
days  Catholics  were  forbidden  to  settle  in  Georgia. 

1793  —  French  Catholic  refugees  from  Santo  Domingo  mingled  with  a 
few  Catholics  from  Maryland  after  the  Revolution. 

1810 — The  first  church,  built  at  Augusta,  was  placed  in  charge  of  an 
Augustinian. 

1850  —  The  Diocese  of  Savannah  was  established. 

1893  —  The  Most  Rev.  Ignatius  Persico,  O.  F.  M.  Cap.,  former  Bishop  of 
Savannah,  was  created  a  cardinal  by  Leo  XIII. 

1937  —  Atlanta  was  joined  to  Savannah,  as  the  Diocese  of  Savannah- 
Atlanta. 

1940  —  Population,  3,123,723;   Catholics,  22,500. 

Idaho 

1842 — Jesuits  established  the  Sacred  Heart  Mission. 

1863  —  Secular  priests  were  sent  from  Oregon  City  to  administer  to  in- 
coming miners. 

1868  —  Idaho  was  made  a  vicariate  apostolic. 

1868  —  School  was  established  by  the  Sisters  of  the  Holy  Names  at 
Idaho  City. 

1870  —  Catholics  lost  most  of  their  missions  among  the  Indians  of  the 
Northwest  Territory,  when  the  Commission  on  Indian  Affairs  ap- 
pointed Protestant  missionaries. 

1872  —  Fr.  Mesplie  was  appointed  United  States  Post  Chaplain  at  Fort 
Boise. 

1893  —  The  Diocese  of  Boise  was  established. 

1940  —  Population,  524,873;  Catholics,  21,255. 

Illinois 

1673  —  Fr.  James  Marguette  and  Louis  Joliet  discovered  and  explored 
the  Mississippi  River. 

1675  —  The  Mission  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  was  established  among 
the  Kaskaskia  Indians. 

1679  —  La  Salle  brought  with  him  the  Franciscans,  Frs.  Louis  Hennepin, 
Gabriel  de  la  Ribourde  and  Zenobius  Membre. 

Ig30  —  j?r,  Ribourde  was  killed  by  the  Kickapoo  Indians  along  the  Illinois 
River. 

1710  —  The  warrior  chief,  Chicagou,  after  whom  the  City  of  Chicago  was 
named,  defended  the  Church. 

1765  —  British  conquest  of  the  territory  resulted  in  the  banishment  of 
the  Jesuits. 

1778  —  Rev.  Pierre  Gibault  championed  the  American  cause  in  the  Revolu- 
tion and  aided  greatly  in  securing  the  states  of  Ohio,  Indiana, 
Illinois,  Michigan  and  Wisconsin  for  the  Americans. 

1843  —  The  Diocese  of  Chicago  was  erected. 

1877  —  The  Diocese  of  Peoria  was  erected. 

1880  —  Chicago  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1887  —  The  Diocese  of  Belleville  was  erected. 

1908  —  The  Diocese  of  Rockford  was  erected. 

1923  —  The  Diocese  of  Quincy  became  the  Diocese  of  Springfield. 

1924  —  Archbishop   Mundelein   of  Chicago   was   created   a   cardinal  by 

Pius  XI. 

1926  —  The  28th  International  Bucharistic  Congress  was  held  in  Chicago. 
1940  —  Population,  7,897,241;  Catholics,  1,892,209. 

102 


Indiana 

1686  —  Land  near  the  present  Notre  Dame  University  at  South  Bend  was 

given  by  the  French  Government  to  the  Jesuits  for  a  mission. 
1749  — -The  Church  of  St.  Francis  Xavier  was  founded  at  Vincennes. 
1775  —  Fr.  Pierre  Gibault  aided  George  Rogers  Clark  in  the  campaign 

against  the  British  in  the  contest  for  the  Northwest  Territory. 
1792  —  Col.  Clark  accompanied  the  Rev.  Benedict  Flaget  from  Louisville 

to  Vincennes. 
1799  —  The  first  school  in  Indiana  was  built  by  the  Rev.  John  Francis 

Rivet. 

1834  —  The  Diocese  of  Indianapolis  was  established. 
1842  —  University  of  Notre  Dame  founded  by  the  Holy  Cross  Fathers. 
1857  —  The  Diocese  of  Fort  Wayne  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  3,427,796;  Catholics,  356,760. 

Iowa 

1836  —  The  first  church  was  founded  by  Fr.  Samuel  Mazzuchelli,  O.  P. 

1837  —  The  Diocese  of  Dubuque  was  erected. 

1838  —  St.  Joseph's  Mission  was  founded  at  Council  Bluffs  by  Pierre  de 

Smet,  S.  J. 

1881  —  The  Diocese  of  Davenport  was  erected. 
1893  —  Dubuque  was  made  an  archdiocese. 
1902  —  The  Diocese  of  Sioux  City  was  erected. 
1911  — The  Diocese  of  Des  Moines  was  erected. 
1940  —  Population,  2,538,268;  Catholics,  301,762, 

Kansas 

1541  —  The  Franciscan,  Fr.  Juan  de  Padilla,  accompanied  Coronado  to 
the  plains  of  Kansas  where  he  was  slain  by  Indians  in  1544. 

1825  —  Jesuits  ministered  to  eastern  Indians  transferred  to  the  western 
side  of  the  Mississippi  by  the  United  States  Government. 

1836  —  The  Mission  of  St.  Francis  Xavier  was  established. 

1857  —  Vicariate  Apostolic  of  Kansas  erected,  under  jurisdiction  of  Rt 
Rev.  J.  B.  Miege,  S.  J.,  Titular  Bishop  of  Messene. 

1887  —  The  Diocese  of  Leavenworth  was  erected. 

1887  —  The  Diocese  of  Concordia  was  erected. 

1887  —  The  Diocese  of  Wichita  was  erected. 

1940  —  Population,  1,801,028;  Catholics,  179,645. 

Kentucky 

1775  —  The  first  settlers  in  Kentucky  were  Catholics. 

1787  —  The  first  resident  priest,  Fr.  Charles  Francis  Whelan,  ministered 
to  Catholic  settlers  near  Bardstown. 

1808  —  The  Diocese  of  Louisville  was  erected. 

1852  —  The  Know-nothing  Movement  began  to  be  felt  in  Kentucky. 

1852  —  The  Diocese  of  Covington  was  established. 

1855  —  A  Know-nothing  mob  attacked  the  Louisville  Courier  office  which 
had  defended  Catholics  and  foreigners.  German  and  Irish  Catho- 
lic voters  were  driven  from  the  polls  on  "Bloody  Monday." 

1855  —  Abraham  Lincoln  declared  against  Know-nothingism  because  it 
discriminated  against  negroes,  foreigners  and  Catholics. 

1937  —  Louisville  was  made  an  archdiocese.  The  Diocese  of  Owensboro 
was  erected. 

1940  —  Population,  2,845,627;    Catholics,  207,377. 

Louisiana 
1673  —  Fr.  Joliet,  S.  J.,  a  member  of  Marquette's  expedition,  offered  the 

first  Mass  in  Louisiana. 

—  La  Salle  completed  the  discoveries  ot  De  Soto  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Mississippi  River. 

103 


1699  —  French  Catholics  founded  the  Colony  of  Louisiana. 

1717  —  The  Franciscan,  Fr.  Anthony  Margil,  established  the  first  Indian 

mission  of  San  Miguel  de  Linares. 

1718  —  New  Orleans  was  founded  by  Jean  Baptiste  Le  Moyne,  Sieur  de 

Bienville. 

1721  —  The  first  chapel  in  New  Orleans  was  placed  in  charge  of  the 
Capuchin,  Fr.  Anthony. 

1727  —  The  Capuchins  conducted  a  school  for  boys. 

1727  —  Ursuline  nuns  from  France  founded  their  convent  in  New  Orleans, 
the  oldest  convent  in  what  is  now  the  United  States.  They  con- 
ducted a  school,  hospital  and  orphan  asylum. 

1793  —  The  Diocese  of  New  Orleans  was  established. 

1850  —  New  Orleans  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1894  —  Edward  Douglass  White,  Senator  from  Louisiana,  was  appointed 
Associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

1910  —  Justice  White  became  Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

1910  —  The  Diocese  of  Alexandria  was  created  from  the  old  Diocese  of 
Natchitoches. 

1918  —  The  Diocese  of  Lafayette  was  founded. 

1940  —  Population,  2,363,880;  Catholics,  623,132. 

Maine 

1604  —  The  first  Mass  in  the  state  was  offered  by  the  Rev.  Nicholas 
Aubry  who  accompanied  Sieur  de  Monts'  French  expedition. 

1613  —  A  permanent  French  settlement  was  attempted  on  an  island  in 
the  mouth  of  the  Kennebeck. 

1633  —  Capuchins  founded  missions  on  the  Penobscot  River. 
1646 —  Jesuits  established  a  mission  on  the  Kennebeck. 

1648  —  The  Church  of  St.  John  was  built  at  Oldtown.   This  is  the  oldest 

church  in  New  England. 

1704  —  French  missions  were  destroyed  by  English  soldiers. 
1724  —  A  Puritan  force  attacked  the  French  settlements   and  brutally 

killed  Fr.  Sebastian  Rale,  S.  J. 
1853  —  The  Diocese  of  Portland  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  847,226;   Catholics,  195,185. 

Maryland 

1634  —  The  English  Catholic  Colony  was  established  by  Leonard  Calvert, 

the  only  colony  in  the  world  granting  religious  liberty. 
1634  — The  first  Mass  was  offered  on  the  Island  of  St.  Clement  in  the 

lower  Potomac  by  Fr.  Andrew  White,  S.  J. 
1637  —  A  permanent  chapel  was  built  at  St.  Mary's,  twelve  miles  from 

the  mouth  of  the  Potomac. 

1649  —  The  Toleration  Act  was  passed  by  the  Maryland  Assembly. 

1650  —  Puritans,   persecuted   in  Virginia,   were   permitted   to   settle   at 

Providence  (Annapolis).  They  soon  took  advantage  of  their  po- 
sition, seized  the  government,  repealed  the  Toleration  Act  and 
persecuted  Catholics. 

1651  —  Cecil  Calvert,  the  second  Lord  Baltimore,  gave  the  Jesuits  10,000 

acres  for  use  as  Indian  missions. 
1658  —  Lord  Baltimore  again  regained  his  authority  and  restored  the 

Toleration  Act. 
1673  —  Franciscans  came  to  Maryland  under  the  leadership  of  Fr.  Mas- 

seus  Massey,  0.  F.  M. 

1689  —  The  Protestant  Revolution  caused  repeal  of  the  Toleration  Act. 
1692  —  William  and  Mary  enforced  the  penal  laws  against  Catholics  but 

the  practice  of  celebrating  Mass  in  private  houses  was  tolerated. 
1697  —  A  brick  chapel  was  erected  at  St.  Mary's. 

104 


1770  —  With  the  need  for  concerted  action  in  the  coming  Revolution, 
Catholics  were  again  emancipated. 

1789  — The  Diocese  of  Baltimore  was  established. 

1790  —  A  convent  of  Carmelite  nuns  was  founded  at  Port  Tobacco,  by 

Fr.  Charles  Neale,  S.  J.,  the  first  convent  in  territory  then  con- 
stituting the  United  States. 

1808  —  Baltimore  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1868  —  The  Diocese  of  Wilmington  was  founded,  and  covers  a  part  of  the 
state. 

1886  —  Archbishop  Gibbons  of  Baltimore  was  created  a  cardinal  by 
Leo  XIII. 

1934  —  Tercentenary  of  the  founding  of  Maryland  was  celebrated  by  a 
field  Mass  in  Baltimore  Stadium. 

1939  —  With  the  erection  of  the  Archdiocese  of  Washington,  the  adminis- 

tration of  the  see  was  entrusted  to  the  Archbishop  of  Baltimore. 
The  Most  Rev.  Michael  J.  Curley  became  Archbishop  of  Washing- 
ton and  Baltimore. 

1940  —  Population,    1,821,244;    Catholics,    385,751,    including    District    of 

Columbia. 

Massachusetts 
1688  —  Ann  Glover,  a  poor  Irishwoman,  became  the  victim  of  witchcraft 

superstition. 
1724  —  Fr.  Sebastian  Rale,  S.  J.,  was  shot  down  by  a  Puritan  force  on 

August  23. 
1732  —  Although  Catholics  were  not  admitted,  a  few  Irish  families  were 

found  in  Boston. 

1755  —  Acadian  exiles  landed  in  Boston. 

1756  —  Exiled  Acadians  landing  in  Boston  were  denied  the  services  of  a 

Catholic  priest. 

1775  —  General  Washington  discouraged  the  Guy  Fawkes  Day  procession 
in  which  the  Pope  and  the  devil  were  carried  in  effigy,  saying  he 
could  not  help  expressing  his  surprise  that  there  should  be 
officers  and  soldiers  in  his  army  "so  void  of  common  sense  as  to 
insult  the  religious  feelings  of  the  Canadians  with  whom  friend- 
ship and  an  alliance  are  being  sought." 

1778  —  Despite  Catholic  aid  in  the  Revolution  the  Puritans  excluded  Cath- 

olics from  participation  in  their  governments. 

1779  —  The  Massachusetts  Constitution  provided  for  the  support  of  pub- 

lic Protestant  teachers  of  piety,  religion  and  morality. 
1788  —  Mass  was  offered  aboard  Baron  d'Estaing's  fleet  in  Boston  Harbor. 

1791  —  Bishop  Carroll  visited  Boston  and  was  honored  by  the  presence  of 

Governor  John  Hancock  at  Mass. 

1803  —  The  Church  of  the  Holy  Cross  was  erected  in  Boston  with  finan- 
cial aid  given  by  Protestants  headed  by  John  Adams. 

1808  —  The  Diocese  of  Boston  was  established. 

1826  —  Irish  Catholics  emigrated  to  Worcester,  Mass.,  and  other  parts  of 
New  England  for  the  purpose  of  securing  work  in  constructing 
the  Blackstone  Canal. 

1830  —  Irish  Catholic  labor  was  brought  to  New  England  to  help  construct 

railroads. 

1831  —  Irish  Catholic  immigration  increased  with  the  failure  of  the  Irish 

potato  crops. 

1854  —  A  Know-nothing  State  ticket  was  put  in  office. 

1855  —  Catholic  militia  companies  were  disbanded.    The  Nunneries'  In- 

spection Bill  was  passed. 

1855  —  Irish  and  Canadian  Catholic  young  women  were  sought  as  work- 
ers in  the  cotton  mills. 

I860  —  Portuguese  Catholics  from  the  Azores  settled  at  New  Bedford. 

105 


1870  —  The  Diocese  of  Springfield  was  founded. 

1875  —  Boston  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1904 --The  Diocese  of  Pall  River  was  founded. 

1911  --Archbishop  O'Connell  of  Boston  was  created  a  cardinal  by  Pius  X. 

1940  —  Population,  4,316,721;   Catholics,  2,189,053. 

Michigan 

1642  — Fr.  Isaac  Jogues  and  Fr.  Charles  Raymbaut  preached  to  the  Chip- 
pewas  and  gave  the  rapids  the  name,  Sault  Sainte  Marie. 

1660  —  Fr.  Rene  Menard,  S,  J.,  was  murdered  by  Sioux  Indians  near  the 
village  of  FAnse. 

166$  —  The  Mission  of  St.  Ignace  was  founded  at  Michilimakinac  by  Fr. 
Marquette. 

1679  —  A  mission  was  founded  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph  by  La 

Salle  and  the  Franciscans,  Fr.  Louis  Hennepin,  Gabriel  de  la  Ri- 
bourde  and  Zenobius  Membre. 

1701  —  Fort  Pontchartrain   was  founded  on  the  site  of  present  Detroit 

and   placed   in   command   of  Antoine  de  la  Mothe  Cadillac.   The 

Church  of  St.  Anne  was  built. 
1833  —  The  Diocese  of  Detroit  was  established. 
1857  —  The  Diocese  of  MarQuette  was  established. 
1882  —  The  Diocese  of  Grand  Rapids  was  established. 

1937  —  Detroit    was    erected    into    an    archdiocese,    and    the    Diocese    of 

Lansing  was  established. 

1938  —  The  Diocese  of  Saginaw  was  established. 
1940  — Population,  5,256,106;  Catholics,  919,121. 

Minnesota 

1680  —  The  Falls  of  St.  Anthony  were  named  by  Fr.  Louis  Hennepin,  O.F.M. 
1689 — Fr.  Joseph  J.  Marest,  S.  J.,  carried  on  missionary  work  among  the 

Sioux  Indians. 

1727  —  The  first  chapel,  that  of  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,  was  erected 

near  the  town  of  Frontenac  and  placed  in  charge  of  the  Jesuits. 

1732  —  Fort  Charles  was  built.  Jesuits  ministered  to  the  settlers. 

1736  —  Fr.  Pierre  Aulneau,  S.  J,,  was  killed  by  Indians. 

1839  —  Swiss  Catholics  from  Canada  located  near  the  American  strong- 
hold, Fort  Snelling. 

1841  —  Fr.  Lucian  Galtier  built  the  Church  of  St.  Paul,  thus  forming  the 
nucleus  of  the  modern  city  of  the  same  name. 

1850  —  The  Diocese  of  St.  Paul  was  erected. 

1888  —  St.  Paul  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1889  —  The  Diocese  of  Duluth  was  erected. 
1889  —  The  Diocese  of  St.  Cloud  was  erected. 
1889  —  The  Diocese  of  Winona  was  erected. 
1910  —  The  Diocese  of  Crookston  was  erected. 
1940  —  Population,  2,792,300;  Catholics,  568,653. 

Mississippi 

1682  —  The   Franciscans,    Frs.    Kenobius   Membre   and   Anastase   Douay, 

preached  to  the  Taensa  and  Natchez  Indians. 
1698  — Priests  of  the  Quebec  Seminary  founded  missions  near  Natchez 

and  Fort  Adams. 

1702  —  Fr.  Nicholas  Foucault  was  murdered  by  Indians. 
1706  —  Fr.  St.  Cosme  was  murdered  by  Indians. 

1721  — The  missions  were  practically  abandoned  with  only  Fr.  Juif  work- 
ing among  the  Yazoos. 

3725  —  Fr.  Mathurin  de  Petit,  S.  J.r  carried  on  mission  work  in  southern 
Mississippi. 

1728  —  The  Capuchin,  Fr.  Philibert,  came  to  Natchez. 

106 


1729  —  Indians  angered  at  French  fort  building  tomahawked  Fr.  Paul  du 

Poisson,   S.  J.,   near   Fort  Rosalie.    Fr.   Jean   Souel  was   shot  by 
Yazoos. 

1730  —  Fr.  Antoine  Senat,  S.  J.,  was  burned  at  the  stake  by  the  Chicka- 

saws. 

1837  —  The  Diocese  of  Natchez  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  2,183,796;  Catholics,  38,812. 

Missouri 

1735  —  French  Catholic  miners  and  traders  settled  Old  Mines  and  Sainte 
Genevieve. 

1750  —  Jesuits  visited  the  French  settlers. 

1762  —  A  mission  was  established  at  St.  Charles. 

1764  —  St.  Louis  was  settled  by  Laclede. 

1767  —  Carondelet  Mission  was  established. 

1770  —  The  first  church  was  founded  in  St.  Louis  on  the  site  of  the  pres- 
ent Cathedral. 

1772  —  Capuchins    came   from   New    Orleans    and   built  more   churches. 

1826  —  The  Diocese  of  St.  Louis  was  erected. 

1847  —  St.  Louis  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1868  —  The  Diocese  of  St.  Joseph  was  erected. 

1880  —  The  Diocese  of  Kansas  City  was  erected. 

1940  —  Population,  3,784,664;   Catholics,  545,812. 

Montana 

1841  —  Fr.  Pierre  Jean  de  Smet  and  two  others  established  St.  Mary's 
Mission  on  the  Bitter  Root  River  near  present  Stevensville. 

1845  —  Fr.  Antonia  Ravalli,  S.  J.,  was  placed  in  charge.  His  name  has 
been  perpetuated  in  Ravalli  County. 

1850  —  The  mission  was  temporarily  abandoned. 

1859  —  Frs.  Point  and  Hoecken  established  the  Mission  of  St.  Peter  near 

the  Great  Falls. 
1866  —  St.  Mary's  Mission  was  re-established. 

1884  —  The  Diocese  of  Helena  was  established. 
1904  —  The  Diocese  of  Great  Falls  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  559,456;   Catholics,  84,923. 

Nebraska 

1855  —  Rev.   J.   F.   Tracy  ministered   to   the   Catholic   settlement  of  St. 

Patrick  and  to  Catholic  groups  in  Omaha. 

1356  —  Land  donated  for  a  church  in  Omaha  by  Gov.  Alfred  Gumming. 
1857 — Vicariate   Apostolic   of   Nebraska   erected,   under  jurisdiction   of 

Rt.  Rev.  James  Michael  O 'Gorman,  Titular  Bishop  of  Raphanea. 

1860  —  German   Catholics   in  Nebraska  City  were  served  by  the  Bene- 

dictine, Fr.  Emanual  Hartig. 

1874  —  Catholics  from  Boston  settled  in  Holt  County  at  O'Neill. 
1876  —  Catholics  migrated  to   O'Connor  County,  so  named  in  honor  of 

Vicar  Apostolic  James  O'Connor. 

1885  —  The  Diocese  of  Omaha  was  established. 
1887  —  The  Diocese  of  Lincoln  was  established. 
1917  —  The  Diocese  of  Grand  Island  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  1,315,834;  Catholics,  162,344. 

Nevada 

1861  —  The  first  church  was  built  at  Genoa. 
1871  —  A  church  was  erected  at  Reno. 

1931  —  The  Diocese  of  Reno  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  110,247;   Catholics,  12,153. 

107 


New  Hampshire 

1784 —  The  State  Constitution  included  a  religious  test  which  barred 
Catholics  from  public  office.  Local  support  was  provided  for  the 
public  Protestant  teachers  of  religion. 

1820  —  The  Barber  family  of  Claremont,  headed  by  the  father,  an  Epis- 

copalian minister,  became  converts. 
1822  —  Fr.  Barber,  the  minister  who  became  a  Catholic  priest,  erected  the 

first  Catholic  church  and  school  in  New  Hampshire. 
1836  —  The  Church  of  St.  Aloysius  was  dedicated  at  Dover. 
1848  —  Manchester  received  a  resident  priest. 
1877  —  Catholics  obtained  full  civil  liberty  and  rights. 
1884  —  The  Diocese  of  Manchester  was  erected. 
1940 —  Population,  491,524;   Catholics,  170,783. 

New  Jersey 

1660  —  Early  colonial  history  was  marred  by  anti-Catholic  bigotry. 

1680  —  The  Catholic,  William  Douglass,  of  Bergen,  was  refused  a  seat  in 

the  General  Assembly  because  of  his  religion. 
1682  —  Two  Jesuit  priests  visited  the  scattered  Catholics   in  northern 

New  Jersey. 

1701  —  Tolerance  was  granted  to  all  but  "papists." 
1748  —  pr.  Theodore  Schneider,  S.  J.,  of  Pennsylvania,  visited  the  German 

Catholics  of  New  Jersey. 
175g  —  Fr.  Ferdinand  Farmer  and  Fr,  Robert  Harding  worked  among  the 

Catholics  of  the  state,  visiting  them  in  their  private  dwellings. 
1776  —  The  State  Constitution  tacitly  excluded  Catholics  from  office. 
1803  —  Augustinian  missions  were  established  at  Cape  May  and  Trenton. 
1803 — A  rude  plank  chapel  served  the  German  Catholics  at  Macopin. 
1814  —  The  first  church  was  erected  at  Trenton. 

1821  —  St.  John's  Church  was  erected  at  Paterson. 
1828  —  St.  John's  Church  was  built  at  Newark. 

1844  —  Catholics  obtained  full  civil  liberty  and  rights. 

1853  —  The  Diocese  of  Newark  was  erected. 

1876  —  Franciscans,  exiled  by  German  "May  Laws,"  opened  a  monastery 

in  Paterson. 

18S1  —  The  Diocese  of  Trenton  was  erected. 
1937  —  Newark  was  made  an  archdiocese.   The  Diocese  of  Paterson  and 

the  Diocese  of  Camden  were  erected. 
1940  —  Population,  4,160,165;  Catholics,  1,100,409. 

New  Mexico 

1851  —  The  Franciscans,  Frs.  Augustin  Rodriguez,  Juan  de  Santa  Maria 
and  Francisco  Lopez,  arrived  from  Mexico,  giving  the  region  the 
name  of  "New  Mexico."  All  three  later  died  at  the  hands  of  the 
Indians. 

1597  —  Ten  Franciscans  accompanied  Don  Juan  de  Onate  and  established 
a  church  north  of  Santa  Fe. 

1680  —  The  Indians  revolted  against  Spanish  rule  and  massacred  twenty- 
one  missionaries, 

1692  —  The  missions  were  restored  under  the  Governor,  Antonio  de 
Vargas. 

1848  —  With  the  cession  of  New  Mexico  to  the  United  States,  the  mis- 
sions began  to  prosper  once  more. 

1850  —  The  territory  comprised  a  Vicariate  Apostolic. 

1850  —  The  Diocese  of  Santa  Fe  was  erected. 

1875  —  Santa  Fe  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1914  —  The  Diocese  of  El  Paso  was  erected,  comprising  seven  counties  of 
New  Mexico. 

1940  —  Population,  531,818;  Catholics,  141,201. 

108 


fslew  York 

1524  —  Giovanni  da  Verrazano,  the  first  white  man  to  enter  New  York 
Bay,  was  the  Catholic  emissary  of  the  French  king,  who  named 
present  Sandy  Hook,  Cape  St.  Mary,  and  the  Hudson,  St.  Anthony's 
River.  He  landed  near  Rockaway  Beach. 

1627  —  Fr.  Joseph  d'Aillon,  a  Franciscan,  was  the  first  white  man  to  dis- 
cover oil  in  this  country,  at  Seneca  Springs,  near  Cuba,  N.  Y. 

1634  —  Fr.  Isaac  Jogues,  S.  J.,  and  his  companion,  Rene  Goupil,  were  muti- 
lated by  Mohawks.  Dutch  Calvinists  rescued  Father  Jogues. 

1642  —  Rene  Goupil  was  killed  by  the  Mohawks. 

1646  —  Fr.  Isaac  Jogues  and  Jean  de  Lalande  were  martyred  by  the  Mo- 
hawks at  Ossernenon,  near  Auriesville. 

1654  —  The  Onondagas  were  visited  by  Jesuits  from  Canada. 

1655  —  The  first  permanent  mission  was  established  near  Syracuse. 

1656  —  The  Church  of  St.  Mary  was  erected  near  Lake  Onondaga. 

1658  —  Indian  uprisings  destroyed  the  missions  among  the  Cayugas,  Sen- 

ecas  and  Oneidas. 
1664  —  The  English  took  New  Amsterdam  and  supplanted  the  French 

priests  with  their  own  missionaries. 
1667  —  Missions   were  restored  under  the  protection  of  the   Onondaga 

chief,  Garaconthie. 
1673  —  Fr.  Louis  Hennepin,  O.F.M.,  first  described  the  cataract  of  Niagara. 

1679  —  The  Franciscans  founded  a  mission  near  Niagara. 

1680  —  Catherine  Tekakwitha,  the  "Lily  of  the  Mohawks,"  died  in  the 

odor  of  sanctity  in  Canada. 

1683  —  English  Jesuits  came  over  to  New  York  with  the  Catholic  Gover- 
nor, Thomas  Dongan,  and  celebrated  the  first  Mass  on  the  site  of 
the  Customs  House. 

1700  —  The  Penal  Laws  were  enforced  against  Catholics. 

1709  —  The  Jesuit  Missions  were  abandoned. 

1741  —  Because  of  an  alleged  Popish  plot  to  burn  the  city  of  New  York, 
four  whites  were  hanged  and  eleven  negroes  burned  at  the  stake. 

1777  —  At  the  framing  of  the  State  Constitution  John  Jay  proposed  an 
amendment  to  the  section  insuring  religious  liberty  in  which  it 
was  stated  that  Catholics  ought  not  to  hold  lands  or  participate 
in  civil  rights  unless  they  swear  that  no  Pope  or  priest  may  ab- 
solve them  from  allegiance  to  the  State.  The  amendment  was 
rejected. 

17g5  —  The  cornerstone  of  St.  Peter's  Church,  the  first  permanent  struc- 
ture of  Catholic  worship  in  the  state,  was  laid. 

1806  —  The  state  test  oath  was  repealed. 

1808  —  xhe  Diocese  of  New  York  was  created  on  April  8. 

1825  —  The  Erie  Canal  brought  many  European  Catholics  to  New  York  State. 

1825  —  The  second  Catholic  weekly,  "The  Truth  Teller,"  was  established 
in  New  York. 

1828  —  The  New  York  State  Legislature  enacted  a  law  upholding  the 
sanctity  of  the  confessional. 

1847  —  The  Diocese  of  Buffalo  was  established  on  April  23. 

1847  —  The  Diocese  of  Albany  was  erected. 

1850  —  New  York  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1853  —  The  Diocese  of  Brooklyn  was  erected. 

1855  —  Franciscans  came  to  Buffalo  diocese. 

1856  —  St.  Bonaventure's  College  and  Seminary  founded  at  Allegany,  N.  Y. 
1868  —  The  Diocese  of  Rochester  was  erected. 

1872  —  The  Diocese  of  Ogdensburg  was  erected. 

1875  —  The  Most  Rev.  John  McCloskey,  Archbishop  of  New  York,  was 
created  the  first  American  cardinal  by  Pius  IX. 

109 


1880— William  R.  Grace  was  the  first  Catholic  elected  Mayor  of  New 
York  City. 

1884  -  -  The  Third  Plenary  Council  of  Baltimore  petitioned  for  the  canon- 
ization of  Fr.  Jogues. 

1886  — The  Diocese  of  Syracuse  was  erected. 

1911  —  The  Most  Rev.  John  M.  Farley,  Archbishop  of  New  York,  was 
created  a  cardinal  by  Pius  X. 

1913  —  Martin  H.  Glynn  became  the  first  Catholic  Governor  of  the  State. 

1919  — Alfred  E.  Smith  became  the  first  elected  Catholic  Governor  of 
the  State. 

1924  —  The  Most  Rev.  Patrick  Hayes,  Archbishop  of  New  York,  was 
created  a  cardinal  by  Pius  XL 

1928 — -Alfred  E.  Smith  became  the  Democratic  nominee  for  the  Presi- 
dency, 

1930  —  The  Jesuit  Martyrs  of  New  York  and  Canada,  Fathers  Isaac 
Jogues,  John  de  Brebeuf,  Gabriel  Lalemant,  Noel  Chabanel,  An- 
thony Daniel,  Charles  Gamier,  and  the  Brothers,  Rene  Goupil  and 
John  de  Lalande,  were  canonized  on  June  29. 

1940— Population,  13,479,142;  Catholics,  3,144,533. 

North  Carolina 

1776  —  The  State  Constitution  denied  office  to  "those  who  denied  the 
truths  of  the  Protestant  religion." 

1805  —  The  few  Catholics  in  the  state  were  served  by  visiting  priests. 

1835  —  William  Gaston  succeeded  in  repealing  the  article  denying  re- 
ligious freedom. 

1868  —  Catholics  obtained  full  civil  liberty  and  rights. 

1910  —  Belmont  Abbey,  a  Benedictine  foundation,  was  created  into  an 
abbey  nullius. 

1924  —  The  Diocese  of  Raleigh  was  established. 

1932  —  Franciscans  of  the  province  of  the  Most  Holy  Name  (New  York) 
started  missionary  work  in  North  Carolina,  at  Lenoir. 

1940  —  Population,  3,571,623;    Catholics,  11,561. 

North  Dakota 

1818  —  Catholics  were  ministered  to  by  Canadian  priests. 

1823  —  The  American  priest,  George  A.  Belcourt,  became  the  resident 

pastor  of  Pembina. 
1864  —  Fr.  Pierre  de  Smet  visited  the  Mandans  and  Gros  Ventres,  Dakota 

Indians. 
1868  —  Fr.  de  Smet  passed  through  the  state  on  the  way  to  his  famous 

peace  conference  with  Sitting  Bull. 
1889  —  The  Diocese  of  Fargo  was  established. 
1910  —  The  Diocese  of  Bismarck  was  erected. 
1940  -—  Population,  641,935;   Catholics,  120,457. 

Ohio 

1749  —  Jesuits  on  the  expedition  of  Celoron  de  Bienville  preached  to  the 
Indians. 

1790 —  The  Benedictine  Dom  Pierre  Didier  ministered  to  the  French  im- 
migrants. 

1795  —  The  Indian  mission  near  Fort  Miami  was  short-lived. 

1796  —  The  French  settlement  declined. 

1812  —  Bishop  Flaget  of  Bardstown  visited  and  baptized  the  Catholics  of 

Lancaster  and  Somerset  Counties. 
1818 — -The  first  church  was  erected  by  the  Dominican,  Rev.  Edward 

Fenwick,  on  a  site  donated  by  the  Dittoes. 
1821  —  The  Diocese  of  Cincinnati  was  erected. 

110 


1822  —  Father  Fenwick  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Cincinnati. 

1847  —  The  Diocese  of  Cleveland  was  established. 

1850  —  Cincinnati  was  made  an  archdiocese. 

1868  —  The  Diocese  of  Columbus  was  erected. 

1910  —  The  Diocese  of  Toledo  was  established. 

1940  —  Population,  6,907,612;   Catholics,  1.101,242. 

Oklahoma 
1630  —  The  Spanish  Franciscan,  Fr.  Juan  de  Salas,  labored  among  the 

Indians. 
1700  —  Scattered  Catholic  families  were  visited  by  priests  from  Kansas 

and  Arkansas. 

1880  —  Dom  Isidore  Robot  became  the  first  Prefect  for  Indian  Territory. 
1891  —  The  Rt  Rev.  Theophile  Meerschaert,  O.  S.  B.,  began  active  work 

as  a  pioneer  missionary. 

1905  —  The  Diocese  of  Oklahoma  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  2,336,434;  Catholics,  64,410. 

Oregon 

1834  —  Indian  Missions  in  Northwest  were  entrusted  to  Jesuits  by  Pope. 
1839  —  Fr.  Francois  Blanche  offered  the  first  Mass  in  the  present  state 
of  Oregon,  in  Willamette  Valley. 

1842  —  Dr.  John  McLaughlin,  a  pioneer  called  the  "Father  of  Oregon," 

was  received  into  the  Church. 

1843  —  Fr.  Modeste  Demers  came  to  Oregon  City. 

1844  —  Fr.  Pierre  de  Smet,  S.  J.,  established  the  Mission  of  St.  Francis 

Xavier,  near  St.  Paul. 

1846  —  The  Archdiocese  of  Oregon  City  was  created. 

1865  —  Rev.  H.  H.  Spalding,  a  Protestant  missionary,  published  the  Whit- 
man myth  to  hinder  the  work  of  Catholic  missionaries. 

1903  —  The  Diocese  of  Baker  City  was  established. 

1922  —  Anti-Private  School  Bill  sponsored  by  the  Scottish  Rite  Masons 
was  passed  in  State  Legislature. 

1928  —  U.  S.  Supreme  Court  declared  Oregon  Anti-Private  School  Law 
unconstitutional. 

1928  —  The  name  of  the  archdiocese  was  changed  by  papal  decree  to  the 
Archdiocese  of  Portland  in  Oregon. 

1940  —  Population,  1,089,684;  Catholics,  67,734. 

Pennsylvania 

1673  —  Priests  from  Maryland  ministered  to  the  Catholics  in  the  colony. 

1682  —  The  Colony  of  William  Penn  granted  religious  toleration  to  all. 

1730  —  Fr.  Joseph  Greaton,  S.  J.,  became  the  resident  missionary  of 
Philadelphia. 

1730  —  Catholics  increased  with  German  and  Irish  immigrations. 

1742  —  William  Wapeler,  S.  J.,  built  the  Church  of  St.  Nepomucene  at 
Lancaster. 

1745  —  Mennonites  and  Moravians  aided  Fr.  Theodore  Schneider,  S.  X,  to 
build  the  Chapel  of  St.  Paul. 

1799  —  Prince  Demetrius  Augustine  Gallitzin  (Augustine  Smith),  the  first 
cleric  to  receive  all  Holy  Orders  in  the  United  States,  built  first 
church  in  western  Pennsylvania,  the  only  church  between  Lan- 
caster and  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

1808  —  The  Diocese  of  Philadelphia  was  established,  with  Rev.  Michael 
Egan,  O.  F.  M.,  as  its  first  Bishop.  He  was  consecrated  in  Balti- 
more by  Archbishop  Carroll. 

1343  —  xhe  Diocese  of  Pittsburgh  was  erected. 

1844  —  Know-nothing  riots  in  Philadelphia  resulted  In  the  burning  of  two 
churches. 

Ill 


1846  —  The  first  Benedictine  monastery  in  the  New  World  was  founded 
near  Latrobe  by  Fr.  Boniface  Winimer,  O.  S.  B. 

1853  —  The  Diocese  of  Erie  was  erected. 

1860  —  Catholic  Italians,  Poles,  Slavs  and  Lithuanians  began  to  immigrate 
to  the  state. 

1868  —  The  Dioceses  of  Harrisburg  and  Scranton  were  erected. 

1875  —  Philadelphia  became  an  archdiocese. 

1901  —  The  Diocese  of  Altoona  was  erected. 

1913  —  The  Ukrainian  Greek  Catholic  Diocese  was  established. 

1921  —  Archbishop  Dougherty  of  Philadelphia  was  created  a  cardinal  by 

Benedict  XV. 

1924  —  The  Diocese  of  Pittsburgh,  Greek  Rite,  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  9,900,180;   Catholics,  2,252,820. 

Rhode  Island 

1663  —  The  Colonial  Charter  granted  freedom  of  conscience. 

1719  —  Published  laws  nevertheless  excepted  Catholics  from  holding  pub- 
lic office. 

1780  —  French  chaplains  offered  Mass  for  the  troops  of  Rochambeau's 
army  at  Providence  and  Newport. 

1783  —  As  the  result  of  the  better  feeling  brought  about  during  the  Revo- 
lution, the  anti-Catholic  laws  were  repealed. 

1791  —  French  Catholic  refugees  from  Guadeloupe  came  to  Newport  and 
Bristol. 

1828  — 1,000  Catholics  were  reported  in  the  state. 

1872  —  The  Diocese  of  Providence  was  erected. 

1940  —  Population,  713,346;  Catholics,  347,961. 

South  Carolina 
1566  —  St.  Francis  Borgia  sent  Fr.  John  Robel  of  Pamplona  to  St.  Helena 

and  Port  Royal  to  minister  to  the  settlers  and  Indians. 
1573— -The  first  Franciscans   arrived  at  Santa  Elena  in   southeastern 

South  Carolina. 
1655  —  Franciscans  had  two  missions  among  the  Indians,  later  destroyed 

by  the  English. 

1697  —  Religious  liberty  was  granted  to  all  but  "papists." 
1700  —  Catholics  were  not  welcomed  in  the  Carolinas  under  English  rule. 
1786  —  An  Italian  priest  said  Mass  for  twelve  Catholics  at  Charleston. 
1788  —  Bishop  Carroll  sent  Fr.  Ryan  to  Charleston. 
1820  —  The  Diocese  of  Charleston  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  1,899,804;  Catholics,  12,571. 

South  Dakota 

1841  —  Scattered  Catholics  appealed  to  the  Bishop  of  Dubuque  for  mis- 

sionaries. 

1842  —  Rev.  Augustin  Ravoux  began  to  minister  to  the  French  and  In- 

dians at  Fort  Pierre,  Vermilion,  and  Prairie  du  Chien. 

1843  —  Fr.  Augustin  printed  a  devotional  book  in  the  Sioux  language. 

1867 —  A  parish  was  organized  among  the  French  Catholics  at  Jefferson. 

1868 —  pr.  <ie  Smet  visited  the  South  Dakota  Indians. 
1889  —  The  Diocese  of  Sioux  Falls  was  erected. 

1902  —  The  Diocese  of  Lead  was  established. 

1930 —  Tne  Diocese  of  Lead  was  transferred  to  Rapid  City. 

1940  —  Population,  642,961;   Catholics,  104,392. 

Tennessee 

1800  —  Early  Tennessee  Catholics  were  served  by  priests  from  Bards- 
town,  Ky. 

1822  —  Non-Catholics  assisted  in  building  the  church  in  Nashville  on  the 
site  of  the  present  Capitol. 

112 


1837  —  The  Diocese  of  Nashville  was  established  for  100  families. 
1843  —  The  Sisters  of  Charity  opened  a  school  for  girls  in  Nashville. 
1940  —  Population,  2,915,841;  Catholics,  31,343. 

Texas 

1541  —  The  Spaniard,  Coronado,  came  into  Texas  with  the  Franciscans, 

Fr.  Juan  de  Padilla  and  Fr.  Juan  de  la  Cruz. 
1685  —  The  Franciscans,  Zenobius  Membre  and  Maximus  Le  Clercq,  and 

the  Sulpician,  Fr.  Chefdeville,  accompanied  De  La  Salle  to  Fort 

St.  Louis.   They  were  murdered  after  his  death. 
1689  —  Four  Franciscans  accompanied  Don  Alonzo  de  Leon  from  Mexico 

and  founded  the  first  mission  of  San  Francisco  de  Los  Tejas  on 

Trinity  River. 
1703  —  The  Mission  San  Francisco  de  Solano  was  founded  on  the  Rio 

Grande. 
1717  —  The  Franciscan  Apostle,  Fr.  Antonio  Margil,  founded  six  missions 

in  northeastern  Texas. 

1721  —  The  Franciscan  Jose  Pita  was  killed  by  Indians. 
1728 — A  Spanish  colony  settled  present  San  Antonio. 
1744  —  San  Francisco  de  Solano  was  rebuilt  as  the  Alamo. 
1752  —  Fr,  Jose  Ganzabal,  O.  F.  M.,  was  killed  by  Indians. 
1758  —  The  Franciscans,   Frs.  Alonzo  Ferrares   and  Jose   San  Esteban, 

were  killed  by  Indians. 

1793  —  The  State  of  Mexico  ordered  the  secularization  of  the  missions. 
1813  —  The  missions  finally  were  suppressed. 
1830  —  Irish  priests  cared  for  the  Irish  settlements  of  Refugio  and  San 

Patricio. 

1347  —  The  Diocese  of  Galveston  was  erected. 
1874  —  The  Diocese  of  San  Antonio  was  erected. 

1890  —  The  Diocese  of  Dallas  was  erected. 

1912  —  The  Diocese  of  Corpus  Christi  was  erected. 
1914  —  The  Diocese  of  El  Paso  was  erected. 
1926  —  The  Diocese  of  Amarillo  was  erected. 
1926  —  San  Antonio  was  made  an  archdiocese. 
1940  —  Population,  6,414,824;  Catholics,  750,665. 

Utah 

1776  —  Two  Franciscans,  Frs.  Silvestre  de  Escalante  and  Atanasio  Dom- 

inguez,  came  to  the  Great  Salt  Lake. 
1841  —  Fr.  Pierre  de  Smet,  S.  J.,  traveled  through  the  region  on  his  way 

to  Yellowstone. 
1846  —  Fr.  de  Smet's  description  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake  Valley  influenced 

Brigham  Young  to  settle  there. 
1866  —  The  first  Mass  was  said  in  Salt  Lake  City  in  the  Assembly  Hall 

of  the  Mormons. 

1891  —  The  Diocese  of  Salt  Lake  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  550,310;   Catholics,  17,117. 

Vermont 

1666  —  The  Sulpician  Fr.  Dollier  de  Casson  offered  the  first  Mass  for  the 

French  at  Fort  Anne. 
1710  —  Jesuits  ministered  to  the  Indians  near  Lake  Champlain. 

1777  —  The  State  Bill  of  Rights  declared  that  no  man  who  professed  the 

Protestant  religion  could  be  deprived  of  his  civil  rights. 
1793  —  The  discrimination  against  Catholics  was  removed. 
1832  —  A  church  was  erected  at  Burlington  on  a  site  donated  by  Col. 

Archibald  Hyde,  a  convert. 
1853  —  The  Diocese  of  Burlington  was  erected. 
1940  —  Population,  359,231;  Catholics,  110,531. 

113 


Virginia 

1526  —  Dominicans  accompanied  the  Spanish  settlers  from  San  Domingo 
to  the  James  River  where  a  settlement  was  made  at  Guandape 
near  the  future  Jamestown. 

1570  —  Spaniards  accompanied  by  Jesuits  from  Florida  settled  Axacan  on 
the  Rappahannock.  Eight  Jesuits  were  put  to  death  by  the  Indians. 

1641  —  Penal  laws  were  enforced  against  Catholics  under  British  control. 

1776  —  Religious  freedom  was  granted. 

1791  —  Rev.  Jean  Dubois  came  to  Richmond  with  letters  from  Lafayette. 
The  House  of  Delegates  was  put  at  his  disposal  in  which  to  cele- 
brate Mass. 

1796  —  A  church  was  erected  at  Alexandria, 

1821  —  The  Diocese  of  Richmond  was  established. 

1850 —  The  Diocese  of  Wheeling  was  established,  comprising  eighteen 
counties  of  Virginia. 

1868  —  The  Diocese  of  Wilmington  was  established,  comprising  two  coun- 
ties of  Virginia. 

1940  —  Population,  2,677,773;  Catholics,  47,428. 

Washington 

1837  —  French  and  Indian  Catholics  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Co.  were  cared 

for  by  Canadian  priests. 
1839 — Missionaries  at  Cowlitz  taught  the  Indians  history  by  means  of 

the  "Catholic  Ladder." 
1840  —  A  log  cabin  church  for  Indians  was  built  on  Whidby  Island  in 

Puget  Sound. 

1844  —  The  Mission  of  St.  Paul  was  founded  at  Colville. 
1846  —  The  Diocese  of  Walla  Walla  was  established. 
1850  —  The  Diocese  of  Nisqually  was  established,  with  the  transfer  of 

Bishop  Blanchet  of  Walla  Walla  to  this  see. 
1853 —  The  Diocese  of  Walla  Walla  was  suppressed. 
1907  — The  Diocese  of  Seattle   was   established,   with   the   transfer   to 

Seattle  of  the  episcopal  see  of  NisQually. 
1913  —  The  Diocese  of  Spokane  was  established. 
1940  — -  Population,  1,736,191;  Catholics,  133,547. 

Washington,  D.  C.  (District  of  Columbia) 

1641  —  Fr.  Andrew  White,  S.  J.,  evangelized  the  Anacosta  Indians. 
1774  —  Fr.  John  Carroll  ministered  to  the  Catholics. 

1789  —  Erection  of  Diocese  of  Baltimore,  including  Washington  in  its 
jurisdiction. 

1789  —  Georgetown   College,    the   first   Catholic    college   in   the    United 

States,  was  founded. 

1790  —  The  site  of  the  Federal  Government  was  established  on  ground 

formerly  owned  by  the  Catholic  Barons  of  Baltimore.  Daniel  Car- 
roll of  Duddington  parted  with  the  site  of  the  present  congres- 
sional buildings  for  a  most  modest  sum  even  in  those  days. 

1791  — The  French  Catholic  engineer,  Pierre  Charles  L'Enfant,  laid  out 

the  ground-plan  for  the  Federal  City  of  Washington. 
1791  —  The  Catholic  James  Hoban  became  superintendent  of  the  building 

of  the  city  of  Washington  and  drew  plans  for  and  supervised  the 

erection  of  the  White  House. 
1794  _  pr.  Anthony  Caffrey  started  to  build  St.  Patrick's  Church,  the  first 

parish  church  in  the  new  Federal  city. 

1798  —  Poor  Clares,  exiled  by  the  French  Reign  of  Terror,  opened   a 

school  for  girls,  assisted  by  Alice  Lalor  and  her  companions. 

1799  _  The  Pious  Ladies'  Convent  of  Georgetown  was  founded  by  Fr. 

Leonard  Neale,  S.  J.   They  became  Visitandines  in  1816. 

114 


1802 —  The  first  Mayor  of  Washington,  appointed  by  President  Jefferson 

was  the  Catholic,  Judge  Robert  Brent. 
1806  —  Guiseppi  Franzoni,  the  Italian  Catholic  sculptor,  transformed  the 

interior  of  the  Capitol.  Although  most  of  his  work  was  destroyed 

by  the  British  in  the  War  of  1812,  the  bronze  above  the  Speaker's 

desk  and  the  clock  in  Statuary  Hall  remain. 

1832— -Fr.  Charles  C.  Pise  was  appointed  Chaplain  of  the  U.  S.  Senate. 
1887  —  The  Catholic  University  of  America  was  founded. 

1939  —  Washington  was  made  an  archdiocese  of  equal  rank  with  Balti- 

more, and  under  the  direction  of  the  same  archbishop.  This  situa- 
tion is  unique  in  the  history  of  the  Church. 

1940  —  Population,  663,091;   Catholics  (est),  100,000. 

West  Virginia 

1794  —  Priests  from  Maryland  ministered  to  the  Catholics  of  the  region. 
1833  —  The  first  church  was  erected  at  Wheeling. 

1833  —  The  Diocese  of  Richmond  was  erected,  comprising  eight  counties 

of  West  Virginia. 

1835  —  The  first  church  was  erected  at  Martinsburg. 
1838  —  The  Sisters  of  Charity  founded  a  school  at  Martinsburg. 

1850  —  The  Diocese  of  Wheeling  was  erected. 
1940  —  Population,  1,901,974;  Catholics,  67,950. 

Wisconsin 
1660 —  Fr.  Rene  Menard,  S.  J.,  ministered  to  the  Hurons  who  had  fled 

to  northern  Wisconsin.    He  was  murdered  at  a  portage  on  the 

Wisconsin  Rover. 
1665  —  Fr.  Claude  Allouez,  S.  J.,  founded  the  Mission  of  the  Holy  Ghost 

at  La  Pointe  Chegoimegon,  now  Bayfield. 
1669  —  Fr.  James  Marquette,  S.  J.,  labored  at  La  Pointe,  and  heard  of 

the  Mississippi  from  the  Indians. 

1669  —  Fr.  Allouez  founded  the  Mission  of  St.  Francis  Xavier,  near  the 

head  of  Green  Bay. 

1670  —  Frs.  Allouez  and  Dablon  established  several  missions. 

1673  —  prs.  Marquette  and  Joliet  traveled  from  Green  Bay  down  the  Wis- 
consin River  and  down  the  Mississippi.  Fr.  Andre  ministered  to 
the  Indians  at  Green  Bay. 

1687  —  Green  Bay  Mission  was  burned  by  the  Indians. 

1688  —  Green  Bay  Mission  was  restored  and  the  Mission  of  St.  Joseph, 

near  South  Bend,  founded. 

1762  —  Suppression  of  the  Jesuits  in  the  French  colonies  closed  all  mis- 
sions for  thirty  years. 

1830  —  Green  Bay  Mission  was  revived.  Fr.  Samuel  Mazzuchelli  estab- 
lished a  church  and  a  school  there. 

1834  —  Fr.  Theodore  Van  den  Broek  labored  at  Green  Bay. 
1837  —  The  first  Mass  was  celebrated  at  Milwaukee. 

1843  —  The  Diocese  of  Milwaukee  was  erected. 
1868  —  The  Diocese  of  Green  Bay  was  erected. 
1868  —  The  Diocese  of  La  Crosse  was  erected. 
1875  —  Milwaukee  was  made  an  archdiocese. 
1905  —  The  Diocese  of  Superior  was  erected. 
1940  —  Population,  3,137,587;    Catholics,  834,879. 

Wyoming 

1840  —  Fr.  Pierre  de  Smet  offered  the  first  Mass  in  the  region  near 
Green  River. 

1851  —  Fr.  de  Smet  held  peace  conferences  with  the  Indians  near  Fort 

Laramie. 

1887  —  The  Diocese  of  Cheyenne  was  established. 
1940  —  Population,  250,742;  Catholics,  32,933. 

115 


Jioctrtne*  of  tfje  Cfjttrtfj 

Jesus  Christ  founded  the  Catholic  Church  to  which  He  gave  certain 
revealed  truths  embodied  in  what  is  called  the  deposit  of  faith.  This 
deposit  has  a  twofold  source,  namely  Sacred  Scripture  and  Tradition 
which  together  are  called  Divine  Revelation.  Holy  Scripture  or  the 
Bible  is  the  Word  of  God  written  under  the  inspiration  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 
Tradition  is  likewise  the  Word  of  God,  not  contained  in  the  Bible  but 
handed  down  by  word  of  mouth  and  in  writing  from  the  Apostles  to  us 
in  an  unbroken  succession. 

Christ  likewise  endowed  the  Church  with  the  authority  to  guard,  in- 
terpret and  teach  these  truths  till  the  end  of  time.  They  are  such  that 
they  can  be  defended  by  reason.  Whenever  the  Catholic  Church  teaches 
any  of  these  truths  contained  in  the  deposit  of  faith  she  uses  either  her 
solemn  or  her  ordinary  authority.  A  doctrine  is  solemnly  taught  when 
contained  in  one  of  the  following:  Definitions  of  Popes,  Decrees  of 
General  Councils,  Creeds,  Professions  of  Faith.  There  are  three  prin- 
cipal Creeds  or  Symbols:  the  Apostles',  the  Nicene  and  the  Athanasian. 
An  outstanding  Profession  of  Faith  is  that  of  Pius  IV.  The  Church  is 
also  infallible  in  her  ordinary  teaching.  This  is  exercised  especially 
when  dogmas  are  unanimously  taught  by  the  bishops  of  the  whole  world. 

The  doctrines  of  the  Church  are  defined,  that  is,  set  forth  in  clear  and 
unmistakable  language,  by  the  Pope  when  he  speaks  ex  cathedra,  that  is, 
as  the  supreme  pastor  of  the  whole  Church.  Speaking  thus  about  matters 
of  faith  and  morals  he  cannot  err.  His  definitions  become  dogmas  — 
matters  of  belief.  A  creed  is  a  summary  of  dogmas. 

THE  BIBLE 

Sacred  Scripture,  or  the  Bible,  is  the  written  word  of  God.  From  the 
beginning  the  Church  has  considered  the  Holy  Scripture  a  treasure  en- 
trusted to  her  keeping,  and  she  has  the  sole  right  to  explain  to  us  its 
meaning.  Sacred  Scripture  consists  of  the  sacred  books  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testament  which  the  Church  declares  are  inspired,  i.  e.,  their 
writers  were  moved  by  God  to  write,  and,  while  writing,  were  so  guided 
by  Him  that  they  wrote  down  precisely  what  He  wished  them  to  express 
and  nothing  more.  This  is  known  as  the  Canon  of  Scripture. 

According  to  Leo  XHI's  encyclical,  "Providentissimus  Deus"  (transla- 
tion of  paragraph  110  of  the  Enchiridion  Biblicum,  1927) :  "This  is  the 
ancient  and  unchanging  faith  of  the  Church,  solemnly  defined  in  the 
Councils  of  Florence  and  of  Trent,  and  finally  confirmed  and  more  ex- 
pressly formulated  by  the  Council  of  the  Vatican.  These  are  the  words 
of  the  last:  'The  Books  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament,  whole  and  entire, 
with  all  their  parts,  as  enumerated  in  the  decree  of  the  same  Council 
(Trent)  and  in  the  ancient  Latin  Vulgate,  are  to  be  received  as  sacred 
and  canonical,  not  because,  having  been  composed  by  human  industry, 
they  were  afterwards  approved  by  her  authority;  nor  only  because  they 
contained  revelation  without  error;  but  because,  having  been  written 
under  the  inspiration  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  they  have  God  for  their  author/ 
Hence,  because  the  Holy  Ghost  employed  men  as  His  instruments,  we 

116 


cannot  therefore  say  that  it  was  these  inspired  instruments  who,  per- 
chance, have  fallen  into  error,  and  not  the  primary  Author.  For,  by 
supernatural  power,  He  so  moved  and  impelled  them  to  write  —  He  was 
so  present  to  them  —  that  the  things  which  He  ordered,  and  those  only, 
they,  first,  rightly  understood,  then  willed  faithfully  to  write  down, 
and  finally  expressed  in  apt  words  and  with  infallible  truth.  Otherwise, 
it  could  not  be  said  that  He  was  the  Author  of  the  entire  Scripture/1 

The  Old  Testament  Canon  includes  all  the  inspired  writings  under  the 
Old  Dispensation,  whether  written  in  the  current  language  of  the  Jews 
(Hebrew  or  Aramaic),  or  in  Greek.  For  the  benefit  of  Greek-speaking 
Jews  in  Egypt  the  books  of  the  Old  Testament  in  Hebrew  were  gradually 
translated  into  Greek  and  became  known  as  the  Septuagint.  After  the 
destruction  of  Jerusalem,  in  a  Council  held  at  Jamnia  (circa  98)  it  was  de- 
cided that  all  books  not  written  in  the  sacred  tongue  (or  about  which 
there  was  some  doubt  due  to  the  loss  of  the  originals),  and  books  written 
outside  the  holy  precincts  of  Palestine  were  excluded  from  the  Canon  of 
the  Jews,  thus  bringing  into  existence  the  present-day  Jewish  Canon. 
The  motivating  force  behind  this  decision  was  the  party  spirit  of  the  Jews. 

The  terms  "protocanonical"  and  "deuterocanonical,"  though  not  strictly 
correct,  are  applied  to  the  books  acknowledged,  respectively,  by  the 
Jewish  Canon  of  today,  and  the  Jewish  Canon  of  the  Septuagint  handed 
down  by  Christ  and  the  Apostles  to  the  Church. 

Indeed  the  Council  of  Trent  in  its  list  of  canonical  and  inspired  writings 
lists  all  the  books  that  were  acknowledged  by  all  Jews  the  world  over, 
especially  in  Palestine  and  Egypt,  in  the  second  century  before  Christ. 
The  Septuagint  Greek  version  —  the  version  referred  to  by  Christ  and 
His  Apostles  —  testifies  to  this  fact. 

The  New  Testament  Canon  contains  the  collection  of  inspired  Apostolic 
writings.  In  making  the  selection  for  this  Canon  the  Church  carefully 
guarded  against  accepting  uninspired  works,  apocryphal  and  heretical 
writings  and  forgeries. 

The  Old  Testament  consists  of:  twenty-one  Historical  Books,  relating 
to  the  history  of  the  early  ages  of  the  world,  or  to  that  of  the  Jewish 
nation;  seven  Moral  Books,  consisting  of  prayers  and  holy  maxims;  and 
eighteen  Books  of  Prophecies. 

The  Historical  Books  are:  the  Pentateuch,  or  five  Books  of  Moses,  viz., 
Genesis,  Exodus,  Leviticus,  Numbers,  Deuteronomy;  the  Book  of  Josue; 
the  Book  of  Judges;  the  Book  of  Ruth;  the  four  Books  of  Kings;  the  two 
Books  of  Chronicles  or  of  Paralipomenon;  the  Book  of  Esdras;  the  Book 
of  Nehemias;  the  Book  of  Tobias;  the  Book  of  Judith;  the  Book  of 
Esther;  and  the  two  Books  of  Machabees. 

The  Moral  Books  are:  the  Book  of  Job,  the  Psalms,  the  Proverbs,  Ec- 
clesiastes,  the  Canticle  of  Canticles,  the  Book  of  Wisdom,  and  Ecclesi- 
asticus. 

The  Books  of  Prophecies  are  those  of  Isaias,  Jeremias  (including  Lam- 
entations), Baruch,  Ezechiel,  Daniel,  Osee,  Joel,  Amos,  Abdias,  Jonas, 
Micheas,  Nahum,  Habacuc,  Sophonias,  Aggeus,  Zacharias,  and  Malachy. 

The  New  Testament  consists  of:  the  four  Gospels,  or  histories  of  the 
life  of  Our  Saviour,  by  Sts.  Matthew,  Mark,  Luke  and  John;  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles,  by  St.  Luke;  the  fourteen  Epistles  of  St.  Paul,  viz.,  one  to 
the  Romans,  two  to  the  Corinthians,  one  to  the  Galatians,  one  to  the 
Ephesians,  one  to  the  Philippians,  one  to  the  Colossians,  two  to  the 
Thessalonians,  two  to  Timothy,  one  to  Titus,  one  to  Philemon,  and  one 
to  the  Hebrews;  one  Epistle  of  St.  James;  two  Epistles  of  St.  Peter; 
three  Epistles  of  St.  John;  one  Epistle  of  St.  Jude;  the  Book  of  the 
Apocalypse. 

117 


Books  of  the  Bible 


The  Bible  books  are  seventy-three, 

Whose  names  in  order  you  now  may 
see. 

Forty  and  six  to  the  Old  are  given 

Leaving  the  New  but  twenty-seven. 
Genesis  opens  the  list  divine, 

Exodus  follows  the  next  in  line; 
Leviticus  and  Numbers  then  arrive, 
Deuteronomy  fills  the  mystic  five. 

Josue  and  Judges  bring  Ruth  to  the 
fore 

To  glean  the  wheat  escaping  the 
mower. 

Pour  Books  of  Kings  pass  quickly 
on, 

Then  the  two  called  Paralipomenon. 

Now  two  from  Esdras  the  future 
probe, 

For  Tobias,  Judith,  Esther  and  Job. 

Psalms  and  Proverbs  with  numbers 
please, 

While  good  men  revel  in  Ecclesi- 
astes. 

Canticle  of  Canticles  —  wondrous 
song, 

Sweet  with  music,  lovely  and  long. 

Next  Wisdom  opens  her  lips  so 
sage, 

Ecclesiasticus  lends  a  learned  page. 
Isaias,  the  prophet,  draws  the  veil, 
Jeremias  weeps,  Lamentations  wail. 
Baruch  and  Ezechiel  both  foretell, 
Daniel  and  Osee  give  place  to  Joel. 

Amos    greets    Abdias,    Jonas    sets 

sail, 

To  be  rudely  swallowed  by  a  whale. 
Micheas  and  Nahum  things  hidden 

explain, 

Habacuc,  Sophonias  take  up  the  re- 
frain. 

When  Aggeus  spoke  the  temple 
rose, 

Zacharlas  and  Malachlas  the  proph- 
ets close. 


.The  books  of  the  Old  will  end,  if 
you  please, 

With  two  that  are  known  as  Ma- 
chabees. 

From  Old  to  New  we  hasten  on  — 

To    Matthew,    Mark,   to    Luke   and 
John. 

The  Gospels  o'er,  take  up  the  Acts, 
A  book  replete  with  mighty  facts. 
Fourteen  Epistles,  Paul  indites: 
To  his  dear  Romans  first  he  writes, 
Two  to  the  Corinthians  were  sent, 

One   to    Galatia,   one   to    Ephesus 

went. 

Philippians  and  Colossians  get  ad- 
vice: 

Thessalonians  hear  from  him  but 
twice; 

To  Timothy  a  twain  with  lots   of 
love, 

To  Titus  wisdom  from  above. 

Philemon  and  Hebrews  his  pen  en- 
gage, 

Till  his  hand  grows  weary,  weak 
with  age. 

With  lifeless  finger  and   sightless 
eye, 

'Twere  hard  to  labor,  sweet  to  die. 

From  James  a  letter  in  language 
quaint, 

From  Peter  two  that  breathe  the 
saint, 

Three  from  the  well-beloved  John. 

While  Jude  comes  last  with  only 
one. 

On  eagle  wings  we  take  our  flight 
To  the  fountain  of  eternal  light, 

Where  John  -with  angels   humbly 
sips 

The  wonders  of  the  Apocalypse. 
—  K,t.  Rev.  Msgr.  Thos.  S.  Duggan, 


118 


Number  of  Books  !n   Bible 

An  easy  way  to  remember  the  number  of  Books  in  the  "Bible  is  the 
following:  Our  Lord  had  72  disciples.  This  is  also  the  total  number  of 
Books  in  the  Old  and  New  Testament.  If  this  number  is  reversed,  we 
have  27,  or  the  number  of  books  in  the  New  Testament.  Subtract  this 
number  from  the  total  and  the  remainder  is  the  number  of  Books  of  the 
Old  Testament,  if  we  include  the  Book  of  Baruch  with  that  of  Jeremias. 

Protestantism   and  the    Bible 

The  difference  between  the  Catholic  and  Protestant  Bible  arises  from 
a  difference  in  authority.  The  Catholic  Church  possesses  the  divinely 
appointed  authority  to  declare  which  of  the  Sacred  Writings  are  inspired 
and  which  are  only  human  documents.  Protestantism  on  the  contrary 
which  has  as  a  fundamental  principle,  on  this  point,  the  right  to  private 
interpretation,  thereby  eliminates  any  recognized  authoritative  teaching 
body.  Lacking  such  a  teaching  body  there  can  be  no  question  of  its  hav- 
ing a  canon  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  term. 

The  Protestants  rejecting  Tradition  and  receiving  only  the  Scriptures, 
nevertheless  had  to  rely  on  the  Church  for  the  list  of  books  which  they 
did  select.  In  the  beginning  the  Reformers  more  or  less  adhered  to  this 
canon  of  the  Church.  But  as  private  interpretation  was  their  norm,  dif- 
ferences were  inevitable.  The  books  rejected,  in  general,  were,  in  the 
Old  Testament:  Tobias,  Judith,  Wisdom,  Ecclesiasticus,  Baruch,  the  two 
books  of  Machabees,  and  portions  of  Esther  and  Daniel;  in  the  New 
Testament:  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  the  Epistle  of  St.  James,  the  sec- 
ond Epistle  of  St.  Peter,  the  second  and  third  Epistles  of  St.  John,  the 
Epistle  of  St.  Jude  and  the  Apocalypse. 

When  these  books  were  called  into  question  by  the  Reformation  the 
Council  of  Trent  on  April  8,  1546,  by  a  solemn  decree  drew  up  an  official 
list  of  the  books  of  the  Old  and  New  Testaments.  This  list  was  based 
on  the  tradition  of  the  Church  and  contained  exactly  the  same  books 
as  were  given  by  Pope  Damasus  in  a  decretal  of  the  year  374  by  a  synod 
held  in  Africa  in  393,  during  the  lifetime  of  St.  Augustine;  and  by  Pope 
Innocent  I,  in  a  letter  to  the  Bishop  of  Toulouse,  in  405.  The  Vatican 
Council  reaffirmed  this  on  April  24,  1870. 

Moreover,  with  regard  to  the  New  Testament,  the  Church  was  already 
in  existence  before  one  book  of  the  New  Testament  was  written.  Hence, 
she,  and  she  alone,  in  virtue  of  the  authority  conferred  on  her  by  Christ, 
could  determine  which  books  were  inspired,  and  which  were  not.  This 
the  Church  has  done. 

With  reference  to  the  difference  in  wording  and  the  use  of  names  be- 
tween the  Catholic  and  the  Protestant  Bible  this  is  due  to  the  craze  of  the 
Protestant  Reformers  to  go  back  to  the  Hebrew  texts,  instead  of  using 
the  Greek  Septuagint  translation. 

The  American  Revision  of  the  New  Testament 

To  meet  the  danger  presented  by  English  versions  of  the  Bible  which 
altered  the  true  meaning  of  the  Scriptures,  the  Rheims  version  of  the 
New  Testament  was  printed  at  Rheims  in  1582.  This  work  of  exiled 
English  priests  and  educators  remained  the  standard  English  version  for 
Catholic  use  for  168  years.  However,  the  English  language  had  under- 
gone many  changes  during  these  years  and  there  was  a  pressing  need 
for  an  English  version  of  the  Bible  more  in  keeping  with  the  time. 

119 


Recognizing  this  need,  Bishop  Challoner,  Vicar  Apostolic  of  the  London 
District,  undertook  the  task,  and  in  1750  presented  a  new  version  of  the 
entire  Bible  in  English.  Up  to  the  present  we  have  continued  to  use 
editions  of  the  English  Bible  which  are,  in  language  and  substance,  the 
text  that  Bishop  Challoner  gave  us  190  years  ago.  Since  that  time  many 
of  the  words  and  forms  of  that  venerable  text  have  become  obsolete, 
while  long  and  labored  sentences  and  an  outmoded  method  of  punctuation 
often  obscure  the  original  message  of  the  Scriptures.  The  need  of  a 
better  vernacular  version  was  recognized  by  the  First  Provincial  Council 
of  Baltimore  in  1829  and  again  in  1858  by  the  Ninth  Provincial  Council 
of  Baltimore.  However,  until  recent  times,  the  Church  in  America  has 
been  too  much  occupied  with  other  concerns  and  not  sufficiently  equipped 
to  undertake  the  task. 

Now  in  a  better  position,  the  Church  in  America  in  1941  presented 
a  newly  revised  English  version  as  the  answer  to  this  need.  It  was  pre- 
pared under  the  supervision  of  the  Episcopal  Committee  of  the  Con- 
fraternity of  Christian  Doctrine.  It  is  the  fruit  of  five  years  of  labor 
on  the  part  of  some  twenty-seven  Catholic  biblical  scholars  employing 
principles  approved  by  the  Biblical  Commission  at  Rome.  The  American 
revision  enjoys,  therefore,  the  authority  and  scholarship  becoming  an 
improved  Catholic  version  of  the  New  Testament  in  English. 

While  embodying  many  improvements,  this  work  of  American  biblical 
scholars  is  not  a  new  version  but  a  revision  of  the  Challoner-Rheims 
version  based  upon  the  Latin  Vulgate.  While  the  Clementine  edition  of 
the  Vulgate  served  as  the  main  source,  the  readings  of  this  edition  have 
been  improved  by  recourse  to  more  ancient  texts  of  the  Vulgate.  Though 
adhering  to  the  Latin  text,  the  Semitic  and  Greek  peculiarities  and 
idioms  reflected  in  that  text  have  been  rendered  in  a  sense  that  is  native 
to  them. 

As  an  aid  to  reading  and  understanding  the  New  Testament,  the  old 
verse  form  and  paragraphing  have  been  abandoned,  and  headings  that 
show  the  main  divisions  of  the  books  with  marginal  notes  describing 
their  contents  have  been  introduced.  The  new  text  is  arranged  with 
one  column  to  a  page  and  in  paragraphs  instead  of  the  former  verse 
form.  Verse  and  chapter  enumerations  have  been  placed  In  the  margin. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  new  revision,  while  primarily  made  for  study  and 
exposition,  may  eventually  be  adopted  for  the  liturgical  use  of  the  Church 
in  this  country. 

Indulgence  for  Reading  the  Bible 

An  indulgence  of  300  days  is  granted  to  all  the  faithful  who  read  the 
Holy  Gospels  at  least  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  A  plenary  indulgence  under 
the  usual  conditions  is  granted  once  a  month  for  the  daily  reading 
(Leo  XIII,  Dec.  13,  1888). 

Prayer  before  Reading  the  Holy  Scriptures 

O,  King  of  Glory,  Lord  of  Hosts,  who  didst  triumphantly  ascend  the 
heavens,  leave  us  not  as  orphans,  but  send  us  the  Promised  of  the  Father, 
the  Spirit  of  Truth. 

We  implore  Thee,  O  Lord,  that  the  Consoler  Who  proceedeth  from 
Thee,  will  enlighten  our  souls  and  infuse  into  them  all  truth,  as  Thy  Son 
hath  promised. 

O  God,  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  vouchsafe  to  grant  us,  accord- 
Ing  to  the  riches  of  Thy  glory,  that  Christ  by  faith  may  dwell  In  our 
hearts,  which  rooted  and  grounded  in  charity,  may  acknowledge  the  love 
of  Christ,  surpassing  all  knowledge.  Through  the  same  Christ  our  Lord. 
Amen.  (Eph.,  ill,  xiv,  xvii,  xix.) 

120 


Prayer  after  Reading  the  Holy  Scriptures 
(Prayer  of  St.  Bede  the  Venerable;  died  735.) 

Let  me  not,  O  Lord,  be  puffed  up  with  worldly  wisdom,  which  passes 
away,  but  grant  me  that  love  which  never  abates,  that  I  may  not  choose 
to  know  anything  among  men  but  Jesus,  and  Him  crucified.  (I  Cor.,  xiii, 
8;  ii,  2.) 

I  beg  Thee,  dear  Jesus,  that  he  upon  whom  Thou  hast  graciously  be- 
stowed the  sweet  savor  of  the  words  of  Thy  Knowledge,  may  also  pos- 
sess Thee,  Fount  of  all  Wisdom,  and  shine  forever  before  Thy  coun- 
tenance. Amen. 

Biblical  Calendar 

The  year  was  divided  into  twelve  months,  the  names  of  which  are: 
Abib  or  Nisan  (April)  Tishri  or  Ethanim  (October) 

SiTanM(June)  Marhhescevan  (November) 

Thammuz  (July)  Chisleu  (December) 

Ab  (August)  Tebeth   (January) 

VeSSSSSry    month-every      S*eba  (February) 
three  years.  Adar  (March) 

The  month  was  divided  into  weeks  of  seven  days,  and  the  last  day 
of  each  week  was  called  the  Sabbath. 

Each  day  was  divided  into  watches  or  hours  corresponding  to  night 
and  daytime. 

Biblical  Coins 

Before  the  Babylonian  exile  there  is  no  trace  of  money  but  only  of 
weights.  Gold  and  silver  were  weighed  in  the  balance  by  means  of  little 
stones,  models  and  examples  of  which  were  preserved  in  the  Tabernacle 
(Exodus,  xxx,  13),  After  the  exile  there  is  frequent  mention  of  Hebrew 
coins.  Pagan  coins,  too,  were  used. 

Light  shekel,  silver 40  cents  Farthing    (Matt.,  v,  26) %  cent 

Heavy  shekel,  silver 80  cents  Farthing  (Matt.,  x,  29)    1  cent 

Shekel,  gold $12.87  Penny   (Matt.,  xviii,  28)    ...17  cents 

Manah,  silver  (Mna)   $20.24  Groat   (Luke,  xv,  8)    17  cents 

Manah,  gold  (Mna)   $323.96  Drachma   17  cents 

Talent,  silver    $1,215  t      51  cents 

as* ^ side) •:::::::::£!£*  ^^ '^^^.^^ 

Gerah  or  Obol 2%  cents     Tribute  Money  (Matt.,  xvn,  24) 

As From  1  to  17  cents         32  cents 

Mite  (Mark,  xii,  42)   x/4  cent      Piece  of  Silver  (Matt.,  xxvi,  15) 

Biblical  Weights 

Light  shekel    160  grains     Light  Talent  83  Ibs.,  6  oz. 

Heavy  shekel 320  grains     Heavy  Talent  166  Ibs.,  12  oz. 

Light  Manah  Bekah    %  shekel 

1  lb.,  4  oz.,  13  dwt,  8  grains     Rebah    %  shekel 

Heavy  Manah 2  Ibs.,  8  oz.      Gerah    1-20  shekel 

Talent  or  Kikkar 60  manahs 

121 


Biblical    Measures   of    Length 
The  unit  was  a  cubit  (forearm)  divided  into: 

Barley   Corn    33  in.     Foot    10.66  in. 

66  in.     Small  cubit   13.33  in. 

::::::::::::::::::::5:!8£  Building cubit 16-00in- 

Span   8.00  in.     Large  cubit   18.66  in. 

A  Sabbath  day's  journey  .1 U.  S.  mile 
A  day's  journey. .  .33  1-5  U.  S.  miles 
Ezekiel's  Reed 11  feet 

Biblical  Dry  Measure 

Log    69  pints     Hin    1.04  gallons 

Cab    2.76      "        Sean     2.08 

Omer     4.96      "        Ephah    6.20 

Kor  62.00  gallons 

Biblical  Liquid  Measure 

Log    81  pints     Him     1.40  gallons 

Cab    3.24      "        Sean     2.90 

Omer     6.70      "        Bath   8.40 

Kor     84.00  gallons 

TRADITION 

The  Bible  is  silent  or  at  least  is  not  clear  on  a  number  of  matters  such 
as  the  baptism  of  infants  and  the  exact  number  of  the  sacraments,  con- 
cerning which  the  Church  follows  tradition. 

Tradition  consists  of  the  truths  of  the  Catholic  Faith  revealed  by  Jesus 
Christ  to  His  apostles  and  handed  down  to  us  through  the  teaching  of 
the  Church  and  the  writings  of  the  holy  fathers  and  doctors. 

The  Apostolic  Fathers  are  Christian  writers  of  the  first  and  second 
centuries  who  are  known  or  who  are  considered  to  have  had  personal 
relations  with  the  Apostles  and  whose  writings  echo  genuine  Apostolic 
teaching.  Chief  in  importance  are:  St.  Clement  (58-97),  Bishop  of  Rome 
and  third  successor  of  St.  Peter  in  the  Papacy;  St.  Ignatius  (50-98), 
Bishop  of  Antioch  and  second  successor  of  St.  Peter  in  that  see,  reputed 
to  be  a  disciple  of  St.  John;  St.  Poly  carp  (69-155),  Bishop  of  Smyrna 
and  a  disciple  of  St.  John.  The  author  of  the  Didache  and  the  author  of 
the  Epistle  of  Barnabas  are  also  numbered  among  the  Apostolic  Fathers. 

The  Fathers  of  the  Church  are  those  "who  stood  at  the  cradle  of  the 
infant  Church."  They  were  writers  who  lived  in  the  first  eight  centuries 
after  the  birth  of  Christ,  who  led  saintly  lives,  propagated  Christian 
doctrines,  and  suppressed  heresy.  The  unanimous  acceptance  of  a  doc- 
trine by  the  Fathers  makes  it  an  article  of  faith;  the  unanimous  re- 
jection brands  it  a  heresy.  The  Church  recognizes  the  Fathers  as  her 
mouthpieces.  To  be  numbered  among  the  Fathers,  four  qualities  are 
required  of  a  writer.  First,  he  must  have  lived  when  the  Church  was  in 
her  youth;  hence  St.  Gregory  the  Great  who  died  about  604  is  re- 
garded as  the  last  Father  of  the  West,  and  St.  John  Damascene  who 

122 


died  about  754  is  considered  as  the  last  Father  of  the  East. 
Second,  he  must  have  led  a  saintly  life.  Third,  his  writings  must  not  only 
be  free  from  error,  but  must  excel  in  the  explanation  and  defense  of 
Catholic  doctrines.  Fourth,  the  writings  must  bear  the  seal  of  the  Church's 
approval.  Among  the  Fathers  of  the  Church  not  acclaimed  as  Doctors 
(the  list  of  Doctors  including  no  martyrs)  are:  St.  Justin  Martyr 
(100-165),  a  layman  and  a  Christian  apologist  of  Asia  Minor  and  Rome; 
St.  Irenaeus  (130-200),  Bishop  of  Lyons,  who  opposed  Gnosticism;  and 
St.  Cyprian  (200-258),  Bishop  of  Carthage,  who  opposed  Novatianism. 
The  Doctors  of  the  Church  include  many  Fathers  of  the  Church.  They 
are  ecclesiastical  writers  of  eminent  learning,  and  a  high  degree  of  sanc- 
tity, who  have  received  this  title  because  of  the  great  advantage  the 
whole  Church  has  derived  from  their  doctrine.  Their  writings  are  not 
necessarily  entirely  free  from  error.  The  required  conditions  before  a 
man  can  be  proclaimed  a  Doctor  of  the  Church  are:  first,  eminent  learn- 
ing; second,  a  high  degree  of  sanctity;  and  third,  proclamation  by  the 
Church.  They  are,  in  chronological  order,  as  follows. 

Name  Office  Work  Dates 

St.  Hilary Bishop  of  Poitiers Opposed  Arianism 300-  368 

St.  Athanasius       .Bishop  of  Jerusalem  . .      ,  .Father  of  Orthodoxy 296-  373 

St.  Ephraem .Deacon Exegete.    Liturgical   poet   of  the 

Orient 306-  373 

St.  Cyril .Bishop  of  Jerusalem.    . .    .  .Catechetical    teachings 315-  386 

St.  Gregory Bishop  of  Nazianzen Opposed  Arianism   325-  389 

St.  Basil  the  Great Archbishop  of  Caesarea     .  .Father  of  Oriental  Monasticism.  329-  379 

St.  Ambrose Archbishop  of  Milan. .  . ,    .Founded  Christian  Hymnology. .  340-  397 

St.  Jerome Priest Father  of  Biblical  Science.    . .    .  340-  420 

St.  John  Chrysostom Abp.    of   Constantinople     .Golden  mouthed  reformer 347-  407 

St.  Augustine Bishop  of  Hippo Doctor  of   Grace 354-  430 

St.  Cyril .Bishop  of  Alexandria.  .      .Defended  the  Church  against 

Nestorius    376-  444 

St.  Peter  Chrysologus Bishop  of  Ravenna     .    .    .Opposed  Monophysitism     .      .       406-  450 

St.  Leo  the  Great .Pope Unified  the  Church   .       . .  440-  461 

St.  Gregory  the  Great Pope Began  the  conversion  of 

England    590-  604 

St.  Isidore Bishop  of  Seville ,Welded  the  Spanish  people  into 

a  homogeneous  nation   .    ,    .     560-  636 

Ven.  Bede English  Historian         .    . .  .Most  learned  man  of  his  day. . .  672-  7^5 

St.  John  Damascene.      ...Last  Greek  Father Opposed  Iconoclasm 676-  770 

St.  Peter  Damian Cardinal-Bp.  of  Ostia  . .    .Reformer    1007-1072 

St.  Anselm Bishop  of  Canterbury. .    . .  Defended  the  Church  against  the 

State    1033-1109 

St.  Bernard Abbot  of  Clairvaux.      .    .  .Opposed  the  errors  of  Abelard  .1090-1153 

St.  Albertus Dominican  Friar Master  of  Dogmatic  Theology  .1206-1280 

St.  Bonaventure Card.  Bp.  of  Albano       .    .Master  of  Scholastic  Theology..  1221-1274 

St.  Thomas  Aquinas Dominican  Friar Angelic   Doctor ;    author   of   the 

"Summa"     1225-1272 

St.  Peter  Canisius Jesuit .Leader  of  the  Counter- 
reformation    1521-1597 

St.  John  of  the  Cross Co-founder  of  Discalced 

Carmelites Doctor  of  Mystic  Theology 1542-1591 

St.  Robert  Bellarmine Cardinal Defined  the  relations  of  Church 

and    State;    upheld    the    prin- 
ciples  of   democracy 1542-1621 

St.  Francis  de  Sales Bishop  of  Geneva Famed   for   Religious 

Journalism     1567-1622 

St.  Alphonsus  Liguori.    , .  .Bp.  of  San  Agata  dei  Goti .  Master  of  Moral  Theology.         1696-1787 

123 


EVERY  CHRISTIAN   MUST  BELIEVE: 


1.  That  there  is  one  God,  a  pure 
spirit,  Maker  of  heaven  and  earth, 
without    beginning   or    end,    omni- 
present,   knowing   and   seeing   all, 
omnipotent,  infinite  in  perfection. 

2.  That  there  are  three  persons 
in  God,  equal,  and  of  the  same  sub- 
stance:  the  Father,  the  Son,  born 
of  the  Father,  and  the  Holy  Ghost 
proceeding  eternally  from  the  Fa- 
ther and  the  Son,  all  three  eternal 
in  wisdom  and  power,  and  all  three 
the  same  Lord  and  the  same  God. 

3.  That  God  created  the  angels  to 
be   with  Him   forever,   that   some 
of  them   fell  and   became   devils; 
that  God   created  Adam  and  Eve, 
thes  first  parents,   placed   them  in 
Paradise,    wherefrom    they    were 
justly  banished  for  eating  the  for- 
bidden fruit;  therefore  we  are  born 
in  sin  and  would  have  been  lost 
had  not  God  sent  us  a  Saviour. 

4.  That    the    Saviour    is    Jesus 
Christ,  the  Son  of  God,  equal  to  the 
Father  in  all  things;   perfect  Man 
with  a  body  and  soul  like  ours. 

5.  That  Christ  was  conceived  in 
the  womb  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  by 
the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  with- 
out any  man  for  His  father;   that 
she  remained  a  pure  virgin;    that 
during   His    life   He    founded    the 
Christian  religion  and  offered  Him- 
self a  sacrifice  for  the  sins  of  the 
world  by  dying  on  the  cross  to  gain 
mercy,  grace,  and  salvation  for  us. 

6.  That  after  His  death  and  bur- 
ial He  rose  to  life  on  the  third  day, 
manifested  Himself  to  His  disciples 
for    forty    days;     ascended     into 
heaven,  where  He  continually  in- 
tercedes  for  us;   whence  He  sent 
down   the    Holy    Ghost   upon    His 
Apostles  to  guide  them  and  their 
successors  in  truth. 

7.  That  He  is  the  head  of  the 
Catholic  or  Universal  Church,  His 
Spirit  acting  as  its  director;   that 
He  founded  the  Church  on  a  rock; 
that  it  is  always  victorious  against 
the  powers  of  death  and  hell;  that 
it  is  always  One  because  its  mem- 
bers profess   one   faith,   one   com- 
munion, under  one  pastor,  the  suc- 
cessor of  St.  Peter  to  whom  Christ 
committed  His  whole  fiock;  that  it 


is  always  Holy  because  it  teaches 
a  holy  life;  that  it  is  Catholic  be- 
cause it  has  subsisted  in  all  ages, 
and  has  taught  all  nations  the 
truth;  that  it  is  Apostolic  because 
it  derives  doctrines,  mission,  and 
succession  from  the  Apostles. 

8.  That  the  Scriptures,  Old  and 
New   Testaments,   were    deposited 
by  the  Apostles  with  the  Church, 
who  is  the  guardian  and  protector, 
interpreter,   and  judge   of  all  con- 
troversies concerning  them;  as  in- 
terpreted,   these    Scriptures,    with 
the  teaching  of  the  Church  founded 
on  Tradition,  must  be  received  by 
all  as  the  practice  and  rule  of  faith. 

9.  That   Christ   instituted    seven 
sacraments:  Baptism,  Confirmation, 
Holy  Eucharist,  Penance,  Extreme 
Unction,  Holy  Orders,  Matrimony. 

10.  That    Christ    also    instituted 
the  sacrifice  of  His  Body  and  Blood 
as  a  remembrance  of  His  death  and 
Passion  in  the  Mass,  where  every 
day  He  is  immolated  upon  the  al- 
tar, being  Himself  both  priest  and 
victim;    that  we   are   united   with 
Him,  adore  Him,  give  Him  thanks, 
obtain  His  grace  and  pardon  in  the 
Mass. 

11.  That  in  the  Church  there  is  a 
communion  of  saints  by  means  of 
which  we   communicate   with   the 
holy  ones  in  heaven,  give  thanks  to 
God  for  His  gift  to  them  and  beg  a 
share   in   their   prayers;    that   we 
communicate  with  the  faithful  in 
purgatory  by  offering  prayers,  alms 
and  sacrifice  to  God  for  them. 

12.  That  without  divine  grace  we 
cannot  make  even  one  step  toward 
heaven;  that  all  our  merits  are  the 
gifts  of  God;  that  Christ  died  for 
all  men;  that  God  is  not  the  author 
of  sin ;  that  His  grace  does  not  take 
away  our  free  will. 

13.  That  Christ  will  come  from 
heaven  on  the  last  day  to  judge  us 
all;   that  the  dead,  good  and  bad, 
shall  rise  from  their  graves  to  be 
judged  according  to  their  works; 
that  the  good  shall  go  to  heaven, 
body  and  soul,  to  be  happy  for  all 
eternity;  that  the  wicked  shall  be 
condemned,  body  and  soul,  to  the 
everlasting  torments  of  hell, 


124 


EVERY  CHRISTIAN   MUST  DO  THE  FOLLOWING  THINGS: 


1.  Worship  God  by  faith,  in  hum- 
bly   adoring    and    embracing    all 
truths  which  God  has  taught,  how- 
ever obscure  and  incomprehensible 
they  may  appear  to  us;  by  hope,  in 
honoring  the  infinite  power,  good- 
ness and  mercy  of  God,  and  the 
truth  of  His  promises,  by  the  ex- 
pectation of  mercy,  grace  and  sal- 
vation    through     the     merits     of 
Christ;    by  charity,   in  loving  God 
wholeheartedly  for  His  own  sake, 
and  neighbors  for  God's  sake;   by 
the    virtues    of    religion,    namely, 
adoration,      praise,      thanksgiving, 
oblation,  sacrifice  and  prayer,  daily 
if  possible.  Avoid  all  idolatry,  false 
religion  and  superstition,  including 
fortune-telling,  witchcraft,  charms, 
spells,      dreams,      observation      of 
omens,  all  of  which  are  heathen- 
ish, contrary  to  the  dependence  of 
the  Christian  soul  on  God. 

2.  Reverence   the   name   of   God 
and  His  truth  by  the  observance  of 
all    lawful    oaths    and    vows,    by 
avoiding  all  false,  rash,  unjust,  or 
blasphemous  oaths  and  curses. 

3.  Dedicate  some  notable  part  of 
his  time  to  divine  service,  conse- 
crate those  days  God  has  ordered 
to  be  kept  holy. 

4.  Love,  reverence,  and  obey  par- 
ents and  lawful  superiors,  spiritual 
and  temporal;  observe  the  laws  of 


the  Church  and  State,  care  for 
children  and  others  under  his  care 
in  both  their  souls  and  bodies. 

5.  Abstain   from   all   injuries   to 
his   neighbor's   person,   by  murder 
or  other  violence;  from  all  hatred, 
envy,  and  desire  of  revenge;  from 
spiritual   murder   by   drawing  him 
into  sin  by  words,  actions,  or  bad 
example. 

6.  Abstain     from     adultery,     un- 
cleanness    of    thought,    word    and 
action. 

7.  Avoid    stealing,    cheating,    or 
wronging  his  neighbor's  goods  and 
possessions;     give     everyone     his 
own,   pay   debts,   make   restitution 
for  damages  he  has  caused. 

8.  Avoid  wronging  his   neighbor 
in  character  or  good  name,  by  de- 
traction or  rash  judgment,  or  by 
dishonoring   him    with    reproaches 
or  affronts,  or  by  robbing  him  of 
peace  of  mind  by  scoffs  and  con- 
tempt, or  by  carrying  stories  back- 
ward   and   forward,    thus    robbing 
him  of  his  friends:  Restitution  or 
satisfaction  for  any  wrongs  done  to 
him  must  be  made. 

9.  Refrain  from  all  desires  of  lust 
with  regard  to  a  neighbor's  wife. 

10.  Resist    all    irregular    desires 
for  the  goods  of  a  neighbor,  what- 
ever they  may  be,  and  avoid  even 
internal,  unjust  actions  against  him. 


THE  SACRAMENTS   OF  THE  CHURCH 

The  Catholic  Church  teaches  that  there  are  but  seven  sacraments,  in- 
stituted by  Jesus  Christ  Himself.  They  are  the  ordinary  channels  or 
means  of  grace  for  those  properly  disposed  to  receive  them.  The  sacra- 
ments of  Baptism,  Confirmation  and  Holy  Orders  can  be  received  only 
once  because  they  imprint  a  character  or  indelible  mark  on  the  soul. 
To  confer  a  sacrament  validly,  that  is,  to  produce  the  effects  intended  by 
Christ,  the  one  administering  it  need  not  be  in  the  state  of  grace  but 
he  must  intend  to  do  what  the  Church  wishes. 


Baptism — By  this  sacrament  we 
are  made  Christians,  children  of 
God  and  heirs  of  heaven.  It  is  ab- 
solutely necessary  for  salvation.  No 
other  sacrament  can  be  received 
before  its  reception.  It  is  admin- 
istered by  means  of  water.  This  is 
baptism  strictly  so-called.  If  it  can- 
not be  had,  then  baptism  of  blood 
or  baptism  of  desire  can  suffice. 
Its  effects  are  the  removal  of  the 


stain  of  original  sin,  the  stain  of 
actual  sin  and  the  remission  of  the 
punishment  due  to  sin.  It  can  be 
validly  received  by  infants. 

The  ordinary  minister  of  baptism 
is  a  priest;  in  case  of  necessity, 
anyone  can  baptize  by  using  the 
formula:  "I  baptize  thee  in  the 
name  of  the  Father  and  of  the  Son 
and  of  the  Holy  Ghost." 


125 


Confirmation  —  By  this  sacra- 
ment we  become  strong  and  perfect 
Christians,  It  increases  grace  and 
strengthens  one  in  the  Catholic 
Faith,  and  cannot  be  neglected 
without  grave  sin. 

The  bishop  is  the  ordinary  min- 
ister of  confirmation. 

Holy  Eucharist — This  sacrament 
is  the  real,  true  and  substantial 
Presence  of  the  Body  and  Blood, 
Soul  and  Divinity  of  Jesus  Christ 
under  the  appearance  of  bread  and 
wine,  or  either  one,  or  any  part  of 
either  one.  At  the  Consecration  in 
the  Mass  the  substance  of  bread 
and  wine  is  changed  into  the  Body 
and  Blood  of  Christ,  a  change 
called  Transubstantiation.  The  Holy 
Eucharist  is  the  true  food  of  the 
soul.  It  helps  one  to  avoid  mortal 
sin  and  to  grow  in  virtue  by  con- 
ferring and  increasing  grace  in  the 
one  who  receives  it  worthily.  The 
Holy  Eucharist  need  not  be  re- 
ceived under  two  species  except  by 
the  priest  in  the  Holy  Sacrifice  of 
the  Mass. 

The  priest  is  the  ordinary  min- 
ister of  this  sacrament. 

Penance  —  This  sacrament  was 
instituted  by  Christ  for  the  purpose 
of  forgiving  sins  committed  after 
baptism.  All  validly  ordained 
priests  have  the  power  to  forgive 
sins,  a  power  had  in  virtue  of  the 
words:  "Receive  ye  the  Holy 
Ghost;  whose  sins  you  shall  for- 
give, they  are  forgiven  them;  and 
whose  sins  you  shall  retain,  they 
are  retained"  (John,  xx,  22-23). 

When  receiving  this  sacrament 
the  penitent  is  his  own  accuser 
and  the  priest  acts  as  judge,  giv- 
ing a  penance  in  proportion  to  the 
gravity  of  the  sins.  To  obtain  ab- 
solution it  is  necessary  that  a  per- 
son be  truly  sorry  for  his  sins, 
make  them  known  to  the  confessor 
and  make  due  satisfaction,  that  is, 
perform  the  penance  imposed  on 
him  by  the  priest.  The  penitent 
must  confess  all  mortal  sins  which 
he  remembers  and  which  have  not 
yet  been  forgiven.  Sorrow  for  sins 
can  be  perfect  or  imperfect:  per- 
fect, which  arises  because  the 
Supreme  Good,  God,  has  been 


wronged;  imperfect,  which  comes 
from  other  motives,  as  hatred  of 
sin,  fear  of  hell,  loss  of  heaven. 
This  sacrament  is  absolutely  neces- 
sary for  one  who  has  fallen  into 
mortal  sin  after  baptism.  An  act  of 
perfect  contrition  outside  confes- 
sion reconciles  the  sinner  to  God 
but  still  he  must  have  the  desire 
to  confess  his  mortal  sins. 

The  minister  of  this  sacrament 
is  the  priest. 

Extreme  UnctSon  —  This  is  a  sac- 
rament instituted  by  Christ  through 
which  those  in  danger  of  death 
from  bodily  illness  or  infirmity  are 
strengthened  by  grace  for  the  good 
of  the  soul  and  often  of  the  body, 
by  the  anointing  with  holy  oil  and 
the  prayers  of  the  priest.  It  remits  all 
sin  and  the  punishment  due  to  sin. 

Extreme  Unction  can  be  admin- 
istered validly  only  by  a  priest. 

Holy  Orders  —  Instituted  by 
Christ,  this  sacrament  confers  on  a 
man  grace  and  spiritual  powers, 
enabling  him  to  perform  validly 
and  worthily  the  sacred  and  ec- 
clesiastical functions.  The  three 
major  orders  are  subdiaconate, 
diaconate  and  priesthood.  In  virtue 
of  his  ordination  a  priest  has  the 
power  to  consecrate  the  Body  and 
Blood  of  Christ  and  to  forgive  sins. 

The  ordinary  minister  of  Orders 
is  a  consecrated  bishop. 

Matrimony  —  This  sacrament,  in- 
stituted by  Christ,  gives  grace  to 
sanctify  the  legitimate  union  of 
man  and  woman,  to  help  them  be- 
get children  properly  and  educate 
them  seriously.  Marriage  is  indis- 
soluble, that  is,  the  marriage  bond 
cannot  be  broken  even  by  adultery 
or  heresy.  The  Church  alone  has 
the  power  to  constitute  marriage 
impediments  and  to  grant  separa- 
tions, in  which  case  neither  party 
is  free  to  marry  again  while  the 
other  lives.  Clerics  in  major  orders 
and  religious  with  a  solemn  vow  of 
chastity  cannot  marry  validly. 

The  Church  teaches  that  the  per- 
sons themselves  are  the  ministers 
of  this  sacrament.  For  Catholics 
the  presence  of  the  priest  is  re- 
quired for  validity;  he  is  the  min- 
ister of  the  ceremonies. 


126 


RITES  AND  CEREMONIES  OF  CONFIRMATION 

(It  is  proposed  to  ghe  in  the  Almanac  over  a  period  of  years  the  rites  and  ceremo- 
nies for  the  administration  of  the  seven  sacraments.  This  is  the  second  instalment, 
See  the  1941  Almanac  for  the  rites  and  ceremonies  of  Baptism.) 


Confirmation  is  that  sacrament 
of  the  New  Law  in  which,  through 
the  laying  on  of  the  bishop's  hands, 
the  anointing  with  chrism,  and  the 
prayer,  a  baptized  person  is 
strengthened  by  the  Holy  Ghost  in 
order  steadfastly  to  profess  the 
Faith  and  faithfully  to  live  up  to 
it.  The  rites  used  by  the  Apostles 
in  the  administration  of  the  sacra- 
ments have  not  been  recorded  in 
detail  in  Sacred  Scripture.  Had 
the  Apostles  used  no  ceremony  in 
administering  confirmation  but  the 
simple  imposition  of  hands  with 
prayer,  the  Church  would  still  be 
at  liberty  to  add  such  rites  as 
might  seem  calculated  to  awaken 
sentiments  of  piety  in  the  faithful, 
and  impress  them  with  the  nature 
and  effects  of  the  sacrament. 

Minister  —  The  power  to  confirm 
resides  in  the  bishops  of  the 
Church,  who,  succeeding  the  Apos- 
tles, are  the  ordinary  ministers  of 
confirmation.  This  particular  and 
exclusive  right  of  the  bishops  cor- 
responds to  the  elevated  rank  of 
this  sacrament.  While  the  construc- 
tion of  an  edifice  is  intrusted  to 
those  of  inferior  grade,  the  com- 
pletion of  the  same,  the  crowning 
of  the  structure,  is  reserved  to  the 
architect,  or,  more  properly,  the 
master  workman.  In  like  manner, 
the  crowning  of  the  spiritual  edi- 
fice which  is  begun  in  baptism  be- 
longs to  him  who  holds  the  highest 
rank  and  dignity  among  the  minis- 
ters of  Christ.  Priests  may  become 
extraordinary  ministers  of  this 
sacrament  by  special  delegation 
from  the  Apostolic  See.  All  priests 
of  the  Oriental  Rite  have  this 
privilege  by  law. 

Rite  —  The  bishop  proceeds  to 
the  middle  of  the  altar,  vested  with 
the  robes  and  symbols  of  his  high- 
priestly  office,  with  the  mitre  upon 
his  head,  and  holding  the  pastoral 
staff  in  his  right  hand.  Sitting  on 
the  faldstool,  he  delivers  a  brief 
sermon  to  those  to  be  confirmed 
and  all  others  present.  After  wash- 
ing his  hands  to  signify  the  purity 


and  sanctity  with  which  the  minis- 
ters of  the  sacraments  should  pro- 
ceed to  dispense  the  divine  mys- 
teries, he  lays  aside  the  mitre, 
rises,  faces  those  to  be  confirmed 
kneeling  before  him,  and  prays  with 
joined  hands: 

"May  the  Holy  Ghost  come  down 
upon  you,  and  may  the  power  of 
the  Most  High  preserve  you  from 
sin,"  to  which  all  answer:  "Amen." 

Then  the  bishop,  signing  himself 
with  the  right  hand  from  forehead 
to  breast,  says: 

V.  "Our  help  is  in  the  name  of 
the  Lord." 

R.  "Who  hath  made  heaven  and 
earth." 

V.  "O  Lord,  hear  my  prayer." 

R.  "And  let  my  cry  come  unto 
Thee." 

V.    "The    Lord    be    with    you." 

R.  "And  with  thy  spirit." 
Let  us  pray. 

"Almighty,  everlasting  God,  who 
hast  vouchsafed  to  regenerate  these 
Thy  servants  by  water  and  the 
Holy  Ghost,  and  hast  given  unto 
them  the  remission  of  all  their  sins, 
send  forth  upon  them  Thy  seven- 
fold Spirit,  the  Holy  Paraclete  from 
heaven." 

R.  "Amen." 

V.  "The  Spirit  of  wisdom  and  of 
understanding." 

R.  "Amen," 

V.  "The  Spirit  of  counsel  and  of 
fortitude." 

R.  "Amen." 

V.  "The  Spirit  of  knowledge  and 
of  godliness." 

R.  "Amen." 

"Replenish  them  with  the  spirit 
of  Thy  fear,  and  sign  them  with 
the  sign  of  the  Cross  4*  of  Christ, 
in  Thy  mercy,  unto  life  eternal. 
Through  the  same,  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  Thy  Son,  Who  liveth  and 
reigneth  with  Thee  in  the  unity  of 
the  same  Holy  Spirit,  world  with- 
out end." 

R.  "Amen." 

Imposition  of  hands  —  The  bish- 
op now  puts  on  his  mitre  and  sits 
on  the  faldstool  or  walks  before 


127 


the  rows  of  candidates  if  there  be 
a  large  number.  As  each  approaches 
and  kneels  before  him,  he  lays  his 
hand  upon  the  candidate's  head, 
inquiring  the  name  of  each  one 
who  is  presented  to  him  by  the 
godfather  or  godmother.  These  re- 
main standing  with  their  right  hand 
placed  upon  the  right  shoulder  of 
their  spiritual  children,  thereby 
taking  upon  themselves  the  obliga- 
tion of  standing  by  them,  both  by 
word  and  example,  in  the  spirit- 
ual combat  for  which  they  are  in- 
itiated by  this  sacrament. 

Anointing  with  chrism  —  The 
bishop,  dipping  his  thumb  into  the 
holy  chrism  and  repeating  the 
saint's  name  which  is  taken  by 
each  one,  pronounces  the  sacra- 
mental formula: 

"N.  I  sign  thee  with  the  sign  of 
the  cross  »|«"  (anointing  at  the 
same  time  upon  his  forehead  in 
the  form  of  a  cross).  "And  I  con- 
firm thee  with  the  chrism  of  sal- 
vation: In  the  name  of  the  Father 
4s  and  of  the  Son  >J<  and  of  the 
Holy  >J«  Ghost.  Amen." 

The  holy  chrism  in  the  Latin 
Church  is  made  of  oil  of  olives, 
and  of  balsam,  the  latter  ingredient 
signifying  the  sweet  odor  of  virtue, 
which,  the  perfect  Christian  spreads 
around  him.  The  chrism  is  called 
the  "chrism  of  salvation"  because 
it  signifies  the  saving  influence  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  by  which  we  are 
strengthened  unto  everlasting  life. 
The  forehead  is  anointed  with  the 
sign  of  the  cross  to  teach  us  that 
sacramental  grace  is  given  in  vir- 
tue of  the  sacrifice  of  the  Cross 
only;  to  remind  those  confirmed 
that  they  must  not  be  ashamed  to 
boldly  profess  their  faith  in  Jesus 
Christ  crucified;  that  by  this  sacred 
unction,  the  soul  is  sealed  in  the 
Holy  Ghost  by  a  spiritual,  indelible 
mark,  which  enrolls  those  con- 
firmed forever  in  the  service  of 
Christ. 

Blow  on  the  cheek  —  Lightly 
striking  each  of  the  newly-con- 
firmed on  the  cheek,  the  bishop 
says: 

"Peace  be  to  thee." 


This  blow  on  the  cheek,  probably 
a  relic  of  the  ceremony  of  the  Kiss 
of  Peace,  serves  to  remind  the 
Christian  that  being  anointed  and 
strengthened,  he  should  be  a  vali- 
ant athlete,  ready  to  suffer  every 
adversity,  even  death,  for  the  sake 
of  Christ. 

Conclusion  —  While  the  bishop 
cleanses  his  fingers,  the  following 
Antiphone  is  read  or  sung: 

"Confirm,  O  Lord,  that  which 
Thou  hast  wrought  in  us,  from  Thy 
Holy  Temple  which  is  in  Jeru- 
salem." 

V.  "Glory  be  to  the  Father,  etc." 

The  Antiphone  is  then  repeated. 
Setting  aside  the  mitre,  the  bishop 
rises,  and,  standing  before  the  altar 
with  joined  hands,  he  says: 

V.  "Show  us  Thy  mercy,  O 
Lord." 

R.  "And  grant  us  Thy  salvation." 

V.  "O  Lord,  hear  my  prayer." 

R.  "And  let  my  cry  come  unto 
Thee." 

V.  "The  Lord  be  with  you." 

R.  "And  with  thy  spirit" 
Let  us   pray. 

"God,  who  didst  give  to  Thine 
Apostles  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  didst 
ordain  that  by  them  and  their  suc- 
cessors He  should  be  delivered  to 
the  rest  of  the  faithful,  look  merci- 
fully on  the  service  of  our  humility, 
and  grant  that  the  hearts  of  those 
whose  foreheads  we  have  anointed 
with  the  sacred  chrism,  and  signed 
with  the  sign  of  the  Holy  Cross, 
may  by  the  same  Holy  Spirit 
descending  upon  them,  and  vouch- 
safing to  dwell  therein,  be  made 
the  temple  of  His  glory.  Who  with 
the  Father  and  the  same  Holy 
Spirit  livest  and  reignest,  world 
without  end.  Amen." 

Then  he  adds : 

"Behold,  thus  shall  every  man 
be  blessed  that  feareth  the  Lord." 

Turning  to  the  persons  confirmed, 
he  blesses  them  with  the  sign  of 
the  Cross: 

"May  the  Lord  bless  »J«  you  out 
of  Sion,  that  you  may  see  the  good 
things  of  Jerusalem  all  the  days 
of  your  life,  and  have  life  everlast- 
ing. Amen." 


128 


Catijoltt 


Abandonment  —  First  stage  of 
the  soul's  union  with  God:  by  con- 
forming to  His  will,  accepting  trials 
and  sufferings,  surrendering  nat- 
ural consolations  for  the  purpose  of 
purification. 

Abbess  —  A  title  commonly  as- 
cribed to  the  superioress  of  a  com- 
munity of  nuns.  The  office  of  ab- 
bess existed  as  early  as  the  sixth 
century.  Since  then  it  has  had  a 
very  gradual  development,  and  in 
the  course  of  time,  Canon  Law  has 
decreed  the  manner  of  election,  the 
extent  of  powers,  and  the  rights 
and  privileges  of  an  abbess.  A 
bishop  may  confer  the  dignity  of 
abbess  which  is  regularly  symbo- 
lized by  a  ring  and  staff. 

Abbey  —  An  independent  canon- 
ically  erected  monastery  generally 
built  around  a  quadrangle,  ruled  by 
an  abbot  or  abbess,  and  consisting 
of  the  following:  almonry,  calefac- 
tory, cellars,  cells,  chapter  house, 
choir,  cloister,  conference  room, 
dormitory,  guest  house,  infirmary, 
kitchen,  novitiate,  oratory,  parlor, 
refectory,  workshops. 

Abbot  —  The  superior  of  a  com- 
munity of  men  consecrated  to  God 
by  the  religious  vows,  and  dwelling 
in  monastic  institutions.  It  is  also 
used  to  designate  the  office  of  such 
a  superior.  The  earliest  abbots 
were  frequently  laymen,  since 
among  several  hundred  monks  in 
the  first  ages  of  the  Church,  there 
might  be  only  one  or  two  priests. 
In  time,  however,  the  abbot  on  his 
inception  was  obliged  to  enter  the 
sacerdotal  state.  As  with  the  ab- 
bess, the  election,  duties  and  priv- 
ileges of  an  abbot  have  had  a 
gradual  development  since  the 
sixth  century.  Some  abbots  were 
invested  with  episcopal  jurisdic- 
tion over  their  subjects,  and  hence 
were  permitted  the  use  of  the 
mitre,  crozier  and  ring,  indicative 
of  their  authority. 

Abdication  —  The  renunciation  of 
a  benefice  or  dignity.  It  must  be 
voluntary  and  not  in  any  way  con- 
nected with  a  sale.  Papal  abdica- 
tion must  be  made  into  the  hands 


of  the  College  of  Cardinals,  which 
body  must  elect  a  successor. 

Abduction  —  The  carrying  oft  or 
keeping  of  a  woman  against  her 
will.  Abduction  is  an  impediment 
and  renders  a  marriage  with  the 
one  abducted  invalid. 

Abjuration  —  Renunciation  of 
apostasy,  heresy  or  schism. 

Abortion  —  When  a  practitioner 
or  other  person  intentionally  re- 
moves the  fetus,  even  in  the 
earliest  period  of  pregnancy,  direct 
abortion  is  committed  and  is  a 
grievous  sin,  amounting  to  homi- 
cide. When  in  an  operation  on  the 
mother,  the  child  is  accidentally  in- 
jured or  expelled,  indirect  abortion 
occurs.  Indirect  abortion  is  some- 
times permitted  with  sufficient  and 
grave  reason,  as,  for  instance,  to 
save  the  mother's  life,  providing 
every  precaution  be  taken  to  save 
the  life  of  the  child,  and  providing 
the  child  receive  timely  baptism. 
Direct  abortion  has  always  been 
condemned  by  the  Church  as  a 
crime  of  the  most  heinous  nature. 
According  to  the  New  Code  of  Can- 
on Law,  those  who  procure  abor- 
tion, not  excepting  the  mother,  if 
the  abortion  has  actually  taken 
place,  incur  an  excommunication 
reserved  to  the  ordinary  (C.  2350). 
Those  who  co-operate  physically  or 
use  moral  force  also  incur  this  ex- 
communication. 

Absolution  —  Absolution  is  had 
when  the  priest  using  the  authority 
he  has  received  from  our  Lord, 
grants  the  remission  of  sins.  This 
faculty,  as  it  is  called,  is  possessed 
by  all  priests,  when  a  person  is  in 
danger  of  death.  But  in  ordinary 
cases,  priests  must  have  the  addi- 
tional faculty  which  is  called  juris- 
diction. Since  a  priest  acts  as  a 
judge  in  the  Sacrament  of  Penance, 
and  passes  sentence  on  the  peni- 
tent, it  is  quite  natural  that  he  can 
only  judge  and  pass  sentence  upon 
those  who  are  subject  to  him.  In 
general,  a  bishop  has  jurisdiction 
within  his  own  diocese,  which  juris- 
diction he  can  and  usually  does 
delegate  to  the  priests  of  that 
diocese. 


129 


Absolution,  General  —  A  blessing 
of  the  Church,  to  which  a  plenary 
indulgence  is  attached,  given  at 
stated  times  to  religious  and  ter- 
tiaries.  It  also  is  given  without 
confession  of  sin  where  confession 
is  impossible,  such  as  to  soldiers 
on  the  battlefield.  Persons  so  ab- 
solved must  acknowledge  the  sins 
from  which  they  were  absolved  in 
their  next  confession. 

Abstinence  —  Abstinence,  in  its 
restricted  and  special  sense,  de- 
notes voluntary  deprivation  of  cer- 
tain kinds  of  food  and  drink,  in  a 
rational  way,  and  for  the  good  of 
the  soul.  On  a  fasting-day  the 
Church  requires  us  to  limit  the 
quantity  as  well  as  the  kind  of  our 
food.  On  an  abstinence-day,  the 
limit  imposed  affects  only  the  na- 
ture of  the  food  we  take. 

Accessory  to  Another's  Sin  — 
Ways  of  being  accessory  to  an- 
other's sin  are  by  counsel,  by  com- 
mand, by  provocation,  by  consent, 
by  praise  or  flattery,  by  conceal- 
ment, by  partaking,  by  silence,  by 
defense  of  the  evil  done. 

Acclamation  —  At  the  Mass  of 
the  Coronation  of  the  Pope,  the 
people  cry  out  three  times:  "Long 
life  to  our  lord  who  has  been  ap- 
pointed Supreme  Pontiff  and  uni- 
versal Pope."  Acclamation  is  also 
a  form  of  papal  election,  when  a 
candidate  is  proclaimed  pope  with- 
out a  previous  consultation  or 
formal  election. 

Acolyte  —  Acolyte  is  the  highest 
of  the  four  minor  orders.  It  is  the 
duty  of  an  acoylte  to  serve  the 
priest  at  Mass,  by  supplying  wine 
and  water,  and  carrying  the  lights. 
The  functions  of  acolyte  are  now 
freely  performed  by  laymen,  though 
the  order  is  still  always  received 
by  those  who  aspire  to  the  priest- 
hood. 

Action  Francaise  —  A  movement 
founded  in  France  about  1897  by 
Charles  Maurras,  an  atheist,  who 
sought  Catholic  Royalists1  support 
to  restore  the  monarchy.  It  made 
religion  subservient  to  politics  and 
fostered  hate  and  violence,  and 
propagated  paganistic  doctrines 
through  its  review,  "Action  Fran- 


caise," which  was  condemned  by 
the  Pope.  In  1939  the  managing 
committee  of  the  newspaper  peti- 
tioned Pius  XII  for  revocation  of 
the  condemnation  and  professed 
veneration  for  the  Holy  See  and 
the  Pope.  After  consideration  by 
the  Holy  Office,  the  ban  was  lifted. 

Act  of  God  —  An  accident  that 
cannot  be  controlled  by  man,  such 
as  lightning,  is  attributed  to  God, 
the  author  of  the  laws  of  nature. 

Actual  Grace  —  A  supernatural 
gift  of  God,  enabling  the  intellect 
and  will  to  elicit  acts  related  to 
eternal  life;  called  actual  because 
it  assists  the  faculty  of  the  soul 
only  when  it  is  in  operation. 

Actual  Sins  —  Personal  acts  or 
omissions  contrary  to  the  law  of 
God ;  they  may  be  mortal  or  venial, 
interior  or  exterior  sins,  due  to 
weakness,  ignorance  or  malice, 
against  God,  one's  neighbor  or  one- 
self. 

Ad  Bestias  — Lat.  "to  the  beasts" 
—  referring  to  Christians  con- 
demned to  death  in  the  arena. 

Ad  Libitum  —  Lat.  "at  one's 
pleasure"  —  referring  to  a  choice  of 
a  prayer  in  the  Office  or  in  the 
Mass. 

Ad  Limina  Visit  —  A  pilgrimage 
to  the  tombs  of  Saints  Peter  and 
Paul,  required  of  all  bishops  every 
three  to  ten  years  when  also  they 
render  an  account  of  their  dioceses 
to  the  Pope.  The  term  is  derived 
from  the  Latin  Ad  limina  apostolorum : 
"to  the  thresholds  of  the  Apostles." 

Administrator  —  The  priest  or 
bishop  appointed  to  administer  a 
diocese  or  parish  which  is  vacant. 

Adoption  —  Act  by  which  a  per- 
son legally  takes  the  child  of  an- 
other as  his  own.  Those  who  are 
declared  incapable  of  marrying  by 
civil  law  on  account  of  legal  adop- 
tion, are  likewise  forbidden  to  con- 
tract marriage  by  Canon  Law 
(C.  1080). 

Adoration  —  An  act  of  religion 
offered  to  God  alone  because  of  His 
infinite  perfection  and  supreme  do- 
minion. It  is  expressed  outwardly 
in  postures  of  reverence  and 
prayers  of  praise. 


130 


Adultery  —  Carnal  intercourse  of 
a  married  person  with  another  who 
is  not  the  lawful  spouse.  The  Cath- 
olic Church  holds  that  the  bond  of 
marriage  is  not  and  cannot  be  dis- 
solved by  the  adultery  of  either 
party.  Canon  Law,  however,  allows 
separation  from  bed  and  board, 
whether  permanent  or  temporary, 
for  various  causes.  Of  these,  adul- 
tery is  one  of  the  chief.  The  right 
to  this  separation  accrues  to  either 
party  in  consequence  of  the  adul- 
tery of  the  other,  provided  that 
the  guilt  be  certain  and  notori- 
ous, whether  in  fact  or  in  law. 
The  adultery  of  either  party  is  a 
sufficient  cause  entitling  the  inno- 
cent person  to  claim  judicial  sepa- 
ration for  life.  According  to  the 
statutes  of  many  states,  adultery 
is  a  sufficient  cause  for  the  abso- 
lute severance  of  the  nuptial  bond. 
The  Church,  however,  does  not 
recognize  these  divorces.  Catholics 
cannot  obtain  an  absolute  divorce 
on  the  ground  of  adultery. 

Advent  —  The  word  signifies 
"coming'*  or  "arrival."  It  is  applied 
to  the  period  of  waiting  which  pre- 
ceded the  coming  of  the  Son  of 
God,  and  this  name  is  given  to  the 
four  weeks  preceding  Christmas  to 
recall  to  the  minds  of  the  faithful 
this  period  of  preparation  for  the 
first  coming  of  the  Saviour  in  His 
birth  as  man.  It  begins  with  the 
Sunday  nearest  the  feast  of  St.  An- 
drew. The  reason  for  this  is  that  St. 
Andrew  showed  his  brother  Simon 
Peter  the  way  to  Christ.  Records 
of  a  liturgical  period  called  Advent 
are  found  as  far  back  as  the  year 
380,  at  the  time  of  the  Council  of 
Saragossa. 

Affinity  —  The  relationship  exist- 
ing between  a  man  and  his  wife's 
relatives  and  a  woman  and  her 
husband's  relatives.  Affinity  invali- 
dates marriage  in  any  degree  of  the 
direct  line,  and  in  the  collateral 
line  to  the  second  degree  inclusive- 
ly (C.  1077). 

Agape  —  In  the  very  first  age  of 
the  Church  the  Eucharistic  celebra- 
tion was  preceded  by  an  ordinary 
meal,  and  this  was  known  as  the 
Agape.  The  strictly  liturgical  agape 


disappeared  within  less  than  a  hun- 
dred years  after  the  preaching  of 
the  Gospel.  Adaptations  of  it  sur- 
vived until  about  the  fifth  century. 

Age  of  Reason  —  The  time  of  life 
when  one  begins  to  distinguish 
clearly  between  right  and  wrong, 
understands  an  obligation  and 
takes  on  moral  responsibility;  gen- 
erally at  seven  years  of  age. 

Agnosticism  —  A  theory  which 
claims  that  man  cannot  know  real- 
ity because  he  is  unable  to  appre- 
hend it  or  it  is  unknowable.  Ap- 
plied to  religion,  it  claims  that  hu- 
man reason  cannot  know  God.  The 
Church  in  the  Vatican  Council  de- 
clared that  with  the  natural  light 
of  human  reason,  God  may  be 
known. 

Agnus  Dei — A  disc  of  wax  hav- 
ing on  one  side  the  impression  of 
a  lamb,  and  on  the  other  the  name 
and  arms  of  the  Pope.  It  is  gen- 
erally covered  with  textile  and 
worn  suspended  from  the  neck.  Its 
purpose  is  to  protect  its  possessor 
from  evil. 

Agrapha  —  Sayings  supposed  to 
have  been  spoken  by  our  Lord. 

Alleluia  —  An  ejaculation  derived 
from  the  Hebrew,  meaning  "Praise 
the  Lord;"  used  in  the  Church  dur- 
ing joyful  seasons. 

Allocution — An  address  delivered 
from  the  throne  by  the  Pope  to  the 
cardinals  in  secret  consistory. 

Alma  Mater  —  Lat.  "nourishing 
mother"  —  applied  to  universities 
and  schools  which  are  considered 
the  foster  mothers  of  students. 

Alms-deeds  —  Material  help  giv- 
en to  another  for  God's  sake  and 
necessary  in  a  Christian  society  as 
a  bond  uniting  all  in  dependence 
on  God. 

Alpha  and  Omega  —  The  first 
and  last  letters  of  the  Greek  alpha- 
bet, used  to  refer  to  Christ,  the  be- 
beginning  and  end  of  all  things. 

Altar  —  A  table  on  which  the 
Sacrifice  of  the  Mass  is  offered.  By 
decree  of  Pope  St.  Felix  I  it  was 
required  that  the  Sacrifice  be  of- 
fered on  the  tombs  of  martyrs,  in 
conformity  with  which  relics  of 
martyrs  are  now  placed  in  every 
altar,  and  hence  also  the  tomb-like 


131 


structure  of  the  modern  altar.  A 
portable  altar  consists  of  an  altar- 
stone  which  must  contain  the  relics 
of  two  canonized  martyrs. 

Amen  — A  Hebrew  word  signify- 
ing "truly,"  "certainly."  It  is  an  as- 
sent to  a  truth  or  an  expression  of 
a  desire,  and  is  equivalent  to:  "so 
be  it."  In  this  sense  it  may  express 
consent  to  the  divine  will.  In  the 
words  of  Christ:  "Amen,  I  say  to 
you,"  it  means  "of  a  truth." 

At  the  end  of  prayers  "Amen" 
signifies  a  desire  to  obtain  what  we 
ask.  Thus  it  is  said  by  the  server 
at  Mass,  as  a  sign  that  the  faithful 
unite  their  petitions  to  those  of  the 
priest. 

Anathema  —  A  thing  given  over 
to  evil,  so  that  "anathema  sit" 
means  "let  him  be  accursed."  St. 
Paul  uses  it  against  those  who  re- 
pudiate our  blessed  Savior.  Those 
against  whom  it  is  used  are  ex- 
cluded from  the  communion  of  the 
Church,  Those  who  are  so  con- 
demned, however,  may  return  to 
the  Church  if  they  repent. 

Angelic  Doctor  —  St.  Thomas 
Aquinas  (1225-1274),  so  called  be- 
cause of  the  sanctity  of  his  life  and 
the  sublimity  of  his  philosophical 
and  theological  writings. 

Angels  —  Spiritual  beings,  cre- 
ated by  God,  but  superior  in  na- 
ture and  intelligence  to  man.  When 
they  were  created  is  an  open  ques- 
tion. The  angels  have  no  body,  but 
they  are  capable  of  assuming 
bodies,  as  we  read  in  Scripture. 

They  are  purely  spiritual  intelli- 
gences. They  do  not  have  to  rea- 
son, as  we  do;  their  knowledge  is 
intuitive,  depending  on  the  images 
received  from  God,  God  put  them 
on  probation  with  the  help  of  sanc- 
tifying grace,  but  Lucifer  and  many 
others  fell  through  pride  and  were 
cast  into  hell  without  hope  of  par- 
don. The  very  greatness  and  per- 
fection of  angelic  nature,  says  St. 
Gregory  the  Great,  made  their  sin 
unpardonable. 

The  good  angels  went  into  ever- 
lasting bliss.  They  are  minister- 
ing spirits  serving  God.  We  offer 
veneration  and  inferior  honor  to 
these  angels  due  to  their  noble  na- 


ture.  God  alone  do  we  adore  with 
latria,  or  supreme  adoration. 

AngeSus  —  The  practice  of  ring- 
ing a  bell  for  the  recitation  of  the 
Hail  Mary,  introduced  by  the  Fran- 
ciscans in  1263,  has  since  developed 
into  the  universal  custom  of  recit- 
ing a  prayer  at  morning,  noon  and 
evening,  in  honor  of  the  Incarna- 
tion. During  paschal  time  the  Re- 
gina  Coeli  takes  the  place  of  the 
Angelus. 

Anglican  Orders  —  Anglican  Or- 
ders were  declared  invalid  under 
Pope  Leo  XIII  who  had  the  ques- 
tion of  their  validity  thoroughly  in- 
vestigated and  gave  the  decision 
September  18,  1896,  in  his  bull 
"Apostolicae  Curae." 

Annulment  —  A  civil  or  ecclesias- 
tical declaration  that  a  supposed 
marriage  never  was  valid  owing  to 
a  known  or  hidden  impediment. 

Annunciation  —  The  Angel  Ga- 
briel's announcement  to  the  Virgin 
Mary  that  she  was  to  become  the 
Mother  of  God.  The  event  is  com- 
memorated in  the  daily  recitation 
of  the  Angelus  during  the  greater 
part  of  the  year  and  by  a  special 
feast  on  March  25. 

Antichrist  —  It  is  the  constant 
belief  of  the  Church  since  the  time 
of  Irenaeus  that  before  our  Lord 
comes  again,  a  great  power  will 
arise  which  will  persecute  the 
Church.  In  St.  Matthew's  Gospel 
we  read  that  the  false  Christs  and 
false  prophets  shall  be  so  clever 
"as  to  deceive,  if  possible,  even  the 
elect."  While  the  antichrist,  prop- 
erly speaking,  may  be  expected 
just  before  the  end  of  the  world, 
those  who  attack  Christ  and  His 
Church  should  be  so  classified  and 
avoided  as  antichrists. 

Anti popes  —  False  popes  who, 
while  not  duly  elected,  claimed  the 
papacy  and  attempted  to  rule  the 
Church.  There  have  been  thirty- 
seven  antipopes. 

Apocrypha  —  Greek  "hidden"  — 
writings  that  claim  sacred  origin 
supposed  to  have  been  hidden  for 
generations.  They  lack  genuine- 
ness and  canonicity,  and  are  not 
included  in  the  Bible. 


132 


Apologetics  —  Science  of  the  ex- 
planation of  religious  teaching  ac- 
cording to  reason.  SS.  Justin  and 
Irenaeus  were  the  first  apologists. 

Apostasy  —  A  breaking  away 
from  religion  after  "baptism  —  a  re- 
jection of  the  Faith.  When  mani- 
fested outwardly  with  conscious- 
ness of  the  obligation  to  remain  in 
the  Faith,  apostasy  involves  ex- 
communication reserved  to  the 
Holy  See. 

Apostle  —  One  who  is  sent.  The 
apostles  were  men  sent  by  Christ 
to  spread  the  Gospel  throughout 
the  world.  The  apostles  were  bish- 
ops, and  so  had  the  power  to  con- 
secrate, ordain,  confirm,  etc.  They 
received  a  divine  commission  to 
preach  the  Gospel  to  the  whole 
world  —  to  be  witnesses  of  Christ 
"even  to  the  end  of  the  earth.*' 
They  had  the  power  of  founding 
churches,  ordaining  bishops,  and 
other  ecclesiastics.  All  these  pow- 
ers, however,  they  exercised  in  sub- 
jection to  St.  Peter,  who  was  the 
head  of  the  Church.  The  bishops  are 
successors  of  the  apostles,  but 
their  power  is  limited  to  the  sphere 
of  their  jurisdiction,  whereas  that 
of  the  apostles  was  universal. 

Apostolic  Delegate  —  The  repre- 
sentative of  the  Pope  who  watches 
over  and  informs  His  Holiness  of 
the  state  of  the  Church  in  a  cer- 
tain territory.  When  countries 
have  diplomatic  relations  with  the 
Holy  See  he  has  a  diplomatic  char- 
acter, otherwise  purely  ecclesiasti- 
cal. He  precedes  all  ordinaries  in 
his  territory  excepting  cardinals. 

Apostolic  Indulgences — Attached 
to  crucifixes,  rosaries,  medals,  etc., 
by  the  Pope  or  an  authorized  priest 
when  the  articles  are  blessed.  Such 
articles  must  be  carried  on  one's 
person  or  kept  in  a  suitable  place. 

Apparitions  —  Remarkable  ap- 
pearances or  manifestations  made 
by  God  in  an  extraordinary  man- 
ner, either  before  the  senses  in 
flesh  and  blood  or  in  luminous  form. 

Archimandrite  —  The  superior  of 
a  monastery  in  an  Eastern  Church, 
such  as  among  the  Melchites  or 
Uniate  Greeks;  also  an  honorary 
title  of  officials  in  Eastern  Churches. 


Articulo  Mortis  —  Lat.  "at  the 
moment  of  death"  —  referring  to 
indulgences  granted  to  those  about 
to  die. 

Ascension  —  Christ's  ascending 
into  heaven  forty  days  after  His 
Resurrection.  It  is  commemorated 
by  a  special  feast,  which  is  a  holy- 
day  of  obligation. 

Ashes  —  Ashes  were  used  in  an- 
cient religions  to  express  humilia- 
tion and  sorrow,  and  their  use  was 
continued  in  the  early  and  medie- 
val Church  as  a  symbol  of  penance. 
On  Ash  Wednesday  blessed  ashes 
are  placed  on  the  foreheads  of  the 
faithful  to  remind  them  they  are 
but  dust  and  ashes,  and  that  they 
should  enter  upon  the  holy  season 
of  Lent,  of  which  this  is  the  first 
day,  with  a  humble  and  mortified 
spirit.  This  is  a  sacramental. 

Asperges  —  The  first  word  of  the 
ninth  verse  of  the  fiftieth  psalm 
"Asperges  Me,"  meaning  "Thou 
shalt  sprinkle  me"  —  sung  during 
the  ceremony  of  sprinkling  with 
holy  water  before  High  Mass  on 
Sundays. 

Aspiration  —  A  prayer  said  in  a 
breath,  derived  from  the  Latin, 
Aspiroj  to  breathe,  and  so  contain- 
ing only  a  few  words,  as  for  ex- 
ample, "My  Jesus,  mercy."  Indul- 
gences are  applied  to  many  of  these 
prayers. 

Assumption  —  The  reception  into 
heaven  of  the  body  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  shortly  after  her  death.  Its 
commemoration  on  August  15  is  a 
holyday  of  obligation. 

Atheism  —  A  system  opposed  to 
theism,  which  denies  God's  exis- 
tence and  refers  mortality  to  a  ma- 
terial rather  than  a  spiritual 
source. 

Atonement  —  The  suffering  of 
Christ  caused  by  sin;  the  payment 
of  the  debt  to  divine  justice  that 
He  alone  could  make.  The  atone- 
ment was  an  act  of  love  because 
the  complete  anguish  He  endured 
was  not  absolutely  necessary. 

Attributes  of  God  —  Though  God 
is  one  and  simple,  we  form  a  better 
idea  by  applying  characteristics  to 
Him,  such  as:  almighty,  eternal, 


133 


holy,  immortal,  immense,  immut- 
table,  incomprehensible,  ineffable, 
infinite,  intelligent,  invisible,  just, 
loving,  merciful,  most  high,  most 
wise,  omnipotent,  omniscient,  omni- 
present, patient,  perfect,  provident, 
self-dependent,  supreme,  true. 

Attrition  —  Imperfect  contrition 
based  on  an  inferior  motive  such  as 
the  loss  of  heaven  or  the  punish- 
ment of  hell,  not  on  the  pure  love 
of  God. 

Audiences,  Papa!  —  Receptions 
by  the  Holy  Father  to  groups  or 
individuals.  Requests  for  audiences 
are  made  to  the  Master  of  the 
Chamber. 

Aureole  —  A  symbolic  oval  of 
light  placed  over  the  heads  of 
saints  in  Christian  art  to  symbolize 
their  special  honor  in  heaven;  also 
called  a  halo  or  nimbus. 

Authority  —  The  right  of  some  to 
impose  the  duty  of  obedience  on 
others.  There  must  be  authority 
everywhere  as  well  as  obedience, 
but  men  are  not  bound  to  live  un- 
der any  particular  form  of  au- 
thority. 

If  a  particular  form  of  authority 
encroaches  upon  the  rights  and 
liberties  of  the  people,  a  revolution 
may  be  justified.  When  the  author- 
ity of  the  State  and  that  of  the 
Church  conflict,  the  State  is  not  to 
be  obeyed  against  God.  All  author- 
ity comes  from  God. 

Auto  da  fe  —  The  public  cere- 
mony in  which  those  convicted  of 
heresy  by  the  Inquisition  were  giv- 
en their  final  sentence. 

Banns  of  Marriage  —  Three  pub- 
lications of  an  intended  marriage 
on  Sundays  or  holy  days  in  the 
churches  of  the  parties  concerned 
for  the  purpose  of  discovering  any 
impediments  that  may  invalidate 
the  marriage.  Ordinarily  the  pastor 
should  not  perform  the  marriage 
until  three  days  after  the  last  pub- 
lication of  the  banns. 

Baptism  —  The  sacrament  of  ini- 
tiation and  regeneration.  By  pouring 
water  on  the  head  of  the  person 
to  be  baptized,  while  invoking  the 
Holy  Trinity,  he  is  cleansed  of  orig- 
inal sin  and  made  a  disciple  of 


Christ.  This  is  baptism  by  water, 
which  may  be  administered  also 
by  immersion  or  aspersion.  There 
are  two  other  kinds  of  baptism: 
by  blood  (or  martyrdom)  and  of 
desire  (perfect  charity  or  love  ot 
God,  and  therefore  implicitly  the 
desire  for  the  sacrament). 

The  significance  of  the  ceremo- 
nies of  baptism  is  very  beautiful, 
yet  few  people  ever  think  of  them. 
Among  the  ceremonies  are  the  fol- 
lowing : 

The  person  baptized  is  to  receive 
in  baptism  the  name  of  a  saint, 
that  the  person  may  profit  by  the 
example  and  patronage  of  that 
saint.  The  priest  breathes  thrice 
upon  his  face  to  signify  the  new 
spiritual  life  which  is  to  be 
breathed  into  his  soul;  he  puts  salt 
into  his  mouth,  as  a  sign  that  he  is 
to  be  freed  from  the  corruption  of 
sin.  Then  the  priest  solemnly  ex- 
orcises the  person;  anoints  his 
ears  and  nostrils  with  spittle  — 
after  our  Lord's  example,  who  re- 
stored sight  to  the  blind  man  — 
and  asks  him  in  three  separate  in- 
terrogations whether  he  renounces 
Satan,  all  his  works  and  all  his 
pomps. 

He  next  anoints  him  with  the  oil 
of  catechumens  on  his  breast  and 
between  his  shoulders.  The  ancient 
athletes  were  anointed  before  their 
contests  in  the  arena,  and  in  the 
same  way  the  young  Christian  is 
prepared  for  the  "good  fight"  which 
lies  before  him.  The  recipient, 
through  his  sponsors  if  he  be  a 
child,  professes  his  faith  by  recit- 
ing the  Creed,  and  then  the  priest 
pours  water  three  times  on  his 
head,  in  the  form  of  a  cross,  at  the 
same  time  pronouncing  the  words, 
"I  baptize  thee,  in  the  name  of  the 
Father,  and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the 
Holy  Ghost."  After  baptism,  chrism 
is  put  on  the  top  of  his  head  to 
signify  his  union  with  Christ,  the 
head  of  the  Church;  he  receives 
a  white  garment,  and  a  burning 
candle  in  his  hands,  a  symbol  of  the 
light  of  faith  and  charity. 

These  rites  are  recommended  by 
their  beautiful  symbolism  and  the 
majestic  words  which  accompany 


134 


them  as  well  as  by  their  venerable 
antiquity. 

Basilica  —  Originally  the  form  of 
building  used  for  early  Christian 
churches,  being  an  adaptation  of  a 
pagan  edifice  for  Christian  wor- 
ship; the  ground  plan  resembles  a 
cross;  the  roof  is  supported  by  pil- 
lars with  arched  windows  in  the 
clerestory;  the  facade  faces  the 
East.  Today  the  name  basilica  is 
applied  to  historic  and  privileged 
churches,  such  as  those  of  St.  Peter 
and  St.  John  Lateran. 

Beatification  —  A  pontifical  decla- 
ration that  a  member  of  the  Church 
deserves  to  be  regarded  as  resid- 
ing in  heaven  due  to  a  saintly  life 
or  heroic  death.  An  examination 
of  the  life,  virtues  and  writings  is 
first  made  in  the  diocese  of  the 
candidate,  as  well  as  by  the  Church 
officially,  before  the  person  is  de- 
clared blessed. 

Beatific  Vision  —  The  vision  of 
God  enjoyed  by  the  blessed  in 
heaven,  called  beatific  because  it 
is  the  supreme  source  of  happiness 
in  heaven. 

Beatitudes  —  Eight  blessings 
given  in  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount: 
blessed  are  the  poor  in  spirit,  the 
meek,  those  who  mourn,  who  seek 
justice,  the  merciful,  peacemakers, 
the  clean  of  heart  and  the  perse- 
cuted! 

Bells  —  Sacramentals  used  to  re- 
mind us  of  God  and  our  duties  to 
Him,  introduced  toward  the  close 
of  the  fourth  century.  Tower  bells 
have  been  rung  at  the  elevation  of 
the  principal  Mass  in  a  church 
since  the  thirteenth  century. 

The  power  of  calling  the  faithful 
to  Church  is  often  attributed  to 
the  efficacy  of  the  bell;  but,  of 
course,  this  notion  is  a  supersti- 
tious one.  This  power  is  due  only 
to  the  blessing  and  prayer  of  the 
Church. 

Benediction  of  the  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment  —  A  religious  service  which 
originated  in  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury with  the  custom  of  exposing 
the  Blessed  Sacrament.  A  blessing 
with  the  Host  is  given  before  It  is 
taken  from  the  ostensorium  and  re- 
placed in  the  tabernacle. 


Benediction  with  Ciborium  —  A 
less  solemn  form  of  benediction  in 
which  the  Host  remains  in  the  ci- 
borium  and  is  not  visible. 

Benefice  —  Church  property  or 
revenue  attached  to  spiritual  offices 
for  the  support  of  the  clergy. 

Benefit  of  Clergy  —  The  privilege 
of  the  clergy  to  be  exempt  from  the 
jurisdiction  of  civil  courts,  once  in 
effect  in  the  American  colonies, 
now  abolished. 

Benevolence  —  A  disposition  akin 
to  charity,  consisting  in  wishing 
well  for  the  happiness  of  others. 

Betrothal — A  mutual  agreement 
to  marry.  The  contract  to  marry 
must  be  made  in  writing,  signed  by 
the  parties  and,  in  addition,  by 
either  the  pastor  or  the  ordinary  of 
the  place,  or  by  at  least  two  wit- 
nesses, if  neither  the  pastor  nor 
the  ordinary  sign.  If  either  or  both 
parties  be  unable  to  write,  mention 
of  that  fact  must  be  made  in  the 
document,  for  the  validity  of  the 
act,  and  another  witness  must  be 
added  to  sign  the  document. 
Promises  of  marriage  made  accord- 
ing to  the  prescribed  form  will  be 
binding  in  conscience,  but  they  dp 
not  give  rise  any  more  to  the  diri- 
ment impediment  of  public  decency, 
nor  to  any  canonical  prohibiting 
impediment  properly  so  called. 

Betting  —  The  backing  of  an  is- 
sue with  a  sum  of  money,  or  other 
valuables,  binding  in  conscience,  if 
the  object  is  honest,  if  the  two 
parties  have  the  free  disposal  of 
their  stakes,  if  the  bet  is  thorough- 
ly understood  by  both  parties,  and 
if  the  outcome  is  not  known  before- 
hand. Bets  are  often  null  and  void 
in  the  eyes  of  the  law. 

Bible,  The  —  This  name  was  giv- 
en to  the  sacred  books  of  the  Jews 
and  the  Christians.  The  Catholic 
Bible  is  composed  of  a  number  of 
inspired  books  contained  in  the 
Vulgate  translation  and  enumer- 
ated by  the  Council  of  Trent. 

Some  few  Catholic  theologians 
have,  indeed,  maintained  that  the 
Scriptures  may  err  in  minimis  -— 
i.  e.f  in  small  matters  of  historical 
detail  which  in  no  way  affect  faith 
or  morals.  But  in  doing  so,  they  do 


135 


not  contradict  any  express  defini- 
tion of  Pope  or  Council,  though 
such,  an  opinion  has  never  obtained 
any  currency  in  the  Church. 

Secondly,  the  Church  affirms 
that  all  Scripture  is  the  word  of 
God,  but  at  the  same  time  it  main- 
tains that  there  is  an  unwritten 
word  of  God  over  and  above  the 
Scripture.  The  Catholic  view  is 
reasonable.  If  our  Lord  had  meant 
His  Church  to  be  guided  by  a  book, 
and  by  a  book  alone,  He  would 
have  taken  care  that  Christians 
should  be  at  once  provided  with 
sacred  books.  As  a  matter  of  fact, 
He  did  nothing  of  the  kind.  He 
refers  those  who  were  to  embrace 
His  doctrine,  not  to  a  book,  but  to 
the  living  voice  of  His  apostles 
and  of  His  Church.  "He  who 
heareth  you/'  He  said  to  the  apos- 
tles, "heareth  Me,"  Scripture  is  a 
source,  but  by  no  means  the  only 
source,  of  Christian  doctrine.  We 
must  also  appeal  to  the  tradition 
of  the  Church.  The  Church  from 
the  beginning  taught  by  word  and 
letter. 

Again,  it  belongs  to  the  Church, 
and  to  the  Church  alone,  to  deter- 
mine the  true  sense  of  the  Scrip- 
ture; we  cannot  interpret  contrary 
to  the  Church's  decision,  or  to  "the 
unanimous  consent  of  the  Fathers," 
without  making  shipwreck  of  the 
Faith.  The  Catholic  is  fully  justi- 
fied in  believing  with  perfect  con- 
fidence that  the  Church  cannot 
teach  any  doctrine  contrary  to  the 
Scriptures,  for  our  Lord  has  prom- 
ised that  the  gates  of  hell  shall  not 
prevail  against  His  Church.  On  the 
other  hand,  Christ  has  made  no 
promise  of  infallibility  to  those  who 
expound  Scripture  by  the  light  of 
private  judgment. 

It  is  not  necessary  for  all  Chris- 
tians to  read  the  Bible.  Many  na- 
tions, without  knowledge  of  letters, 
without  a  Bible  in  their  own 
tongue,  received  from  the  Church 
teaching  which  was  quite  sufficient 
for  the  salvation  of  their  souls.  In- 
deed, if  the  study  of  the  Bible  had 
been  an  indispensable  requisite,  a 
great  part  of  the  human  race  would 
have  been  left  without  the  means 


of  grace  till  the  invention  of  print- 
ing. More  than  this,  parts  of  the 
Bible  are  evidently  unsuited  to  the 
very  young  or  to  the  ignorant,  and 
hence  Clement  XI  condemned  the 
proposition  that  "the  reading  of 
Scripture  is  for  all." 

Bible  in  Public  Schools  —  The 
practice  of  reading  the  Bible  in  the 
public  schools  has  been  opposed  by 
non-Christians  and  Catholics,  as 
generally  only  Protestant  versions 
are  used.  Catholic  school  teachers 
in  the  public  schools  enjoined  upon 
to  read  the  Bible  may  compare  the 
Catholic  with  the  Protestant  ver- 
sions and  read  verses  common  to 
both. 

Bigamy  —  The  contracting  of  a 
marriage  while  a  previous  one  is 
still  binding. 

Bigotry  —  Ignorant  adherence  to 
a  belief,  opinion,  or  practice,  com- 
bined with  intolerance  of  others 
holding  different  views, 

Bi  nation  —  The  celebration  of 
Mass  twice  in  one  day  by  the  same 
priest,  permitted  when  there  are 
not  enough  priests  to  satisfy  the 
needs  of  a  community. 

Biretta  —  A  stiff  square  cap  with 
a  number  of  ridges  on  top  worn 
by  clerics  when  entering  the  sanc- 
tuary and  at  other  times. 

Birth  Control  —  The  prevention 
of  pregnancy,  condemned  by  the 
Church  as  intrinsically  evil  because 
it  defeats  the  primary  purpose  of 
marriage,  i,  e.,  the  procreation  of 
children,  and  lessens  the  respect  of 
husband  and  wife,  fulfilling  only 
the  secondary  and  baser  purpose  of 
allaying  concupiscence. 

Blasphemy  —  Evil,  contumelious 
or  reproachful  language  directed  at 
or  concerning  God. 

Bollandists — Belgian  Jesuits,  edi- 
tors of  the  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  an 
extensive  collection  of  research  in- 
to the  lives  of  the  saints. 

Breviary  —  A  book  containing  an 
abridgment  of  psalms,  antiphons, 
responses,  hymns,  and  selected 
parts  of  Holy  Scripture.  It  has 
been  in  use  from  the  infancy  of 
the  Church,  though  it  has  been  sub- 
ject to  many  revisions.  In  the  pres- 
ent breviary  we  have  seven  hours 


136 


corresponding  to  Matins  with 
Lauds,  Prime,  Tierce,  Sext,  None, 
Vespers  and  Compline. 

Bribery  —  An  immoral  act  aiming 
to  defeat  justice  by  influencing 
those  in  office  to  act  in  a  particular 
manner  for  a  stipulated  sum  of 
money  or  other  valuables. 

Brief  —  A  letter  issued  by  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff  at  Home,  written 
on  fine  parchment  in  modern  char- 
acters, subscribed  by  the  Pope's 
secretary  of  briefs,  and  sealed  with 
the  Pope's  signet-ring,  the  Seal  of 
the  Fisherman. 

Brothers  —  Members  of  religious 
congregations  and  orders  of  men 
who  follow  a  rule  of  life  for  the 
purpose  of  realizing  personal  sane- 
tification  and  who  perform  works 
of  Christian  charity. 

Bull  —  So  named  from  the  bulla 
(or  round  leaden  seal,  having  on. 
one  side  a  representation  of  SS. 
Peter  and  Paul,  and  on  the  other 
the  name  of  the  reigning  Pope), 
which  is  attached  to  the  document 
(by  a  silken  cord  if  it  be  a  bull 
of  grace,  and  by  one  of  hemp  if  a 
bull  of  justice)  and  which  gives 
authenticity  to  it. 

Bullarium  —  A  collection  of  papal 
bulls.  That  of  Cocquelines  contain- 
ing the  bulls  of  all  popes  from  Leo 
the  Great  to  Benedict  XIII  is  the 
most  famous. 

Burial  —  Interment  with  ecclesi- 
astical rites  and  in  consecrated 
ground  granted  to  all  baptized,  con- 
verts and  catechumens;  denied  to 
apostates,  heretics,  schismatics, 
Freemasons,  etc.,  those  excommuni- 
cated, deliberate  suicides,  duelists, 
those  who  have  ordered  their  bod- 
ies cremated,  and  public  sinners. 

Burse — A  square  case  into  which 
the  priest  puts  the  corporal  which 
is  to  be  used  in  Mass;  a  fund  for 
the  education  of  poor  students. 

Calendar,  Ecclesiastical — An  ar- 
rangement founded  on  the  Julian- 
Gregorian  determinations  of  the 
civil  year,  marking  the  days  set 
apart  for  particular  celebration. 

Calumny  —  Lying  about  one's 
neighbor.  Imputing  to  him  faults 
of  which  he  is  not  guilty. 


Calvary  —  The  hill  near  Jeru- 
salem where  Christ  was  crucified, 
so  called  from  the  Latin  word 
calvaria,  meaning  skull,  from  the 
shape  of  the  eminence. 

Candelabrum  —  Name  applied  to 
a  chandelier  for  lamps,  now  also 
applied  to  a  candlestick,  generally 
one  holding  a  number  of  lights. 

Candles — When  used  for  liturgi- 
cal purposes,  candles  should  be 
made  of  pure  virgin  beeswax,  typi- 
fying the  flesh  of  Christ,  Who  was 
born  of  a  virgin  Mother.  The  wick 
symbolizes  the  soul  of  Christ  and 
the  flame  His  divinity  absorbing 
and  dominating  both  body  and  soul. 
Candles  are  blessed  and  distributed 
to  the  faithful  for  use  in  the  home 
on  Candlemas  day,  the  feast  of  the 
Purification  of  the  Blessed  Virgin, 
celebrated  on  February  2.  Blessed 
candles  are  a  sacramental.  Every 
Catholic  home  should  have  at  least 
one,  to  be  lighted  when  the  Blessed 
Sacrament  is  brought  to  the  sick. 

Candlestick  —  A  symbol  of  the 
Eucharist.  Six  are  placed  on  the 
main  altar,  three  on  either  side  of 
the  crucifix. 

Canonical  Hours  —  Times  set 
apart  for  the  recitation  of  the  Di- 
vine Office:  Prime,  meaning  first 
hour;  Tierce,  the  third;  Sext,  the 
sixth;  None,  the  ninth;  Vespers, 
evening,  and  Compline,  the  last. 
Matins  and  Lauds  are  recited  in 
the  morning. 

Canonization  —  A  papal  declara- 
tion that  one  already  beatified  is  to 
be  regarded  as  a  saint  and  to  be 
venerated  everywhere.  Proof  of  two 
miracles  through  intercession  must 
first  be  accepted  as  having  occurred 
after  beatification.  The  celebration 
of  canonization  is  solemnly  held  at 
St.  Peter's,  Home. 

Canon  Law  —  Canon  Law  is  the 
assemblage  of  rules  or  laws  relat- 
ing to  faith,  morals  and  discipline, 
prescribed  or  propounded  to  Chris- 
tians by  ecclesiastical  authority. 
These  are  binding  laws  and  liable 
to  be  enforced  by  penalties.  In  the 
early  Church  whenever  a  difficult 
case  was  set  before  a  bishop,  he 
had  three  things  to  guide  him: 
Scripture,  tradition  and  the  holy 


137 


canons.  The  latter  were  the  dis- 
ciplinary rules  which  Church  syn- 
ods, beginning  with  the  Council  of 
Jerusalem,  had  established.  A  new 
code  came  into  use  in  1918  and 
contains  five  books,  covering  gen- 
eral rules,  ecclesiastical  persons, 
sacred  things,  trials,  crimes  and 
punishments. 

Canon  of  Scripture  —  The  list  of 
inspired  books  accepted  by  the 
Church  as  books  of  the  Bible. 

Canopy  —  A  cloth,  wood,  or  metal 
covering  for  an  altar  or  throne  for 
dignitaries;  also  a  white  cloth  car- 
ried over  the  Blessed  Sacrament  in 
procession. 

Cantata  —  Originally  meant  a 
story  set  to  music  for  one  or  two 
voices;  now  generally  applied  to 
choral  music. 

Canticle  —  A  sacred  scriptural 
chant  or  prayer  differing  from  the 
psalms,  used  in  the  Divine  Office, 
such  as  the  Benedictus  and  Magni- 
ficat. 

Capital  Sins  —  Grave  offenses 
which  give  rise  to  many  more  sins. 
They  are :  pride,  covetousness,  lust, 
anger,  gluttony,  envy,  sloth.  The 
opposite  virtues  are:  humility,  lib- 
erality, chastity,  meekness,  temper- 
ance, brotherly  love,  diligence. 

Cappa  Magna  —  A  long  garment 
with  a  train,  lined  with  silk  or  fur, 
worn  by  bishops  and  cardinals. 

Cardinal  —  The  cardinals  are 
commonly  known  as  the  princes  of 
the  Church.  They  owe  their  appoint- 
ment solely  to  the  Pope  and  are 
chosen  usually  from  among  those 
priests  and  bishops  notable  for 
their  learning,  piety  and  prudence. 

The  duties  of  the  cardinals  are 
twofold.  They  take  an  active  part 
in  the  government  of  the  universal 
Church;  and  at  a  vacancy  of  the 
Holy  See,  their  duties  are  confined 
to  protecting  the  Church  and  main- 
taining all  things  in  their  due  or- 
der, till  a  conclave  can  be  assem- 
bled for  the  election  of  a  new  Pope, 
who  is  chosen  from  among  them. 
According  to  a  regulation  made  by 
Sixtus  Y,  their  number  is  not  to 
exceed  seventy  of  whom  six  are 
cardinal  bishops,  residing  In  Rome 
and  administering  the  suburbicari- 


an  sees  (these  number  seven  but 
two  are  frequently  united),  fifty 
are  cardinal  priests,  charged  with 
the  spiritual  ministry  of  the  faith- 
ful, and  fourteen  are  cardinal  dea- 
cons who  exercise  the  ministry  of 
material  charity:  distribution  of 
alms,  care  of  hospitals,  orphanages, 
etc.  By  Canon  Law  today  all  car- 
dinals must  be  priests  and  at  least 
twenty-four  years  of  age,  and  all 
are  made  members  of  one  or  more 
of  the  Roman  Congregations. 

Cardinal  Protector  —  A  cardinal 
entrusted  with  the  care  of  a  par- 
ticular religious  group. 

Cardinal  Virtues  —  The  four  prin- 
cipal virtues  of  justice,  prudence, 
temperance  and  fortitude. 

Cases  of  Conscience  —  Problems 
exemplifying  the  application  of  the 
moral  and  canon  law,  such  as  in 
the  case  of  a  thief:  in  how  far  he 
is  obliged  to  make  restitution. 

Cassock  —  A  gown  worn  by  cler- 
ics and  priests  —  usually  black  for 
priests,  purple  for  bishops  and  prel- 
ates, red  for  cardinals,  white  for 
the  Pope. 

Catacombs  —  In  the  days  of  the 
early  Church,  the  Christians  were 
subject  to  many  and  vigorous  per- 
secutions. It  was  necessary,  there- 
fore, that  they  should  bury  their 
dead  and  hold  public  worship  in 
places  far  removed  from  the  eyes 
of  their  persecutors.  Hence  the 
catacombs,  which  were  long  subter- 
ranean passageways,  whose  walls 
were  lined  on  both  sides  with 
niches  in  which  the  dead  were 
buried.  These  niches  were  sealed 
with  a  slab  set  in  mortar.  There 
were  places  where  these  tunnels 
widened  out  so  as  to  make  room  for 
a  moderate  assembly  of  the  faith- 
ful, and  it  was  in  these  chapels  that 
Mass  was  celebrated  upon  altars  of 
stone.  Sometimes  there  were  three 
or  four  stories  to  these  catacombs, 
each  hallowed  out  underneath  the 
preceding  one  as  a  necessity  arose. 

During  the  first  two  centuries  the 
Christians  used  the  catacombs  in 
peace  and  safety.  During  this  time 
the  underground  chambers  were 
decorated  with  painting  and  sculp- 
ture. With  the  third  century  per- 


138 


secution  became  fierce  and  in  nu- 
merous cases  the  Christians  were 
followed  to  their  catacombs  and 
there  martyred.  After  the  third 
century  they  become  a  place  of 
pilgrimage.  During  the  seventh  and 
eighth  centuries  the  Lombard  in- 
vaders desecrated,  plundered  and 
partly  destroyed  them.  After  this 
they  were  for  the  most  part  closed 
and  by  many  forgotten,  and  it  was 
not  until  the  sixteenth  century  that 
interest  in  them  revived. 

Catafalque  —  An  erection  like  a 
bier  during  the  Masses  of  the  dead, 
when  the  corpse  itself  is  not  there, 
covered  with  black  cloth  and  sur- 
rounded by  candles. 

Catechism — A  summary  of  Chris- 
tian doctrine  usually  in  the  form  of 
question  and  answer  for  the  in- 
struction of  Christian  people. 

Catechumen — One  undergoing  in- 
struction before  Baptism  and  recep- 
tion into  the  Church. 

Cathedra  —  The  chair  throne  on 
which  the  Bishop  sits  during  church 
functions.  The  term  refers  to  pro- 
nouncements made  by  the  Pope 
from  the  Chair  of  Peter. 

Cathedral  —  Official  church  of  a 
bishop. 

Cathedral  Schools  —  Church 
schools  introduced  in  the  eighth 
century  resembling  somewhat  the 
public  schools  of  today  and  in  use 
up  to  the  eighteenth  century. 

Cathedraticum  —  The  annual  tax 
paid  by  all  churches  and  benefices 
subject  to  a  bishop,  for  his  support. 

Catholic  —  Term  meaning  univer- 
sal. It  was  applied  to  the  early 
church  to  distinguish  it  from  heret- 
ical sects.  It  is  one  of  the  marks 
of  the  true  church. 

Catholic  Action  —  "The  participa- 
tion of  the  laity  in  the  apostolate 
of  the  hierarchy"  (Pope  Pius  XI), 
by  the  pursuit  of  personal  Chris- 
tian perfection  and  a  union  of  all 
classes  around  those  centers  of 
sound  doctrine  and  multiple  social 
activity  sustained  by  the  authority 
of  the  bishops. 

Catholic  Church — A  divinely  in- 
stituted society  with  members  in 


every  land  believing  the  same 
truths,  ruled  by  the  successors  of 
St.  Peter.  The  total  membership  is 
about  335,000,000. 

Catholic  Encyclopedia  —  A  work 
of  reference  on  the  constitution, 
doctrine,  discipline  and  history  of 
the  Catholic  Church,  completed  in 
1914  and  now  being  revised. 

Celibacy  —  An  ecclesiastical  law 
of  the  Western  Church  binding  all 
its  clerics  in  major  orders,  in  virtue 
of  the  dignity  and  the  duties  of  the 
sacred  priesthood,  to  refrain  from 
entering  the  marriage  state. 

Censer — A  metal  vessel  in  which 
incense  is  burned,  with  a  cover  sus- 
pended by  chains;  swung  before 
the  Blessed  Sacrament  and  used  to 
incense  priests  and  people. 

Censorship  —  Examination  before 
publication  of  religious  writings  by 
a  priest  especially  appointed  to  the 
task.  Nihil  Obstat  on  a  book  means 
that  it  has  been  examined  and  that 
nothing  hinders  its  publication. 

Censure  —  A  spiritual  penalty 
imposed  by  the  Church  for  the  cor- 
rection and  amendment  of  offend- 
ers. This  is  the  case  with  those 
who  have  committed  a  crime  and 
are  contumacious,  and  are  deprived 
of  the  use  of  certain  spiritual  ad- 
vantages. Censures  are  divided  ac- 
cording to  their  nature  and  the 
extent  of  punishment  they  inflict. 

Ceremonies  —  External  acts,  ges- 
tures or  movements  that  accom- 
pany prayers  and  public  worship. 

Chained  Bibles  —  Bibles  chained 
to  a  wall  or  table  in  the  Middle 
Ages  to  save  them  from  stealth. 
Contrary  to  a  widespread  and  false 
opinion  among  Protestants,  they 
were  so  secured  to  afford  people 
the  opportunity  of  reading  the 
Scriptures  rather  than  prevent 
them  from  doing  so.  Protestants 
themselves  chained  Bibles. 

Chalice  —  The  precious  cup  used 
in  Mass  for  the  wine  which  is  to 
be  consecrated.  The  chalice  must 
be  consecrated  by  the  bishop  and 
cannot  be  touched  except  by  per- 
sons in  Holy  Orders. 

Chamberlain  —  The  title  of  sev- 
eral classes  of  palace  officials  of 
the  Roman  Court. 


139 


Chancel  —  Part  of  the  choir  near 
the  altar. 

Chancellor — Ecclesiastical  notary 
of  a  diocese  who  draws  Tip  all  writ- 
ten documents  in  the  government 
of  the  diocese,  takes  care  of,  ar- 
ranges and  indexes  diocesan  ar- 
chives, records  of  dispensations 
and  Church  trials. 

Chancery  —  A  branch  of  Church 
administration  that  handles  all 
written  documents  used  in  the  gov- 
ernment of  a  diocese. 

Chant  is  the  music  proper  (but 
not  exclusively  so)  to  the  liturgy  of 
the  Catholic  Church.  It  is  the  "ve- 
hicle of  the  sacred  text"  which  the 
Church  uses  when  she  sings  her 
dogmas.  It  is  a  unisonous,  diatonic, 
simple  or  florid  melody  moving 
with  free  rhythm  in  one  or  more 
of  the  eight  modes. 

Chapel  —  An  informal  church  of- 
tentimes attached  to  a  larger  edi- 
fice. There  are  many  kinds,  such 
as  cemetery  chapels,  lady  chapels, 
wayside  chapels. 

Chaplain  —  A  priest  appointed  by 
the  bishop  to  care  for  the  spiritual 
welfare  of  a  part  of  the  army,  re- 
ligious communities  or  institutions. 

Chap  let — One-third  of  the  rosary, 
or  fifty-five  beads  on  which  are  re- 
cited fifty  Hail  Marys  and  five  Our 
Fathers. 

Chapter  —  A  general  meeting  of 
delegates  of  certain  religious  or- 
ders to  consider  important  inter- 
ests of  their  communities. 

Charity  —  A  supernatural,  in- 
fused virtue  by  which  God  is  loved 
for  His  own  sake.  This  motive  is 
necessary  for  charity  in  the  true 
sense  of  the  word. 

Chastity  —  A  moral  virtue,  op- 
posed to  lust,  by  which  is  moder- 
ated, in  the  case  of  the  married, 
and  excluded,  in  the  case  of  the 
unmarried,  the  desire  to  indulge  in 
carnal  pleasure.  It  may  also  be  con- 
sidered as  one  of  the  three  Vows 
of  Religion. 

Cherubim  —  The  second  among 
the  nine  choirs  of  angels. 

Children  of  Mary — Sodalities  of 
our  Lady  for  women  and  girls;  in 
existence  for  the  past  century. 


Chrism  —  A  mixture  of  olive  oil 
and  balm,  blessed  by  the  bishop 
and  used  in  the  Church  in  Confirma- 
tion, Baptism  and  other  ceremonies. 
The  oil  signifies  fullness  of  grace 
and  the  balm  mixed  with  it  signi- 
fies incorruption, 

Christ  —  The  Greek  word  Chriitos 
meaning  "Anointed,"  is  a  transla- 
tion of  the  Hebrew  word  Messiah, 
designating  the  King  who,  for  the 
Jews,  was  to  come.  Thus,  when  our 
Lord  came,  "the  Christ"  was  His 
official  title,  while  "Jesus"  was  His 
ordinary  name. 

The  work  and  office  of  Christ: 
Christ  came  chiefly  to  take  away 
sin,  to  teach,  to  be  the  Head  of  the 
Church,  to  hold  the  supreme  king- 
ly, priestly,  and  judicial  power,  and, 
finally,  by  His  vicarious  atonement 
on  the  cross,  to  suffer  and  die  for 
us,  thus  effecting  the  remission  of 
our  sins,  and  enabling  us  once  more 
to  become  heirs  to  the  Kingdom  of 
Heaven. 

Christians — A  name  first  applied 
about  the  year  43  to  the  followers 
of  Christ  at  Antioch,  the  capital  of 
Syria.  It  was  used  by  the  pagans 
as  a  contemptuous  term.  The  Jews 
did  not  use  it,  but  rather  chose  to 
call  the  followers  of  the  new  re- 
ligion "Nazarenes,"  or  "Galileans." 
Probably  the  term  arose  from  a 
mistaken  conception  of  the  word 
"Christus,"  it  being  taken  as  a 
proper  name,  whereas  it  means 
"The  Anointed."  The  term  as  used 
today  designates:  (1)  true  imita- 
tors of  the  life  of  Christ,  (2)  Cath- 
olics, (3)  all  baptized  persons  be- 
lieving in  Christ,  in  counter-dis- 
tinction to  Jews  and  heathens. 

Church  —  From  the  Greek  Kuria- 
kon,  meaning  "house,"  used  to  des- 
ignate the  House  of  God  from  the 
beginning  of  the  fourth  century. 
Private  houses  were  first  used  for 
this  purpose,  but  at  the  beginning 
of  the  third  century,  churches, 
properly  so-called,  began  to  be 
erected.  After  the  universal  tolera- 
tion granted  to  the  Church  by  the 
Emperor  Constantine  (in  the  Edict 
of  Milan,  313),  these  assumed  large 
and  magnificent  proportions. 
Churches,  particularly  the  early 


140 


ones,  ordinarily  had  the  sanctuary 
in  the  East  end,  facing  the  rising 
sun,  and  were  divided  into  respec- 
tive parts,  for  the  bishops  and 
priests  (presbyterium),  and  for  the 
laity  (the  nave) .  This  last  was  again 
divided  into  parts  for  the  men  and 
women,  and  the  different  classes 
of  the  faithful,  according  to  their 
rank  in  the  Church.  The  chief 
church  of  the  diocese  is  called  the 
cathedral. 

Church  and  State  — Where  Cath- 
olicism is  the  religion  of  the  ma- 
jority of  the  people,  as  in  Italy  to- 
day, the  Church  endeavors  to  work 
harmoniously  with  the  State,  since 
the  two  have  jurisdiction  over  the 
same  persons.  In  the  case  of  a  dis- 
agreement, the  authority  of  the 
Church  should  prevail  over  the 
State  or  some  agreement  be  made 
between  them. 

Churching — A  pious  and  laudable 
custom,  reserved  for  women  who 
have  borne  children  in  wedlock. 
Properly  speaking,  it  is  to  be  per- 
formed by  the  parish  priest.  Having 
sprinkled  the  woman  with  holy 
water  in  the  form  of  a  cross,  the 
priest  says  a  prayer  of  thanksgiv- 
ing, blesses  her,  and  in  these  words 
invites  her:  "Come  into  the  temple 
of  God.  Adore  the  Son  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  who  has  given 
thee  fruitfulness  in  childbearing." 

Church  Militant  —  The  faithful 
still  living  on  earth  as  distinct  from 
the  Church  Suffering  in  purgatory 
and  the  Church  Triumphant  in 
heaven. 

Church  Unity  Octave  —  Eight 
days  of  prayer  offered  from  Janu- 
ary 18  to  January  25,  that  all  lapsed 
Catholics  return  to  the  Church,  and 
all  those  outside  the  Church  be  con- 
verted. This  devotion  was  started 
by  the  Friars  of  the  Atonement 
about  1910. 

Ciborium  —  The  vessel  in  which 
the  Sacred  Hosts  are  kept  for  dis- 
tribution at  Communion. 

Circumcision  —  A  custom  ob- 
served by  the  Jews  as  a  sign  of  the 
covenant  between  God  and  Abra- 
ham. The  circumcision  of  the  Child 
Jesus  out  of  reverence  for  the  law 
is  commemorated  by  the  Church  on 
January  1. 


Clandestinity  —  Illegal  secrecy, 
an  impediment  to  valid  marriage 
if  the  ceremony  be  performed  by 
any  other  than  the  parish  priest  or 
bishop  of  the  diocese  or  delegate  of 
either. 

Clergy,  Married  —  Oriental  cler- 
ics may  not  licitly,  and  more  prob- 
ably not  validly,  marry  after  the 
reception  of  the  subdeaconship.  If 
they  have  been  married  before  that 
time,  they  may  use  marriage  rights. 

Clergy,  Religious  —  Clergy  who 
take  the  vows  of  poverty,  chastity 
and  obedience  and  who  are  subject 
to  a  religious  superior.  They  are 
also  called  "regular"  clergy  because 
they  observe  a  rule  of  life. 

Clergy,  Secular  —  Clergy  imme- 
diately subject  to  a  bishop  of  a  dio- 
cese, devoted  to  ordinary  parochial 
work  and  the  administration  of  the 
Church  throughout  the  world.  They 
take  a  vow  of  chastity  and  make  a 
promise  of  obedience  to  their  bish- 
ops. 

Cleric  —  One  who  has  been  as- 
signed to  the  Divine  ministry  by 
the  reception  of  the  clerical  ton- 
sure, and  thus  rendered  capable  of 
obtaining  the  power  of  orders  and 
jurisdiction,  benefices  and  pen- 
sions; loosely  used  to  designate 
also  one  who  enjoys  the  clerical 
privileges  of  immunity  and  exemp- 
tion, such  as  a  religious,  a  novice, 
or  a  member  of  a  society  having 
community  life  without  vows. 

Clericalism  —  Term  used  by  Free- 
thinkers for  the  application  of 
moral  principles  to  economic,  social 
and  political  matters  and  for  what 
is  termed  the  exaggerated  claims 
of  the  clergy. 

Cloister — The  enclosure  of  a  con- 
vent or  monastery,  which  the  en- 
closed may  not  freely  leave  or  out- 
siders enter. 

Closed  Times  —  Seasons  of  the 
year  when  the  nuptial  blessing  is 
not  given,  except  with  special  per- 
mission: during  Advent  and  Lent, 
on  Christmas  and  Easter  Sunday. 

Coadjutor  Bishop  —  A  Bishop  de- 
puted by  the  Holy  See  to  assist  the 
diocesan  bishop  in  the  administra- 
tion of  a  diocese  or  in  pontifical 
functions.  Also  called  Auxiliary. 


141 


Code  —  A  digest  of  rules  or  regu- 
lations such  as  the  Code  of  Canon 
Law. 

Coeducation  —  Arguments  in  fa- 
vor of  the  education  of  both  sexes 
without  consideration  of  sex  are: 
economy,  better  discipline,  and 
beneficial  social  intercourse.  Ob- 
jections are  that  boys  can  and 
should  be  subjected  to  a  stricter 
regimen  than  girls  and  that  the  low- 
ering of  sex  tension  leads  to  in- 
difference and  grave  moral  evils. 
Coeducation  is  not  generally  em- 
ployed in  Catholic  secondary  schools. 

College,  Sacred  —  The  body  of 
cardinals. 

Colors,  Qturgica!  —  The  colors 
approved  by  the  Church  for  use  in 
public  worship.  Certain  colors  are 
prescribed  for  certain  feasts.  Dra- 
peries of  the  altar  and  vestments 
of  the  clergy  are  white,  red,  green, 
violet  or  black,  according  to  the 
Office  of  the  day. 

Commandments  of  God  —  The 
"Decalogue"  or  "ten  words"  writ- 
ten by  the  finger  of  God  on  two 
tablets  of  stone,  and  given  to  Moses 
on  Mt  Sinai.  As  defined  by  the 
Council  of  Trent,  they  bind  the 
conscience  of  all  mankind,  mani- 
festing to  us  God's  will  in  our  be- 
half, and,  by  their  observance,  en- 
able us  to  attain  to  everlasting 
salvation.  They  are: 

1.  I  am  the  Lord  thy  God.  Thou 
shalt  not  have  strange  gods  before 
Me. 

2.  Thou  shalt  not  take  the  name 
of  the  Lord,  thy  God,  in  vain. 

3.  Remember  thou  keep  holy  the 
Sabbath  day. 

4.  Honor    thy    father    and    thy 
mother. 

5.  Thou  shalt  not  kill. 

6.  Thou  shalt  not  commit  adul- 
tery. 

7.  Thou  shalt  not  steal. 

8.  Thou  shalt  not  bear  false  wit- 
ness against  thy  neighbor. 

9.  Thou  shalt  not  covet  thy  neigh- 
bor's wife. 

10.  Thou    shalt    not    covet    thy 
neighbor's  goods. 

Commandments  of  the  Church — ; 
The  Church,  being  our  mother,  and 
having  the  deposit  of  faith  to  pre- 


serve and  make  known  to  us,  there- 
fore has  the  power  to  make  rules 
for  us.  Thus  she  commands  us: 

1.  To  hear  Mass  on  Sundays  and 
holy  days  of  obligation. 

2.  To   fast   and   abstain   on   the 
days  appointed. 

3.  To  confess  at  least  once  a  year. 

4.  To  receive  the  Holy  Eucharist 
during  the  Easter  time. 

5.  To  contribute  to  the  support 
of  our  pastors, 

6.  Not  to  marry  persons  who  are 
not  Catholics,  or  who  are  related 
to  us   within  the  third  degree   of 
kindred,  nor  privately  without  wit- 
nesses, nor  to  solemnize  marriage 
at  forbidden  times. 

Commissariat  of  the  Holy  Land — 
A  territory  assigned  to  the  Friars 
Minor  for  the  purpose  of  collecting 
alms  for  the  holy  places  in  Pales- 
tine. There  are  some  forty  through- 
out the  world,  one  being  located  at 
Mt.  St.  Sepulchre,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Communion  —  It  is  a  tenet  of  the 
Catholic  faith  that  the  Body  and 
Blood,  Soul  and  Divinity  of  Jesus 
Christ  are  given  in  the  Communion, 
and  that  Christ  is  received  whole 
and  entire  under  either  species, 
i.  e.,  under  the  form  of  bread  alone, 
or  wine  alone. 

Communion,  Frequent  —  The 
Church  exhorts  the  faithful  to  re- 
ceive daily,  if  possible.  It  is  recom- 
mended to  keep  free  from  venial 
sin  in  order  to  receive  more  worth- 
ily. The  practice  of  frequent  Com- 
munion was  introduced  by  Pius  X. 

Communion  of  Saints — The  union 
of  the  faithful  in  heaven,  on  earth 
and  in  purgatory.  Belief  in  the 
Communion  of  Saints  is  expressed 
in  the  ninth  article  of  the  Apostles' 
Creed.  According  to  the  teaching  of 
the  Church,  it  is  added  as  an  ex- 
planation of  the  preceding  article, 
"I  believe  in  the  Holy  Catholic 
Church."  It  embraces  the  Church 
Triumphant,  the  Church  Militant, 
and  the  Church  Suffering.  The 
faithful  here  upon  earth  are  in 
communication  with  each  other  by 
their  good  works,  charity  and  pray- 
ers. Our  communication  with  the 
poor  souls  consists  in  our  praying 
for  their  liberation  from  the  cleans- 
ing fires  of  purgatory.  We  are  in 


142 


communion  with  the  elect  in  heaven 
when  we  ask  them  to  intercede  to 
God  in  our  behalf,  by  honoring  and 
imitating  them  and  by  obtaining 
their  help  and  prayers, 

Communism  —  A  social  or  eco- 
nomic system  founded  on  the  com- 
munity of  goods.  In  political  prac- 
tice it  involves  absolute  control  by 
the  community  in  all  matters  per- 
taining to  labor,  religion  and  social 
relations.  It  embodies  the  princi- 
ples of  Karl  Marx.  Actually  it  has 
become  a  philosophy  of  life  direct- 
ing men  to  merely  material  ends, 
and  militantly  combats  religion;  as 
in  Russia  today.  Pope  Pius  XI  on 
March  19,  1937,  issued  the  encycli- 
cal, "Divini  Redemptoris,"  on  Athe- 
istic Communism. 

Concelebration  —  In  the  Western 
Church  this  rite  is  now  used  only 
at  the  ordination  of  priests  and  the 
consecration  of  bishops  when  sev- 
eral priests  say  Mass  together,  all 
consecrating  the  same  bread  and 
wine.  In  all  Eastern  Churches  con- 
celebration  is  common. 

Conclave  —  This  term  is  applied 
to  the  place  where  the  cardinals 
assemble  for  the  election  of  a  new 
pope,  and  to  the  assembly  itself. 
In  a  General  Council  held  at  the 
Lateran  in  1179,  it  was  decreed 
that  the  election  should  henceforth 
rest  with  the  cardinals  alone,  and 
that,  in  order  to  be  canonical,  it 
must  be  supported  by  two-thirds  of 
their  number.  After  the  death  of  a 
pope,  the  cardinals  who  are  absent 
are  immediately  to  be  summoned 
to  the  conclave  by  one  of  the  secre- 
taries of  the  Sacred  College;  the 
election  is  to  begin  on  the  fifteenth 
or  the  eighteenth  day  after  the 
death.  Originally  this  period  was  for 
ten  days,  but,  to  allow  those  at  a 
great  distance  to  arrive  on  time,  the 
period  was  lengthened  to  fifteen  or 
eighteen  days  at  the  most.  On  the 
day  on  which  the  conclave  officially 
begins  a  solemn  Mass  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  is  said  in  the  Pauline  Chapel, 
and  after  it  the  cardinals  form  a 
procession  and  proceed  to  the  Sis- 
tine  Chapel  where  the  voting  takes 
place.  During  the  conclave  the  car- 
dinals occupy  apartments  in  the 
Vatican  Palace.  After  three  days  the 


amount  of  food  sent  in  is  restricted; 
if  five  more  days  elapse  without  an 
election  being  made,  the  rule  used 
to  be  that  the  cardinals  should 
from  that  time  subsist  on  nothing 
but  bread,  wine,  and  water;  but 
this  rigor  has  been  modified.  Morn- 
ing and  evening,  the  cardinals  meet 
in  the  chapel,  and  a  secret  scrutiny 
is  usually  instituted,  in  order  to 
ascertain  whether  any  candidate 
has  the  required  majority  of  two- 
thirds.  A  cardinal  coming  from  a 
distance  can  enter  the  conclave 
after  the  closure,  but  only  if  he 
claims  the  right  of  doing  so  within 
three  days  of  his  arrival  in  the 
city.  There  are  three  valid  modes 
of  election:  by  scrutiny,  by  com- 
promise, and  by  what  is  called 
quasi-inspiration.  Compromise  oc- 
curs when  all  the  cardinals  agree 
to  entrust  the  election  to  a  small 
committee  of  two  or  three  members 
of  the  body.  Scrutiny  is  the  or- 
dinary mode;  elections  have  usu- 
ally been  made  by  this  mode  with 
reasonable  dispatch.  However,  ow- 
ing to  the  disturbances  of  the  times, 
the  conclave  of  1799,  at  which  Pius 
VII  was  elected,  lasted  six  months. 

Concordat  —  From  Lat.  concordata, 
"things  agreed  upon."  A  treaty  be- 
tween the  Holy  See  and  a  secular 
state  touching  the  conservation 
and  promotion  of  the  interests  of 
religion  in  that  state. 

Concubinage  —  Unlawful  inter- 
course between  a  man  and  woman 
living  together  more  or  less  per- 
manently. 

Concupiscence  —  A  desire  of  the 
lower  appetite  contrary  to  reason: 
"the  flesh  lusteth  against  the 
spirit."  According  to  the  Catholic 
view,  if  the  rational  will  resists 
such  inordinate  desires  there  is  no 
sin.  The  Protestant  view  holds  con- 
cupiscence is  of  itself  sinful,  identi- 
fying it  with  original  sin. 

Confession  —  Sacramental  Con- 
fession consists  of  accusing  our- 
selves of  our  sins  to  a  priest  who 
has  received  authority  to  give  ab- 
solution. Confession  must  be:  (1) 
entire,  (2)  vocal,  (3)  accompanied 
by  supernatural  sorrow  and  firm 
purpose  of  amendment,  (4)  humble. 


144 


and  sincere.  The  form  of  Confes- 
sion is  as  follows:  The  penitent, 
kneeling  at  the  confessor's  feet, 
says:  "Pray,  Father,  bless  me,  for 
I  have  sinned.*'  The  priest  gives 
the  blessing  prescribed  in  the  Ro- 
man ritual,  "The  Lord  be  in  thy 
heart  and  on  thy  lips,  that  thou 
mayest  truly  and  humbly  confess 
thy  sins,  in  the  name  of  the  Fa- 
ther, and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the 
Holy  Ghost."  The  penitent  then 
enumerates  the  sins  of  which  he 
has  been  guilty  since  his  last  con- 
fession, and  adds,  "For  these  and 
all  other  sins  which  I  cannot  now 
remember  I  am  heartily  sorry;  I 
purpose  amendment  for  the  future, 
and  most  humbly  ask  pardon  of 
God,  and  penance  and  absolution  of 
you,  my  Spiritual  Father." 

Confessional  —  This  is  the  seat 
which  the  priest  uses  when  hear- 
ing confessions.  According  to  the 
Roman  ritual,  it  ought  to  be  placed 
in  an  open  and  conspicuous  part  of 
the  church,  and  to  have  a  grating 
between  the  priest  and  the  peni- 
tent. The  division  of  the  confes- 
sional into  compartments  does  not 
appear  to  go  back  further  than  the 
sixteenth  century.  This  arrange- 
ment became  general  in  the  follow- 
ing century. 

Confessor  —  In  modern  Church 
usage,  this  term  refers  to  a  male 
saint  who  did  not  die  for  the  Faith. 
It  also  refers  to  a  priest  who  has 
the  necessary  jurisdiction  to  hear 
confessions  and  absolve. 

Confirmation  —  A  sacrament  of 
the  new  law  by  which  grace  is  con- 
ferred on  baptized  persons  which 
strengthens  them  for  the  profes- 
sion of  the  Christian  faith.  It  is 
conferred  by  the  bishop,  who  lays 
his  hand  on  the  recipients,  making 
the  sign  of  the  cross  with  chrism 
on  their  foreheads,  saying,  "I  sign 
thee  with  the  sign  of  the  cross  and 
confirm  thee  with  the  chrism  of 
salvation,  in  the  name  of  the  Fa- 
ther, and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the 
Holy  Ghost."  Besides  conferring  a 
special  grace  to  profess  the  faith, 
It  sets  a  seal  or  character  on  the 
soul,  so  that  this  sacrament  cannot 
be  repeated  without  sacrilege. 


Confraternity  —  An  association, 
generally  of  laymen,  having  some 
work  of  devotion,  charity,  or  in- 
struction for  its  object,  undertaken 
for  the  glory  of  God.  When  a  con- 
fraternity reaches  the  stage  of 
which  affiliations,  similar  to  itself, 
are  formed  in  other  places,  and 
adopt  its  rules,  it  takes  the  name 
of  archconfraternity,  and  acquires 
certain  particular  privileges. 

Congregation,  Religious  —  A  com- 
munity bound  together  by  a  com- 
mon rule,  either  without  vows  (as 
the  Oratorians,  the  Oblates  of  St. 
Charles,  etc.)  or  with  vows  (as 
the  Passionists,  the  Redemptor- 
ists,  etc.). 

Congregational  Singing — Strongly 
recommended  by  Pope  Pius  X  in 
1903  and  Pope  Pius  XI  in  1929  as 
a  means  of  aiding  the  piety  of  the 
faithful  and  increasing  the  solem- 
nity of  the  service. 

Conscience  —  A  knowledge  of 
one's  self  which  dictates  what  is 
morally  right  or  wrong.  When  in 
doubt,  certainty  should  be  acquired 
before  acting,  or  at  least  moral  cer- 
tainty. 

Consent  —  The  essence  of  matri- 
mony: it  must  be  voluntary,  mu- 
tual, unconditional. 

Consistory — A  meeting  of  official 
persons  to  transact  business,  and 
also  the  place  where  they  meet. 
Before  the  Reformation  every  Eng- 
lish bishop  had  his  consistory,  com- 
posed of  some  of  the  leading  clergy 
of  the  diocese.  In  the  Catholic 
Church  the  term  is  now  seldom 
used  except  with  reference  to  the 
papal  consistory,  the  ecclesiastical 
senate  in  which  the  Pope,  presiding 
over  the  College  of  Cardinals,  de- 
liberates upon  grave  ecclesiastical 
affairs. 

Consubstantiation  —  The  error  of 
those  who  hold  that  the  Body  and 
Blood  of  Christ  exist  with  the  sub- 
stance of  the  bread  and  wine  in 
the  Eucharist. 

Continence  —  The  state  of  one 
who  controls  the  sex  instinct. 

Contrition  —  Sorrow  and  detesta- 
tion for  past  sins  and  determina- 
tion to  sin  no  more. 


344 


Cope  — A  long  cape-like  vestment 
worn  by  the  priest  at  Benediction 
and  at  other  liturgical  functions. 

Cornerstone  —  A  stone  prominent 
in  the  corner  of  the  foundation  of 
a  building  inscribed  with  the  date 
and  having  a  cavity  containing 
coins  and  other  mementoes  of  the 
time  and  circumstances. 

Corporal  Works  of  Mercy,  The  — 
To  feed  the  hungry,  to  give  drink  to 
the  thirsty,  to  clothe  the  naked,  to 
harbor  the  harborless,  to  visit  the 
sick,  to  ransom  the  captive,  to  bury 
the  dead. 

Cotta  —  Another  name  for  sur- 
plice. 

Council  —  An  assemblage  of 
churchmen,  called  to  settle  eccle- 
siastical affairs.  Councils  may  be: 
General  or  Ecumenical,  presided 
over  by  the  Pope;  provincial,  pre- 
sided over  by  an  archbishop;  dioc- 
esan, presided  over  by  a  bishop. 

Counsels,  Evangelical  —  While 
keeping  the  commandments  is  suf- 
ficient for  salvation,  the  counsels 
of  more  complete  renunciation 
promise  greater  rewards.  They  are: 
poverty,  chastity  and  obedience, 
made  permanent  by  vows. 

Counter-Reformation — The  Cath- 
olic reform  from  1522  to  1648  to 
restore  genuine  Catholic  life  and 
stem  the  tide  of  Protestantism.  The 
Council  of  Trent  gave  the  reform 
official  direction. 

Court,  Diocesan  —  Officials  assist- 
ing a  bishop  of  a  diocese:  vicar, 
chancellor,  examiners,  consultors, 
auditors,  notaries,  etc. 

Creation  —  The  production  by 
God  of  something  out  of  nothing, 
before  the  existence  of  anything. 

Creator  —  A  title  belonging  in  a 
strict  sense  to  God  alone,  since  He 
is  the  supreme  self-existing  being, 
the  absolute  and  infinite  first  cause 
of  all  things. 

Creature  —  That  which  has  been 
made  out  of  nothing  by  God. 

Credence  —  The  table  on  the 
Epistle  side  of  the  altar  on  which 
the  water,  wine,  and  other  articles 
used  at  Mass  are  placed. 

Creed  —  A  summary  of  the  chief 
articles  of  faith,  used  by  Christians 
to  make  a  profession  of  their  faith. 


Four  creeds  are  at  present  used  in 
the  Catholic  Church:  the  Apostles', 
the  Nicene,  the  Athanasian  and 
that  of  Pope  Pius  IV.  The  Apos- 
tles' Creed  is  in  common  use. 

Cremation  —  A  violent  and  unnat- 
ural destruction  of  the  human  body 
by  fire,  looked  upon  as  an  abomi- 
nation before  God.  Catholics  may 
not  carry  out  the  order  of  one  who 
desired  his  body  cremated,  nor  may 
they  be  buried  in  consecrated 
ground  if  they  order  their  own 
bodies  cremated. 

Crib  —  A  representation  of  the 
manger  which  held  the  Christ  Child 
in  Bethlehem.  The  custom  of  erect- 
ing Cribs  dates  back  to  1223,  when 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi  obtained  from 
Pope  Honorius  III  permission  to 
represent  the  mystery  of  Christmas 
in  the  form  of  a  Crib. 

Crosier  —  The  bishop's  staff. 

Crucifix  —  A  sacramental  bearing 
the  image  of  Christ  on  a  cross 
placed  over  an  altar  where  Mass  is 
to  be  offered,  also  used  with  de- 
votion by  the  faithful. 

Cruets  —  Small  vessels  for  wine 
and  water  for  the  celebration  of 
Mass,  made  of  glass,  gold  or  silver. 

Crypt  —  A  secret  vault  to  which 
the  bodies  of  martyrs  were  brought 
before  burial.  The  term  is  now 
applied  to  a  burial  place  for  dig- 
nitaries under  tl?e  altar  of  a  church, 
or  the  basement  of  a  church  used 
for  worship  or  burial. 

Cult  —  The  veneration  of  a  per- 
son or  thing.  Private  veneration 
may  be  paid  to  anyone  of  whose 
holiness  we  are  certain,  but  public 
devotion  may  be  paid  only  to  the 
Saints  of  God. 

Curia  —  The  Sacred  Congrega- 
tions. 

Custos  —  In  the  Franciscan  Or- 
der, a  superior  presiding*  over  a 
number  of  convents  called  cWlec- 
tively  a  custody.  \ 

Dark  Ages  —  Term  erroneously 
applied  to  the  Middle  Ages  to  giv» 
the  impression  that  there  was  no 
progress  during  the  Ages  of  Faith. 
The  term,  "dark,"  is  now  applied 
only  to  the  first  half  of  the  period. 

Deacon  —  The  word  means  min- 
ister. Such  an  order  has  existed 


145 


from  the  earliest  times.  Today, 
deacons  merely  assist  the  priest  in 
the  celebration  of  Solemn  Mass 
and  on  certain  occasions  may 
preach  and  baptize, 

Deaconess  —  A  woman  who  per- 
formed certain  functions,  notably 
at  baptism,  for  the  female  sex  in 
the  early  Church,  particularly  in 
the  East  The  office  disappeared  in 
the  Church  by  the  twelfth  century. 
The  office  was  not  an  order,  as  the 
Sacrament  of  Orders  can  be  re- 
ceived only  by  a  man.  Some  Protes- 
tant sects  still  have  deaconesses. 

Dean  —  An  ecclesiastical  official ; 
the  head  of  a  cathedral  or  collegi- 
ate chapter;  a  vicar  forane  or  epis- 
copal assistant  A  Dean  of  Pecu- 
liars is  one  in  charge  of  a  church 
or  district,  exempt  from  the  juris- 
diction of  the  bishop  of  the  diocese 
in  which  it  is  situated. 

Dean  of  the  Sacred  College — The 
president  of  the  College  of  Cardi- 
nals, who  calls  the  College  to- 
gether, conducts  its  deliberations 
and  represents  it  abroad. 

Death  —  The  cessation  of  mortal 
life;  an  experience  common  to  all 
men.  Death  is  an  eitect  of  sin. 

Decalogue  —  The  Ten  Command- 
ments of  God.  (See  Command- 
ments.) 

Decorations,  Papal  —  Given  to 
laymen  of  exemplary  character  who 
have  promoted  the  welfare  of  so- 
ciety, the  Church  or  the  papacy. 
The  titles  are:  prince,  baron  and 
count.  The  pa$al  orders  of  knight- 
hood are:  Supreme  Order  of  Christ, 
Order  of  Pius/*  IX,  Order  of  Gregory 
the  Great,  Order  of  St.  Sylvester, 
Order  of  the  Golden  Spur,  Order  of 
the  Holy  Sepulchre.  Other  decora- 
tions are  /the  medals  Pro  Ecclesia 
et  Pontrface,  Benemerenti,  Holy 
Land.  / 

De^fcation  of  Churches  —  This 
me^ns  the  act  whereby  a  church  is 
solemnly  set  apart  for  the  worship 
.off  God.  It  is  a  custom  carried  over 
from  the  Jewish  religion  and  im- 
posed as  a  law  by  Pope  EJvaristus. 
Having  once  been  consecrated,  a 
church  cannot  be  transferred  to 
common  use.  The  act  of  consecra- 
tion must  be  done  by  a  bishop. 


Definitors  —  Members  of  the  gov- 
erning council  of  an  order,  each 
one  having  a  decisive  vote  equal 
with  the  general  or  provincial 
superior. 

Despair  —  A  deliberate  yielding 
to  the  conviction  that  one's  sins  are 
unpardonable;  a  grievous  offense 
against  God's  goodness  and  mercy, 

Detachment — The  withholding  of 
affection  from  creatures  and  all 
earthly  things  to  give  it  to  God 
alone. 

Detraction  —  The  destruction  of 
a  good  name  by  the  revelation  of 
a  fault  or  crime,  whether  or  not 
the  fact  be  true.  Restitution  must 
be  made  according  to  the  damage 
done.  The  only  time  when  faults 
may  be  revealed  is  to  prevent  evil 
by  informing  prudent  persons. 

Devil  —  The  fallen  angel,  Lucifer, 
who  sinned  by  pride  but  who  still 
possesses  the  knowledge  he  had 
and  may  exercise  influence  over 
living  and  inanimate  things,  as  in 
a  case  of  diabolical  possession. 

Devil's  Advocate  —  Popular  name 
for  the  Promoter  of  the  Faith  who 
raises  all  possible  objections  in  the 
cause  of  beatification. 

Devotion  —  A  pious  practice  in 
honor  of  Our  Lord,  the  Blessed  Vir- 
gin, the  angels  or  saints. 

Dies  Irae  —  Hymn  used  as  the 
Sequence  in  Requiem  Masses,  writ- 
ten in  the  thirteenth  century  by 
the  Franciscan,  Thomas  of  Celano. 

Diocese  —  A  section  of  a  country 
and  its  population  which  is  gov- 
erned by  a  bishop.  The  word  orig- 
inally meant  administration  and 
was  used  under  the  Roman  law. 

Discalced  —  Applied  to  religious 
who  go  barefoot  or  wear  sandals. 
The  practice  of  so  doing  was  in- 
troduced in  the  Western  Church  by 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi. 

Disciple  —  A  follower  of  our  Lord 
or  the  apostles.  Our  Lord  had  some 
seventy  disciples. 

Disciplina  arcanl  —  Lat  "disci- 
pline of  secret"  —  in  the  Ancient 
Church  the  knowledge  of  the  Trin- 
ity and  of  some  of  the  sacraments 
was  kept  from  catechumens  in  or- 
der to  shield  these  teachings  from 
ridicule  or  misinterpretation. 


146 


Disci pSine  —  Systematic  training 
under  authority;  also  punishment 
given  with  a  view  to  correction. 

Dismissio  Ipso  Facto  —  Lat.  ipso 
facto,  by  the  fact  itself  —  refer- 
ring to  acts  which  by  their  very 
performance  carry  the  dismissal  of 
a  religious  from  his  or  her  com- 
munity, such  as  flight  with  a  per- 
son of  the  opposite  sex  even  with- 
out the  intention  to  marry. 

Dispensation  —  This  is  the  relax- 
ation of  a  law  in  a  particular  case. 
A  law  made  for  the  general  good 
may  not  be  beneficial  in  a  special 
instance  wherefore  a  dispensation 
from  one  in  authority  may  be  ob- 
tained. Pastors,  bishops,  and  re- 
ligious superiors  may  dispense,  A 
dispensation  is  granted  from  fast- 
ing, abstinence,  certain  vows,  read- 
ing the  office,  etc. 

Dissolution  of  Marriage — If  there 
is  no  intercourse  after  a  valid  mar- 
riage, it  may  be  dissolved  by  an  act 
of  the  Pope  at  the  request  of  one 
or  both  parties,  providing  there  is 
just  cause  of  a  private  or  public 
nature. 

Divination  —  Seeking  to  know  fu- 
ture or  hidden  things  by  unlawful 
means  such  as  dreams,  necromancy, 
spiritism,  examination  of  entrails, 
astrology,  augury,  omens,  palmistry, 
drawing  straws,  dice,  cards,  etc. 

Divine  Office — The  official  prayer 
by  which  the  Church  through  her 
clergy,  daily  offers  adoration  and 
supplication  to  God.  It  is  sometimes 
recited  publicly  for  the  laity,  and 
the  daily  recitation  is  observed  by 
some  orders  of  nuns,  and  as  a  de- 
votional practice  by  some  of  the 
laity.  It  consists  of  psalms,  hymns, 
prayers,  and  readings  from  the 
Bible,  patristic  homilies  and  lives 
of  the  saints.  It  is  also  called 
Canonical  Hours. 

Divine  Right  of  Kings  —  A  claim 
to  absolute  authority  by  civil  rulers, 
regardless  of  how  they  rule,  ap- 
proved by  Luther  and  Melanchthon 
but  never  by  the  Church.  Author- 
ity originates  in  God,  and  resides 
in  the  people  who  entrust  it  to  re- 
liable agents. 

Divorce  —  A  legal  separation  of 
married  persons.  There  are  three 
types:  absolute,  separating  from 


the  bond  of  matrimony,  wMch  is 
what  is  commonly  understood  by 
the  term  today;  from  the  bed, 
making  the  denial  of  the  mar- 
riage debt  lawful;  from  the  bed  and 
board,  by  which  the  rights  of  co- 
habitation are  denied.  The  matri- 
monial bond  is  indissoluble  but  an 
annulment  may  be  decreed.  The 
State  has  no  right  to  grant  di- 
vorces since  it  has  no  authority  to 
annul  a  valid  marriage, 

Doctor  of  the  Church  —  Title  giv- 
en to  one  who  is  ascribed  as  pos- 
sessing learning  to  such  an  eminent 
degree  that  he  is  fitted  to  be  a  doc- 
tor not  only  in  the  Church  but  of 
the  Church.  Great  sanctity  must  al- 
so be  present  and  finally  the  title 
must  be  conferred  by  the  Pope  or 
a  General  Council. 

Dogma  —  A  truth  contained  in 
the  word  of  God,  written  or  unwrit- 
ten (Scripture  or  Tradition),  and 
proposed  by  the  Church  for  univer- 
sal belief. 

Dogmas,  Principal —  Outstanding 
defined  teachings  of  the  Church 
are:  The  Church  has  the  authority 
to  interpret  the  Scriptures  upon 
which  the  Catholic  rule  of  faith  is 
based;  the  Pope  is  infallible  when 
speaking  ex  cathedra;  there  are 
three  Persons  in  God  —  the  Father, 
Son  and  Holy  Ghost;  through  an 
act  of  disobedience  Adam  and  Eve 
fell  from  grace  and  lost  immunity 
from  disorderly  affections  of  the 
body  and  also  the  immortality  of 
the  body  which  punishments  were 
passed  on  to  the  human  race; 
Christ  redeemed  the  human  race 
from  original  sin;  Christ  was  God 
as  well  as  man;  salvation  is  ac- 
complished through  co-operation 
with  divine  grace;  grace  is  dis- 
tributed by  means  of  the  Sacra- 
ments; man's  present  life  will  end 
in  heaven,  hell  or  purgatory. 

Douay  Bible — The  name  given  to 
the  English  translation  of  the  Vul- 
gate version  of  the  Bible,  which 
was  begun  at  Douay,  France,  and 
continued  at  Rheims;  hence  called 
also,  the  Douay-Rheims  version.  It 
was  revised  by  Bishop  Challoner  in 
1750.  This  Challoner-Rheims  ver- 
sion has  in  turn  been  revised  by 
Catholic  scholars  under  the  patron- 


147 


age  of  tlie  Episcopal  Committee  of 
the  Confraternity  of  Christian  Doc- 
trine. The  New  Testament  was 
completed  in  1941,  and  published  in 
the  United  States. 

Dowry  —  Property  which  a  wife 
brings  to  her  husband  in  marriage 
or  that  which  a  religious  woman 
brings  to  her  community  to  be  in- 
vested for  her  support  until  death, 
when  it  becomes  the  property  of 
the  community.  Should  the  re- 
ligious leave,  the  property  is  re- 
turned without  interest. 

Doxology — The  Doxology,  or  "as- 
cription of  glory  to  the  Trinity,"  is 
usually  called,  from  its  initial 
words,  the  "Glory  be  to  the  Fa- 
ther." The  first  part  of  the  Gloria 
dates  back  to  the  third  or  fourth 
century,  and  arose,  no  doubt, 
from  the  form  of  Baptism.  The  con- 
cluding words,  "As  it  was  in  ,,the 
beginning,"  are  of  later  origin.  The 
Gloria  is  recited  after  each  psalm 
in  the  Divine  Office  said  by  the 
priests,  and  is  also  said  after  the 
"Judica,"  at  the  beginning  ox  Mass. 

The  Glory  be  to  the  Father  Is 
called  the  lesser  Doxology.  The 
greater  Doxology  is  the  Gloria  in 
Bxcelsis  Deo,  which  is  very  often 
recited  at  Mass.  It  is  believed  to  be 
of  Eastern  origin  and  is  to  be  found 
in  the  Apostolic  Constitutions  in  a 
form  substantially  the  same  as  that 
now  used.  The  common  belief  is 
that  St.  Hilary,  Bishop  of  Poitiers 
(A.  D.  366),  translated  it  into  Latin. 

Dulia  —  Veneration  or  homage 
paid  to  the  saints. 

Duty  —  A  moral  obligation  deter- 
mined by  conscience  or  right  rea- 
son. The  law  of  God  prevails  over 
that  of  men. 

Easter  Duty  —  The  obligation  of 
Catholics  to  approach  the  sacra- 
ment of  Penance  and  receive  the 
Eucharist  during  the  Easter  time: 
in  the  United  States  from  the  first 
Sunday  in  Lent  to  Trinity  Sunday, 

Easter  Water  —  Holy  water 
blessed  with  special  ceremonies 
and  distributed  on  Holy  Saturday. 

Ecstasy — A  state  of  supernatural 
contemplation  in  which  the  senses 
are  suspended;  conferred  by  God 
upon  certain  saints. 


Edification  —  The  giving  of  good 
example  to  one  another  by  Chris- 
tians. 

Ejaculations  —  Short  prayers, 
many  of  which  are  indulgenced. 

Elevation  —  The  Elevation  of  the 
Host  and  chalice  immediately  after 
consecration  was  introduced  in  de- 
testation of  the  denial  of  transub- 
stantiation  by  Berengarius.  The 
practice  started  about  the  year 
1100.  The  further  custom  of  ringing 
a  bell  at  the  Elevation  began  in 
France  during  the  twelfth  century. 

Emancipation — The  abolition  of 
penal  laws  against  Catholics  in 
England  and  Ireland. 

Ember  Days  —  Wednesday,  Fri- 
day and  Saturday  following  Decem- 
ber 13th,  the  first  Sunday  in  Lent, 
Pentecost,  and  September  14th. 
They  are  days  of  fast  and  absti- 
nence instituted  for  the  purpose 
of  doing  penance  and  thus  puri- 
fying the  soul  at  the  beginning  of 
each  quarter  of  the  year. 

Emblem  —  An  object  or  device  in 
Christian  art,  denoting  the  virtues 
or  actions  of  the  saints,  as,  for  ex- 
ample, keys  for  St.  Peter,  to  whom 
Christ  said:  "I  will  give  to  thee 
the  keys  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven." 

Encyclical  —  A  letter  addressed 
by  the  Pope  to  all  the  bishops  in 
communion  with  him,  in  which  he 
condemns  prevalent  errors,  or  ex- 
plains the  line  of  conduct  which 
Christians  ought  to  take  in  refer- 
ence to  urgent  practical  questions, 
such  as  education  and  the  relation 
between  the  Church  and  State. 

End  Justifies  the  Means  —  This 
principle  has  frequently  but  falsely 
been  attributed  to  members  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus.  Father  Ron,  S.  J., 
in  the  year  1852  publicly  offered 
1^000  guineas  to  anyone  who  in  the 
judgment  of  the  law  faculty  of 
Heidelberg  University  could  prove 
that  any  Jesuit  had  ever  taught 
this  doctrine,  or  any  equivalent. 
The  money  has  never  been  claimed. 

Epikei  —  Greek,  "reasonable"  — 
a  reasonable  interpretation  of  the 
law.  For  instance,  a  mother  may 
reasonably  be  excused  from  Mass 
on  Sunday  if  there  be  no  one  pres- 


148 


ent  to  care  for  her  infant  or  sick 
child. 

Episcopate  —  The  dignity  and 
sacramental  powers  bestowed  upon 
a  bishop  at  his  consecration;  the 
body  of  bishops  collectively. 

Epistle  —  A  selection  from  one  of 
the  letters  of  the  apostles,  read  at 
Mass  after  the  Collects;  also  called 
a  lesson. 

Equivocation — The  use  of  phrases 
or  words  having  more  than  one 
meaning  in  order  to  conceal  infor- 
mation which  the  questioner  has  no 
right  to  seek.  It  is  permissible  to 
equivocate  in  answering  impertin- 
ent and  unjust  questions. 

Eternity  —  The  perennial  inter- 
minable, perfect  possession  of  life 
in  its  fullest  totality  without  begin- 
ning or  end  —  attributed  to  God, 
Who  has  no  past  or  future.  Also 
applied  to  man's  destined  state  of 
eternal  happiness  or  damnation,  in 
so  far  as  it  is  endless. 

Ethics  —  The  science  of  the  mo- 
rality of  human  acts  in  the  light  of 
human  reason.  Ethics  comprises 
personal,  social,  economic,  political 
and  international  activities. 

Eucharist  —  The  Church  regards 
the  Eucharist  as  a  sacrament  and 
as  a  sacrifice.  Considered  as  a  sac- 
rament, the  Eucharist  is  the  true 
Body  and  Blood  of  Christ  under 
the  appearance  of  bread  and  wine. 
Like  other  sacraments,  it  was  in- 
stituted by  Christ.  Considered  as  a 
sacrifice,  it  is  the  Mass,  in  which 
Christ  offers  Himself  in  an  un- 
bloody manner,  as  He  once  offered 
Himself  in  a  bloody  manner  on  the 
cross. 

Eucharistic  Congress  —  An  inter- 
national or  national  assemblage  of 
Catholics  to  honor  the  Blessed  Sac- 
rament. The  first  owed  its  inspira- 
tion to  Bishop  Gaston  de  Segur  and 
was  held  in  Lille,  France,  in  1881. 

Eugenics  —  The  study  of  heredity 
and  environment  for  the  physical 
and  mental  improvement  of  future 
generations.  Extreme  eugenics  is 
untenable  since  it  uses  immoral 
means  to  a  good  end,  such  as  com- 
pulsory breeding  of  the  select,  birth 
control  among  the  poor  and  sterili- 


zation of  the  unfit.  Moderate  eu- 
genists  recommend  the  segregation 
of  the  unfit  and  are  to  be  com- 
mended for  that. 

Evangelists  —  The  authors  of  the 
four  gospels,  Matthew,  Mark,  Luke 
and  John. 

Evil  — A  condition  resulting  from 
imperfection  of  constitution  or  ac- 
tion; an  absence,  defect  or  perver- 
sion of  action  called  also,  sin. 

Evolution  —  The  development 
from  rudimentary  conditions  to 
more  highly  organized  results. 
Widespread  evolution  has  been  ac- 
cepted as  a  fact  but  has  not  been 
proven.  Catholics  may  be  friendly 
to  hypotheses  but  should  refuse  to 
accept  appearances  as  proofs.  There 
is  no  proof  that  the  human  organ- 
ism was  generated  from  lower  ani- 
mals, nor  that  the  soul  is  generated 
by  human  parents. 

Examination  of  Conscience — Self- 
examination  as  a  preparation  for 
confession  of  sins. 

Ex  Cathedra  —  Lat.  "from  the 
chair"  —  referring  to  infallible  de- 
crees of  the  Pope  on  questions  of 
faith  or  morals  when  he  speaks 
with  supreme  authority  from  the 
chair  of  St.  Peter. 

Excommunication  —  An  ecclesi- 
astical censure  by  which  a  Chris- 
tian is  separated  from  the  Church. 
It  is  a  power  included  in  the  bind- 
ing and  loosing,  given  by  Christ  to 
Peter  and  the  Apostles:  "If  he  will 
not  hear  the  Church,  let  him  be  to 
thee  as  the  heathen  and  publican" 
(Matt,  xviii,  17).  Major  excommuni- 
cation deprives  one  of  all  Church 
communication,  is  equal  to  ana- 
thema and  is  publicly  pronounced. 
Minor  excommunication  deprives 
one  of  participation  in  the  sacra- 
ments. 

The  effects  of  excommunication 
are  summed  up:  As  a  man  by  Bap- 
tism is  made  a  member  of  the 
Church  in  which  there  is  a  com- 
munication with  all  spiritual  goods, 
so  by  excommunication  he  is  de- 
prived of  the  same  spiritual  goods 
—  until  he  makes  amends  and  satis- 
fies the  Church.  The  censure  may 
be  removed  in  the  Sacrament  of 
Penance. 


149 


Exorcism  —  The  ceremony  of 
driving  out  demons  from  persons, 
places  or  things;  based  on  the 
teachings  of  the  Bible. 

Exposition  of  the  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment —  The  Church  has  always 
adored  Christ  in  the  Eucharist  but 
it  is  only  in  times  comparatively 
modern  that  the  Holy  Sacrament 
has  been  publicly  exposed  for  the 
adoration  of  the  faithful.  As  early 
as  1373  we  read  of  the  bishop  car- 
rying the  Host  in  procession,  the 
monstrance  in  which  it  was  borne 
having  sides  of  glass.  Before  that 
time  the  Host  was  generally  car- 
ried in  vessels  which  hid  the  Host 
from  view.  Later  in  the  sixteenth 
century  the  Host  was  exposed 
more  frequently,  especially  in  times 
of  public  distress,  generally  for 
forty  continuous  hours.  There  are 
various  rules  with  regard  to  the 
public  exposition  which  cannot  take 
place  without  the  permission  of  the 
bishop  or  by  apostolic  indult  Twelve 
candles  of  wax  must  burn  before 
the  Host. 

Extreme  Unction  —  Extreme  Unc- 
tion may  be  defined  as  a  sacra- 
ment in  which  the  sick,  in  danger 
of  death,  are  anointed  by  the  priest 
for  the  health  of  soul  and  body.  St. 
James  describes  the  nature  and 
effects  of  this  sacrament:  "Is  any 
man  sick  among  you?  Let  him  bring 
in  the  priests  of  the  Church  and 
let  them  pray  over  him,  anointing 
him  with  oil  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord"  (v,  14). 

Faculties — Powers  granted  by  an 
ecclesiastical  superior  to  his  priests, 
to  hear  confessions,  etc. 

Faculties  of  the  Soul  —  Imagina- 
tion, memory,  understanding,  and 
will. 

Faith  —  A  firm,  unshaken  belief 
based  on  the  word  of  God. 

Faith,  Act  of —Belief  in  the  truth 
of  a  thing,  not  because  it  is  proven 
but  because  God  says  it  is  true. 

Faith,  Rule  of —For  Catholics  the 
Bible  and  tradition  on  the  authority 
of  the  Church;  for  Protestants,  the 
Bible  alone. 

Faith  and  Reason  —  The  Church 
teaches  that  reason  may  know  cer- 


tainly God's  existence,  His  attri- 
butes, and  the  existence  of  revela- 
tion. Reason  cannot  understand 
however,  mysteries  such  as  the 
Blessed  Trinity.  Faith  and  reason, 
therefore,  are  of  mutual  assistance 
to  each  other, 

Family  —  The  foundation  of  soci- 
ety, consisting  of  husband,  wife  and 
children.  The  perfect  example  of 
family  life  is  the  Holy  Family.  Di- 
vorce, birth  control,  and  outside  in- 
terests injure  the  family  and  threat- 
en both  Church  and  State. 

Fanaticism  —  Extreme  unreason- 
able speech  or  conduct.  Since  reli- 
gion deeply  affects  the  mind,  reli- 
gious fanatics  often  perpetrate  mon- 
strous acts. 

Fascism  —  A  political  system 
which  makes  the  good  of  the  state 
paramount  and  places  control  m 
the  hands  of  a  dictator.  Fascism 
was  established  in  1922  in  Italy  un- 
der the  dictatorship  of  Mussolini. 

Fast  —  Abstinence  from  food  or 
drink  before  receiving  the  Eucha- 
rist; the  taking  of  only  one  com- 
plete meal  a  day,  with  small  quan- 
tities in  the  morning  and  evening 
on  appointed  days.  The  Commun- 
ion fast  begins  at  midnight  of  the 
accepted  time  in  a  region. 

Fast  Days — Ember  days,  the  vig- 
ils of  Pentecost,  Assumption,  All 
Saints,  and  Christmas,  and  all  days 
of  Lent  up  to  noon  Holy  Saturday. 

Fathers  of  the  Church  —  Eminent 
teachers  or  writers  who  instructed 
the  early  Church  in  the  teachings 
of  the  Apostles. 

Fear  is  a  mental  agitation  or 
trepidation  because  of  present  or 
future  danger.  Grave  fear  should  not 
be  allowed  to  deter  us  from  duty. 
Full  responsibility,  however,  is  not 
attached  to  evil  done  out  of  fear. 
Marriage  contracted  through  fear 
of  death  or  injury  is  invalid. 

Field  Mass  —  Mass  celebrated  in 
the  open  in  time  of  war,  or  on  spe- 
cial occasions  with  the  bishop's 
permission. 

First  Communion  —  First  recep- 
tion of  the  Host,  generally  by  chil- 
dren, who  should  be  carefully  pre- 
pared beforehand. 

Fisherman's  Ring — A  signet  ring 


150 


engraved  with  the  effigy  of  St. 
Peter  fishing  from  a  boat  and  en- 
circled with  the  name  of  the  reign- 
ing Pope.  It  is  used  to  seal  briefs. 
It  is  broken  up  after  each  pope's 
death. 

Five  Scapulars  —  Any  five  of  the 
eighteen  scapulars  approved  by  the 
Church  may  be  worn  together. 

Fixed  Festivals  —  Feasts  that  oc- 
cur the  same  date  every  year,  such 
as  Christmas,  December  25;  Cir- 
cumcision, January  1;  Purification, 
February  2;  Annunciation,  March 
25. 

Flectamus  Genua  —  Lat.  "Let  us 
bend  the  knee"  —  one  of  the  pray- 
ers of  the  Mass  on  Ember  days, 
and  certain  days  of  Lent. 

Flowers  on  the  Altar  —  Plants, 
cut  or  artificial  flowers  may  be 
used  excepting  during  Advent, 
when  they  are  allowed  only  on  the 
third  Sunday,  and  during  Lent,  when 
they  are  allowed  only  on  the  fourth. 

Forgiveness  of  Sin  —  Catholics 
believe  that  forgiven  sins  are  re- 
moved from  the  soul.  God  can  for- 
give sin  either  immediately,  in  an- 
swer to  an  act  of  perfect  contri- 
tion, or  mediately  through  the  Sac- 
rament of  Baptism  or  Penance. 

Fortune  Telling  —  If  indulged  in 
for  the  purpose  of  seriously  obtain- 
ing information  it  is  a  grievous  sin 
against  the  first  commandment.  It 
should  not  even  be  indulged  in  for 
sport  because  of  the  danger  to 
faith. 

Forty  Hours1  Devotion  —  Solemn 
exposition  of  the  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment for  forty  hours,  commemorat- 
ing the  forty  hours  during  which 
the  body  of  Christ  rested  in  the 
tomb.  These  hours  are  interrupted 
in  the  United  States  for  the  con- 
venience of  the  faithful.  A  plenary 
indulgence  is  granted  to  all  con- 
trite persons  who  have  approached 
the  Sacraments  of  Penance  and  the 
Eucharist,  visited  the  church  and 
prayed  for  the  intentions  of  the 
Holy  Father. 

Freedom  of  Thought  —  There  is 
no  freedom  in  error.  One  is  not 
free,  for  instance,  to  believe  that 


the  Church  has  erred  in  its  beliefs 
or  teachings. 

Freedom  of  Worship  —  A  mixture 
of  religion  and  politics  often  de- 
stroys the  freedom  of  worshiping 
God  according  to  the  dictates  of 
one's  conscience. 

Freemasonry  —  A  religious  sect 
diametrically  opposed  to  Christian- 
ity. It  has  its  own  altars,  temples, 
priesthood,  worship,  ritual,  ceremo- 
nies, festivals;  its  own  creed;  its 
own  morality.  The  chief  reason  why 
Freemasonry  was  first  condemned 
by  Pope  Clement  XII  was  that  it 
professed  to  represent  a  primitive 
religion  in  which  all  men  agree. 
This  is  in  marked  contrast  to  the 
Catholic  idea  of  revelation.  This 
still  remains  one  of  the  chief  Catho- 
lic objections,  since  it  is  evident 
that  apostasy  frequently  follows  en- 
trance into  a  Masonic  lodge.  The  Ma- 
sonic oath  was  likewise  condemned 
in  1738  as  immoral  in  principle 
since  it  imposes  blind  obedience.  An- 
other reason  for  the  Catholic  atti- 
tude is  found  in  the  injuries  inflicted 
on  the  Church  by  organized  Ma- 
sonry. In  regard  to  foreign  countries 
this  is  very  evident.  In  the  United 
States,  Masonry,  especially  the  Su- 
preme Council  of  the  Scottish  Rite 
33rd  degree  through  its  official  or- 
gan, "The  New  Age,"  has  shown 
itself  as  hostile  and  bent  upon  the 
destruction  of  Catholicism.  "The 
American  Freemason"  through  its 
editorial  pages  has  emphasized  that 
there  can  be  no  peace,  nor  even 
truce,  between  Freemasonry  and 
the  official  Roman  Church.  Many  of 
the  leaders  of  Freemasonry,  Pike, 
Richardson,  Buck  and  Stewart,  have 
shown  open  and  unmistakable  an- 
tagonism to  the  Catholic  Church. 

Eight  different  Popes  in  seven- 
teen different  pronouncements,  and 
at  least  six  different  local  Coun- 
cils have  condemned  Masonry. 

The  majority  of  American  Ma- 
sons go  no  further  than  the  Third 
Degree  or  Blue  Lodge  system  and 
have  no  antagonism  toward  the 
Church.  Many  indeed  are  not  even 
cognizant  of  the  real  aims  and  pur- 
poses of  the  organization.  They 
have  joined  the  Masons  for  social 


151 


and  business  reasons.  To  these 
many  and  benevolent  Masons,  not 
interested  in  the  history  or  funda- 
mental principles  of  Masonry,  the 
attitude  and  position  of  the  Cath- 
olic Church,  as  regards  Masonry  is 
bewildering.  They  can  see  no  justi- 
fication for  such  condemnation. 
However,  a  study  of  the  question 
pro  and  con  will  show  any  fair 
mind  the  reasons  for  the  action  of 
the  Catholic  Church.  A  thorough 
and  accurate  Catholic  view  of  Ma- 
sonry is  contained  in  "The  Catholic 
Encyclopedia"  where  the  subject 
is  discussed  at  length. 

Freethinker  —  One  who  bases 
his  beliefs  on  the  findings  of  his 
reason  and  refuses  to  accept  the 
Revelation. 

Free  Will  —  The  faculty  of  mak- 
ing a  reasonable  choice  among  mo- 
tives. The  Council  of  Trent  solemn- 
ly condemned  those  who  taught 
that  from  the  sin  of  Adam  man 
lost  his  free  will. 

Friar  —  A  term  originally  applied 
to  members  of  mendicant  orders, 
now  to  monastic  and  military  or- 
ders also:  Dominicans,  Francis- 
cans, Carmelites,  Augustinians, 
Servites,  Minims,  Third  Order  Reg- 
ulars of  St.  Francis,  Capuchins,  etc. 

Fruits  of  the  Holy  Ghost  —  Chari- 
ty, joy,  peace,  patience,  benignity, 
goodness,  longanimity,  mildness, 
faith,  modesty,  continence,  chastity. 

Funeral  Pall  —  Black  cloth  with 
a  white  cross  spread  over  a  coffin 
during  the  last  rites. 

Funeral  Rites  —  Mass  for  the  de- 
ceased, absolution  and  interment 
by  the  priest.  Black  is  the  color 
used,  except  in  the  case  of  infants, 
when  white  is  employed. 

GaHicanism  —  A  body  of  doc- 
trines which  found  particular  favor 
in  the  French  or  Gallican  Church, 
and  limited  the  power  and  author- 
ity of  the  Pope  in  favor  of  the 
Bishops,  and  extended  unduly  the 
power  of  the  State  over  ecclesias- 
tical affairs;  condemned  by  Pope 
Alexander  VIII  in  1693. 

Gambling  —  Staking  large  sums 
of  money  in  pure  chance  is  often 
the  occasion  of  staking  beyond 
means,  risking  other  people's 


money  or  property,  or  losing  what 
rightfully  belongs  to  one's  family. 

Gaudete  Sunday  —  Third  Sunday 
in  Advent;  named  from  the  first 
word  of  the  Introit  of  the  day, 
Gaudete,  meaning  "Rejoice." 

Gehenna  —  A  Jewish  name  of  a 
valley  invariably  used  by  Christ  to 
designate  hell. 

Genuflection  —  Genuflection  is  a 
natural  sign  of  adoration  or  rever- 
ence frequently  used  in  the  Church. 
The  faithful  genuflect  when  passing 
the  tabernacle;  the  priest  genu- 
flects many  times  during  the  Mass. 
A  double  genuflection,  i.  e.,  one  on 
both  knees,  is  made  on  entering  or 
leaving  a  church  where  the  Blessed 
Sacrament  is  exposed. 

Gethsemane  —  Name  in  Hebrew 
meaning  "oil  press"  —  a  plot  of 
ground  on  the  Mount  of  Olives 
where  the  Saviour  spent  much  time 
with  His  disciples.  The  hours  He 
spent  there  in  prayer  the  night  be- 
fore He  died  are  known  as  the 
Agony  in  the  Garden. 

Gifts  of  the  Holy  Ghost  —  Wis- 
dom, understanding,  counsel,  forti- 
tude, knowledge,  piety,  fear  of  the 
Lrord. 

Gluttony  —  Eating  too  often,  too 
much,  too  costly  food,  or  living  to 
eat  instead  of  eating  to  live. 

God  —  In  the  Apostles'  and  Ni- 
cene  Creeds  we  begin  by  profess- 
ing our  belief  in  the  one  God,  crea- 
tor of  heaven  and  earth.  The 
Fourth  Lateran  Council  and  the 
Vatican  Council  define  God  as  "The 
one  absolutely  and  infinitely  per- 
fect spirit  who  is  the  Creator  of 
all."  The  latter  Council  also  adds 
that  we  can,  by  the  natural  light 
of  reason  and  from  the  considera- 
tion of  created  things,  attain  to  a 
"sure"  knowledge  of  God.  Taking 
the  above  definition  for  granted, 
we  proceed  to  state  the  following 
propositions  of  St.  Thomas  proving 
from  reason  the  existence  of  God. 
In  brief,  his  argument  from  design 
is  as  follows:  There  are  plain 
marks  in  the  mechanism  of  created 
things  which  show  that  they  are 
the  work  of  an  intelligent  being. 
They  display  a  high  degree  of  wis- 


152 


dom  united  to  immense  power. 
Plainly  this  intelligence  does  not 
reside  in  the  things  themselves. 
Therefore,  the  world  was  created 
and  is  governed  by  an  intelligent 
being  whom  we  call  God. 

Godparents  —  Godfather  and  god- 
mother, sponsors  at  Baptism,  who 
assume  guardianship  over  the  bap- 
tized, instruct  them  and  see  that 
they  carry  out  their  baptismal 
vows.  Godparents  contract  spir- 
itual relationship  with  the  persons 
for  whom  they  act  as  Godparents. 

Golden  Rose  —  An  ornament 
blessed  by  the  Pope  on  Laetare 
Sunday  and  sent  to  outstanding 
Catholics  annually  since  the  year 
1050.  The  office  of  Bearer  of  the 
Golden  Rose,  abolished  during  the 
pontificate  of  Leo  XIII,  was  re- 
established by  Pius  XII  in  1941. 

Good  Friday  —  Friday  in  Holy 
Week.  The  day  on  which  Christ  died. 

Gospel  —  The  practice  of  reading 
the  Gospels  in  the  Christian  assem- 
blies is  mentioned  by  Justin,  Mar- 
tyr, and  prescribed  in  all  the  litur- 
gies. The  first  Council  of  Orange, 
441,  and  that  of  Valencia  in  Spain 
ordered  the  Gospel  to  be  read  after 
the  Epistle  and  before  the  Offer- 
tory, in  order  that  the  catechu- 
mens might  listen  to  the  words  of 
Christ  and  hear  them  explained  by 
the  bishop. 

Grace  —  A  supernatural  gift  of 
God  bestowed  upon  angels  or  men 
for  the  purpose  of  fitting  them  for 
eternal  life.  Since  the  fall  of  Adam 
we  receive  grace  only  through 
Christ.  Without  it  eternal  life  can- 
not be  obtained. 

Grace  at  Meals  —  Prayers  said 
before  meals,  asking  a  blessing, 
and  after  meals,  giving  thanks. 

Gregorian  Chant  —  Church  music. 

Gregorian  Masses  —  A  series  of 
thirty  Masses  celebrated  on  thirty 
consecutive  days  for  the  soul  of 
one  specified  deceased  person. 

Gremial  —  A  cloth  placed  over 
the  knees  of  the  bishop  during  va- 
rious ceremonies. 

Guardian  Angels  are  angels  ap- 
pointed to  protect  and  guide  each 
individual  soul  through  life. 


Habit  —  The  disposition  to  do 
things  easily  by  repetition.  Also 
the  dress  worn  by  religious. 

Hagiography  —  Writings  or  docu- 
ments about  saints,  holy  persons, 
holiness. 

Happiness  —  St.  Thomas  taught 
that  happiness  is  unattainable  in 
this  life  since  it  consists  in  the  con- 
templation of  God.  Incomplete  hap- 
piness may  be  obtained  by  self-re- 
straint, detachment  and  sacrifice  of 
transitory  enjoyment  for  future 
happiness. 

Heart  of  Jesus  (Sacred  Heart)  — 
The  special  and  formal  devotion  to 
the  heart  of  Jesus  owes  its  origin 
to  a  French  Visitation  nun,  St.  Mar- 
garet Mary  Alacoque,  who  lived  in 
the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  Our  Lord  Himself  ap- 
peared to  her  and  declared  that 
this  worship  was  most  acceptable 
to  Him.  Permission  to  celebrate 
the  Feast  of  the  Sacred  Heart  on 
the  Friday  after  the  octave  of 
Corpus  Christi  was  extended  to  the 
whole  Church  in  1856. 

Heart  of  Mary,  Immaculate  — 
The  principles  on  which  this  devo- 
tion rests  are  the  same  as  those 
which  are  the  foundation  of  the 
Catholic  devotion  to  the  Sacred 
Heart.  The  devotion  to  the  Im- 
maculate Heart  ^as  first  propa- 
gated by  John  Eudes,  who  died  in 
1680.  In  1855,  Pope  Pius  IX  ex- 
tended the  feast  —  which  is  kept 
either  on  the  Sunday  within  the 
octave  of  the  Assumption  or  on  the 
third  Sunday  after  Pentecost  —  to 
the  whole  Church. 

Heaven  —  The  place  and  state 
where  God  will  give  virtue  its  due 
reward,  since  vice  often  triumphs 
and  virtue  goes  unrewarded  here 
on  earth.  There  we  will  see  God 
face  to  face,  be  like  unto  Him  in 
glory,  and  enjoy  eternal  happiness. 

Hell  —  The  place  and  state  of 
eternal  punishment  demanded  by 
God's  justice  as  the  lot  of  the 
damned. 

Heresy  —  Heresy  is  defined  in 
many  places  in  the  Old  Testament, 
The  accurate  meaning  of  the  term 
heretic  is  given  by  Tertullian. 
The  name,  he  says,  applies  to 


153 


those  who  of  their  own  will  choose 
false  doctrine,  either  instituting 
sects  themselves,  or  receiving  the 
false  doctrine  of  sects  already 
founded.  Formal  heresy  is  a  most 
grievous  sin,  for  it  involves  re- 
bellion against  God,  Who  requires 
us  to  submit  our  understandings 
to  the  doctrines  of  His  Church. 

Hermits  —  A  hermit  or  an  an- 
chorite is  a  dweller  in  the  desert. 
St.  Paul  was  the  first  hermit.  After 
ninety  years  spent  in  solitude  he 
died  in  the  year  342. 

Heroic  Act  of  Charity  —  The  of- 
fering to  God  for  the  souls  in  pur- 
gatory all  the  satisfactory  works 
performed  during  life  and  all  suf- 
frages accruing  to  one  after  death. 
It  is  revocable  at  will. 

Hierarchy  —  According  to  its  or- 
dinary signification,  the  word  ap- 
plies to  the  clergy  only  with  va- 
rieties of  meaning:  1.  There  is 
hierarchy  of  divine  right,  consist- 
ing, under  the  primacy  of  St.  Peter 
and  his  successors,  of  bishops, 
priests,  and  deacons.  2.  In  the  hier- 
archy of  Orders  we  have  by  divine 
institution  the  diaconate,  the 
priesthood  and  the  episcopate;  by 
ecclesiastical  institution  the  sub- 
diaconate  and  the  four  minor  or- 
ders of  porter,  reader,  exorcist  and 
acolyte.  3.  There  is  also  the  hier- 
archy of  jurisdiction.  This  is  of 
ecclesiastical  institution  and  con- 
sists of  the  administrative  and 
judicial  authorities  which,  under 
the  supreme  pastorate  of  the  Holy 
See,  are  charged  with  the  main- 
tenance of  the  purity  of  the  faith 
and  of  union  among  Christians,  with 
the  conservation  of  discipline,  etc. 

Holy  Ghost  —  The  Third  Person 
of  the  Blessed  Trinity  Who  pro- 
ceeds from  the  Father  and  the  Son 
and  is,  in  every  respect,  equal  to 
Them. 

Holy  Hour  —  Form  of  devotion 
taught  to  St.  Margaret  Mary  Ala- 
coque  by  our  Lord.  The  hour  may 
be  divided  into  parts  for  prayer,  re- 
flection, meditation  and  congrega- 
tional singing. 

Holy  Orders  —  A  sacrament  insti- 
tuted by  Christ,  by  which  spiritual 


power  is  given  and  grace  is  con- 
ferred for  the  performance  of  the 
sacred  duties  of  the  priesthood. 

Holy  Saturday  —  Vigil  of  Easter. 
Lent  ends  at  noon  on  this  day. 

Holy  See  —  The  papal  power,  re- 
ferring to  the  Pope  personally  or 
the  various  papal  congregations 
and  tribunals;  Rome,  the  official 
seat  of  the  Church. 

Holy  Spirit  —  The  Third  Person 
of  the  Holy  Trinity.  Name  in  mod- 
ern usage  preferred  to  Holy  Ghost. 

Holy  Thursday  —  Thursday  in 
Holy  Week.  The  day  on  which 
Our  Lord  instituted  the  Holy  Eu- 
charist and  the  priesthood. 

Holy  Water  —  Water  blessed  by 
the  Church  is  a  sacramental,  and 
has  been  in  constant  use  among 
Catholics  since  the  time  of  the 
Apostles.  Washing  with  water  is 
a  natural  symbol  of  spiritual  puri- 
fication. "I  will  pour  out  upon  you 
clean  water  and  you  shall  be  clean." 
(Ezechiel,  xxvi,  25).  On  Holy  Sat- 
urday water  and  salt  are  exorcised 
by  the  priest  and  so  withdrawn 
from  the  power  of  Satan,  who  since 
the  fall  has  corrupted  and  abused 
even  inanimate  things.  Prayers  are 
said  that  the  water  and  salt  may 
promote  the  spiritual  and  temporal 
health  of  those  to  whom  they  are 
applied  and  drive  away  the  devil 
with  his  rebel  angels.  Finally  the 
water  and  salt  are  mingled  in  the 
name  of  the  Trinity.  The  water  thus 
blessed  becomes  a  means  of  grace. 

Holy  Week  —  The  week  preced- 
ing Easter  in  which  the  Church 
commemorates  Christ's  death  and 
burial.  In  the  East,  Holy  Week  was 
distinguished  from  the  rest  of  Lent 
by  extreme  strictness  of  the  fast. 

Hosanna  —  Hebrew  word  mean- 
ing "O  Lord,  save,  we  pray." 

Host,  The  —  Christ  present  on 
the  altar  under  the  appearances 
both  of  bread  and  wine,"  Christ 
present  under  the  form  of  bread 
alone;  the  bread  before  it  is  con- 
secrated. It  is  in  this  meaning  that 
the  word  is  employed  in  the  ordi- 
nary language  of  Catholics  at  the 
present  day,  and  the  word  in  tHis 
sense  occurs  in  the  Offertory  of  the 
Roman  missal,  when  the  priest 


154 


prays,  "Receive,  0  Holy  Father, 
this  unspotted  Host,  etc./'  taking 
the  bread,  not  for  what  it  is,  but 
for  what  it  is  to  become  at  the  con- 
secration of  the  Mass. 

Humeral  Veil,  The  —  An  oblong 
scarf  of  the  same  material  as  the 
vestments  worn  by  the  subdeacon 
at  High  Mass,  when  he  holds  the 
paten  between  the  Offertory  and 
Pater  Noster;  worn  by  the  priest 
when  he  raises  the  monstrance  to 
give  benediction  with  the  Blessed 
Sacrament,  and  by  priests  and  dea- 
cons when  they  remove  the  Blessed 
Sacrament  from  one  place  to  an- 
other, or  carry  it  in  procession.  It 
is  worn  around  the  shoulders,  and 
the  paten,  pyx  or  monstrance  is 
wrapped  in  it. 

Humility  —  A  virtue  which  re- 
strains the  appetite  for  high  things, 
recognizes  natural  weakness  and 
checks  presumption.  Through  it  we 
realize  our  dependence  on  God 
without  Whom  we  are  nothing. 

Hypnotism  —  A  profound  artifi- 
cial sleep  in  which  the  mind  is 
awake  and  does  the  bidding  of  the 
hypnotist.  Hypnotism  should  not 
be  practised  except  by  reliable 
medical  men  because  of  the  danger 
to  body  and  soul. 

Hypostatic  Union  —  Two  natures 
united  in  one  person  in  Christ. 

Idolatry  —  Worship  of  any  but 
the  true  God.  Catholic  veneration 
of  images  is  not  directed  towards 
the  images  themselves,  but  only  as 
they  represent  the  original. 

I  H  S  —  The  first  three  letters  of 
the  name  of  Jesus  in  Greek. 

Illegitimacy  —  Condition  of  one 
born  out  of  wedlock. 

Immaculate  Conception  —  Theolo- 
gians distinguish  between  active 
and  passive  conception.  The  form- 
er consists  in  the  act  of  the  parents 
which  causes  the  body  of  the  child 
to  be  formed  and  organized,  and  so 
prepared  for  the  reception  of  the 
rational  soul  which  is  infused  by 
God.  The  latter  takes  place  at  the 
moment  when  the  rational  soul  is 
actually  infused  into  the  body  by 
God.  It  is  the  passive,  not  the  ac- 
tive conception  which  Catholics 
have  in  view  when  they  speak  of 


the  Immaculate  Conception.  For 
there  was  nothing  miraculous  in 
Mary's  generation.  She  was  begot- 
ten like  other  children.  The  body, 
while  still  inanimate  or  without  the 
soul,  could  not  be  sanctified  or 
preserved  from  original  sin,  for  it 
is  the  soul,  not  the  body,  which 
is  capable  of  receiving  either  the 
gifts  of  grace  or  the  stain  of  sin. 
And  although  the  Blessed  Virgin 
sprang  from  the  fallen  race  of 
Adam,  and  thereby  incurred  the 
"debt"  or  liability  to  contract  orig- 
inal sin,  still  in  Mary's  case  God's 
mercy  did  interpose.  For  the  sake 
of  Him  Who  was  to  be  born  of  her 
and  for  "His  merits  foreseen,"  grace 
was  poured  into  her  soul  at  the 
first  instant  of  its  being.  The  best 
summary  of  the  Church's  doctrine 
is  very  nicely  contained  in  these 
few  words:  "Thou  art  innocent," 
says  Bossuet,  addressing  Christ, 
"by  nature,  Mary  only  by  grace; 
Thou  by  excellence,  she  only  by 
privilege;  Thou  as  Redeemer,  she 
as  the  first  of  those  whom  Thy  pre- 
cious blood  has  purified." 

This  doctrine  was  defended  by 
the  heroic  Franciscan  philosopher 
and  theologian,  Blessed  John  Sco- 
tus,  and  it  was  finally  defined  as  an 
article  of  faith  and  a  truth  con- 
tained in  the  original  teachings  of 
the  apostles,  by  Pope  Pius  IX,  on 
December  8,  1854,  in  the  presence 
of  more  than  200  bishops. 

Immersion — Though  valid,  plung- 
ing the  subject  in  water  for  Bap- 
tism is  no  longer  used  by  the  Latin 
Church. 

Immortality — The  survival  of  the 
soul  after  death,  reasonably  proven 
from  the  spirituality  of  the  soul 
and  man's  desire  for  perfect  happi- 
ness. 

Immunity  of  the  Clergy  —  Exemp- 
tion from  military  duty  and  civil 
office  outside  the  clerical  state, 
such  as  judge,  juror  or  magistrate. 
This  exemption  is  generally  recog- 
nized by  governments. 

Impediment  —  Condition  that 
makes  marriages  unlawful  or  in- 
valid. There  are  two  kinds  of  im- 
pediments: hindering  and  diriment. 


155 


I  m potency  —  Physical  incurable 
tmfitness  for  matrimony  which  ex- 
isted before  marriage.  Impotency 
is  a  diriment  impediment;  sterility 
is  not  an  impediment. 

imprimatur  —  Lat.  "it  may  be 
printed"  —  placed  at  the  beginning 
of  a  publication  to  show  it  has  com- 
plied with  the  church  law,  and  been 
examined  by  the  censor. 

Impurity  —  Unlawful  indulgence 
in  sex  pleasures  by  those  married 
or  unmarried. 

Incarnation  —  The  union  of  the 
divine  and  human  natures  in  Jesus 
Christ. 

Incense  —  Incense  was  introduced 
into  the  Church  services  when  the 
persecution  by  the  heathen  ceased, 
and  the  splendor  of  churches  and 
ritual  began.  The  use  of  incense 
carries  with  it  many  mystical  sig- 
nifications. It  symbolizes  the  zeal 
with  which  the  faithful  should  be 
consumed;  the  good  odor  of  Chris- 
tian virtue;  the  ascent  of  prayer  to 
God.  It  is  used  before  the  Introit, 
at  the  Gospel,  Offertory  and  Eleva- 
tion in  High  Mass;  at  the  Magnifi- 
cat in  vespers;  at  funerals,  etc. 

Incest  —  Carnal  intercourse  with 
relatives;  doubly  sinful  because  of 
the  irreverence  to  a  relative. 

Index  of  Prohibited  Books  — 
Books  Catholics  are  not  permitted 
to  read  without  special  permission. 

Indifference  —  Carelessness  in 
practicing  the  faith  one  believes. 

Jndissolubility  of  Marriage  —  A 
valid  marriage  ratified  by  cohabita- 
tion cannot  be  dissolved  except  by 
death.  While  divorce  is  not  per- 
missible, a  separation  may  be  ob- 
tained for  grave  reasons. 

Indulgence  —  The  remission  of 
punishment  still  due  to  sin  after 
sacramental  absolution.  An  indul- 
gence cannot  be  obtained  for  un- 
forgiven  sin.  The  guilt  of  sin  is  for- 
given in  the  Sacrament  of  Penance. 
However,  this  still  leaves  a  debt  of 
temporal  punishment,  which  is 
cleared  by  the  granting  of  an  indul- 
gence. A  plenary  indulgence  remits 
all  the  temporal  punishment  due  to 
sin,  A  partial  indulgence  remits  a 
portion  of  the  temporal  punishment 


due  to  sin.  To  gain  a  plenary  in- 
dulgence it  is  necessary  to  detest 
all  sin  and  have  the  purpose  of 
avoiding  even  the  least  venial  sin. 
Confession,  Communion  and  pray- 
ers for  the  Pope's  intention  also 
are  prescribed. 

Sndult  —  A  temporary  or  personal 
favor  granted  for  a  period  of  time 
by  an  ecclesiastical  authority  such 
as  a  dispensation  from  fasting. 

Infallibility  — The  Church  is  pre- 
served from  error  in  teaching  faith 
or  morals  due  to  the  assistance  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  the  spirit  of  truth. 
The  Pope  must  speak  "ex  cathe- 
dra" before  his  teachings  are  to  be 
accepted  as  infallible. 

Infidel  —  One  who  is  not  among 
the  faithful  of  Christ.  Popularly, 
the  term  is  applied  to  all  who  re- 
ject Christianity  as  a  divine  revela- 
tion. Those  who  have  never  heard 
of  Christianity  are  not  in  popular 
language  called  infidels,  but  hea- 
thens. 

Infused  Virtues  —  Supernatural 
virtues  like  faith,  hope  and  charity 
not  acquired  by  repeated  acts  of 
our  own.  Natural  virtues  such  as 
prudence  and  temperance  are  also 
considered  infused  when  sanctifi- 
ing  grace  is  given  in  order  to  prac- 
tice them  more  easily. 

In  Memo ri am  —  Lat.  "in  memory 
of"  —  inscription  generally  found 
on  tombstones. 

In  Partibus  Infidelium  —  Lat.  "in 
heathen  parts"  —  referring  to  titu- 
lar sees. 

In  petto  —  Italian  "in  the  breast," 
or  "secretly"  —  refers  to  the  crea- 
tion of  a  cardinal  whose  name  the 
Pope  withholds  from  publication. 

Inquisition,  Spanish  —  This  must 
not  be  identified  and  confused  with 
the  ecclesiastical  Inquisition.  The 
Spanish  Inquisition  was  a  mixed 
tribunal  with  the  civil  element  pre- 
dominating. Ferdinand  and  Isabella 
of  Spain  established  it  in  1481.  The 
principal  purpose  of  this  tribunal 
was  to  seek  out  the  convert  Mo- 
hammedans and  the  convert  Jews 
to  Christianity  who  were  suspected 
of  wishing  to  return  to  their  old 
religion.  The  former  were  called 
Moriscos  and  the  latter,  Maranos. 


156 


Many  of  these  Mohammedan  and 
Jewish  converts  while  openly  pro- 
fessing Christianity,  and  some  even 
having  become  priests  and  bishops, 
secretly  had  returned  to  their  old 
beliefs,  and  thus  made  a  mockery 
of  the  Christianity  they  professed. 
It  must  be  clearly  understood  that 
the  purpose  of  this  Inquisition  was 
not  the  persecution  of  the  Jews  as 
such,  or  of  those  Jews  who  had 
not  been  converted  to  Christianity. 
It  was  directed  primarily  against 
those  known  as  the  converses.  At 
a  later  date  the  scope  of  the  In- 
quisition was  broadened  to  include 
crimes  of  murder,  immorality,  smug- 
gling, usury  and  other  offenses. 

The  king  appointed  the  Grand 
Inquisitor  and  the  other  officials, 
and  also  signed  the  decrees,  and 
the  penalties  were  inflicted  in  his 
name.  Pope  Sixtus  IV  had  approved 
of  this  Spanish  Inquisition  because 
he  was  left  under  the  impression 
that  it  was  to  be  an  ecclesiastical 
tribunal.  When  the  true  state  of 
affairs  was  made  known  it  was  too 
late  to  do  anything  except  to  pro- 
test against  the  excesses  of  the 
Inquisition. 

This  institution  must  not  be 
viewed  from  a  twentieth-century 
standpoint,  but  rather  from  the 
point  of  view  of  the  times  in  which 
it  existed.  Heresy  was  a  state  of- 
fense, a  crime  against  both  Church 
and  State  and  punished  as  such. 
Even  during  the  Protestant  Ref- 
ormation the  same  view  was  held. 
The  Rev,  John  Laux  in  his  "Church 
History"  makes  the  following  com- 
ment with  regard  to  the  Protestant 
position  as  to  the  punishment  of 
heretics :  "The  Protestant  Reforma- 
tion did  nothing  to  change  the  tra- 
ditional views  in  regard  to  the  per- 
secution of  heretics.  In  Protestant 
as  well  as  in  Catholic  countries 
heretics  were  imprisoned,  tortured, 
and  put  to  death  by  fire  or  other- 
wise. It  was  not  until  1677  that 
the  death  penalty  against  heretics 
was  removed  from  the  statute 
books  in  England.  Philip  of  Spain 
considered  heresy  to  be  no  less 
dangerous  to  the  state  than  Eliza- 
beth of  England  considered  Cathol- 


icism to  be;  and  Philip's  prisons 
were  no  more  unsavory  and  noi- 
some than  the  English  prisons  of 
the  time.  Luther,  Melanchthon,  Cal- 
vin and  Theodore  of  Beza  explicitly 
approved  of  capital  punishment  for 
obstinate  heretics.  Calvin  even 
wrote  a  special  work  in  defense 
of  the  principle  that  'Heretics  are 
to  be  coerced  by  the  sword/  after 
he  had  burned  Michael  Servetus  at 
the  stake." 

I.  N.  R.  1. — The  inscription  placed 
atop  the  cross  at  Christ's  crucifix- 
ion meaning  "Jesus  of  Nazareth, 
King  of  the  Jews." 

Insanity  —  Insane  suicides  are 
given  Christian  burial  since  they 
are  not  responsible  for  their  acts. 
Baptism  and  Confirmation  may  be 
administered  to  the  insane  and 
Communion  given  in  saner  mo- 
ments or  at  death  when  Extreme 
Unction  may  also  be  given.  The 
Church  opposes  the  sterilization 
but  approves  the  segregation  of  the 
insane. 

Inspiration  —  Pope  Leo  XIII  in 
his  encyclical,  "Providentissimus 
Deus,"  speaking  on  the  subject  of 
inspiration  has  the  following  to  say 
with  regard  to  the  Holy  Ghost  and 
the  writers  of  the  Scriptures  in- 
spired by  Him:  "For,  by  supernat- 
ural power,  He  so  moved  and  im- 
pelled them  to  write  —  He  was  so 
present  to  them  —  that  the  things 
which  He  ordered,  and  those  only, 
they  first  rightly  understood,  then 
willed  faithfully  to  write  down,  and 
finally  expressed  in  apt  words  and 
with  infallible  truth.  Otherwise,  it 
could  not  be  said  that  He  was  the 
Author  of  the  entire  Scripture." 
(See  section  on  Bible.) 

Interdict  — >  A  penalty  imposed 
upon  a  group  of  the  faithful  for 
serious  violations  of  Church  laws. 
During  an  interdict  the  faithful  are 
debarred  from  receiving  certain 
sacraments,  from  liturgical  serv- 
ices and  Christian  burial.  Holy 
Communion,  however,  is  given, 
marriages  may  be  celebrated  and 
the  sacraments  given  to  the  dying. 

Internuncio  —  A  papal  legate  to 
countries  of  lesser  importance; 


157 


equivalent  to  ministers  of  the  sec- 
ond class. 

Intolerance  —  We  should  have  no 
patience  with  error  but  out  of  char- 
ity should  be  tolerant  with  the  err- 
ing. 

Irregularity  —  An  impediment  to 
the  clerical  state  such  as  illegiti- 
macy, bigamy,  bodily  defect,  apos- 
tasy, heresy,  homicide,  attempted 
suicide. 

Itinerary  —  Prayers,  including  the 
Benedictus,  and  four  Collects  re- 
cited when  clerics  set  out  upon  a 
journey. 

Joys  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
—  Annunciation,  Visitation,  Nativ- 
ity of  Christ,  Adoration  of  the 
Magi,  Finding  in  the  Temple,  Res- 
urrection and  Assumption. 

Judgment,  Last  —  Final  judgment 
by  Christ  after  the  general  Resur- 
rection, when  every  good  deed  and 
every  sin  of  every  human  being 
will  be  known  to  all,  without  em- 
barrassment however  to  those  who 
die  in  the  state  of  grace. 

Judgment,  Particular  —  Judg- 
ment immediately  after  death  fol- 
lowed by  entrance  into  heaven,  hell 
or  purgatory. 

Justice — A  virtue  by  which  every 
man  is  given  Ms  due.  God  owes 
nothing  to  His  creatures,  but  since 
He  loves  good  and  hates  evil,  He 
punishes  evil  and  rewards  good. 

Justification  —  The  remission  of 
sin  and  the  infusion  of  sanctifying 
grace  at  Baptism;  or  its  recovery 
in  the  Sacrament  of  Penance  when 
lost  through  mortal  sin. 

Keys,  Power  of  the  —  The  spir- 
itual jurisdiction  of  the  Church, 
centered  in  the  hands  of  the  Pope. 

Ku  KIux  Klan  —  The  order  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  existed  from 
1866  to  1869  without  any  semblance 
of  its  later  lawlessness  and  bigotry. 
Some  historians  claim  that  in  its 
early  stages  it  was  a  social  fra- 
ternity. However,  the  Klan  soon 
after  the  Civil  War,  realizing  the 
terror  which  it  struck  in  the  mind 
of  the  Negro  began  a  crusade  of 
violence  to  "protect  the  constitu- 


tional rights  of  the  whites"  by  op- 
pression of  the  freed  Negro  slaves. 
It  claimed  mercy  and  patriotism  as 
its  tenets  and  it  gained  a  free  hand 
during  the  days  of  Reconstruction 
in  the  South.  President  Grant  was 
forced  to  suppress  it. 

As  a  secret  fraternal  organiza- 
tion, the  Ku  Klux  Klan  was  reborn 
at  Atlanta,  Georgia,  in  1915,  as  a 
political,  religious  body.  This  was 
pledged  to  uphold  the  Constitution 
by  opposing  Catholics,  Jews,  Ne- 
groes and  the  foreign  born.  Scan- 
dals and  lawlessness  caused  its  de- 
cline in  1926.  It  sprang  up  again  in 
1928  and  has  been  recruiting  mem- 
bers in  the  North  as  well  as  the 
South  since  that  time.  However,  it 
is  now  definitely  marked  as  un- 
American  and  must  take  its  place 
beside  Communism,  Nazism  and 
other  subversive  groups  inimical  to 
true  Americanism. 

Labarum  —  The  banner  of  the 
cross,  used  by  Constantino  in  his 
campaigns. 

Laetare  Sunday  —  Fourth  Sunday 
in  Lent,  also  called  Rose  Sunday; 
named  from  the  first  word  of  the 
Introit  of  the  day,  Laetare,  meaning 
"Rejoice." 

Laicism  —  Church  administration 
by  laymen  in  the  fields  of  educa- 
tion, marriage,  hospitals,  charity, 
maintenance  of  churches,  convents, 
and  institutions. 

Lamps  —  Used  in  the  Christian 
churches  from  earliest  times  for 
practical  and  symbolic  purposes. 

Language  of  the  Church  —  The 
Church  requires  some  of  her  clergy 
to  use  Greek,  Syriac,  Coptic,  Arme- 
nian, Slavonic,  in  Mass,  according 
to  their  rite  just  as  strictly  as  she 
requires  others  to  employ  Latin. 

Last  Things,  Four  —  Death,  judg- 
ment, heaven,  hell. 

Latria  —  The  honor  and  worship 
due  to  God  alone. 

Law  as  Influenced  by  the  Church 

—  From  the  beginning  of  Christian- 
ity, churchmen  have  influenced  law 
by  framing  constitutions  and  oppos- 
ing evils,  such  as  usury. 


158 


Lay  Brothers  —  Religious  occu- 
pied with  the  secular  affairs  of  a 
monastery,  such  as  taking  care  of 
the  sacristy,  buildings,  farms, 
household,  and  visitors.  Very  often 
they  are  artists  and  craftsmen. 

Legate,  Papal  —  An  envoy  of  the 
Pope  sent  as  his  representative  to 
a  sovereign  or  government  or  on 
some  special  mission.  Papal  Leg- 
ates are  termed:  legates  a  latere, 
nuncios,  internuncios  or  apostolic 
delegates.  Legates  a  latere  are  the 
highest  form  of  legation  and  are 
sent  on  matters  of  international  im- 
portance. The  representative  of  the 
Pope  on  some  special  occasion, 
such  as  a  Eucharistic  Congress,  is 
simply  designated  as  papal  legate. 

Legitimation  —  Illegitimacy  is  re- 
moved if  the  parents  marry.  The 
Pope  may  legitimize  children  and 
remove  irregularity  for  entrance  in- 
to the  clerical  state. 

Lent  —  The  forty  days  fast  begin- 
ing  on  Ash  Wednesday  and  ending 
on  Holy  Saturday  in  memory  of 
the  forty  days  fast  of  our  Lord  in 
the  desert.  Sundays  in  Lent  are 
not  days  of  fast  or  abstinence.  The 
name  "Lent"  is  derived  from  the 
Anglo-Saxon  lencten,  meaning  spring, 
referring  to  the  season  in  which 
the  fast  occurs. 

Limbo  —  The  place  where  the 
souls  of  the  just  were  detained  un- 
til the  ascent  of  Christ  into  heav- 
en; a  place  of  rest  and  natural  hap- 
piness in  which  unbaptized  infants 
and  others  who  die  in  original,  but 
not  in  actual  sin,  are  detained. 

Litany  —  A  prayer  for  private  de- 
votions or  public  liturgical  services 
in  the  form  of  responsive  petition. 
There  are  five  litanies  approved  for 
public  devotions:  Litanies  of  Lo- 
reto,  the  Holy  Name,  All  Saints, 
the  Sacred  Heart,  and  St.  Joseph. 
Others  may  be  used  privately. 

Little  Office  of  the  Blessed  Vir- 
gin —  Consists  of  psalms,  lessons, 
and  hymns  in  honor  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin,  arranged  in  seven  hours 
like  the  Breviary  Office,  but  much 
shorter.  It  is  not  influenced  by  the 
course  of  the  Church  year,  except 
that  the  Alleluia  is  omitted  in 


Lent,  and  that  a  change  is  made  in 
the  Office  from  Advent  to  the  Puri- 
fication. Its  origin  is  shrouded  in 
mystery,  but  it  is  believed  to  have 
been  written  about  the  middle  of 
the  eighth  century. 

Liturgical  Movement  —  A  move- 
ment within  the  Church  to  restore 
the  full  glory  of  the  liturgy.  In- 
augurated at  the  Council  of  Trent, 
it  was  given  great  impetus  by  the 
Motu  Proprio  of  Pope  Pius  X  1903, 
ordering  universal  use  of  the  Gre- 
gorian Chant,  and  of  recent  years 
has  been  generally  activated  by 
clergy  and  laity. 

Liturgy- — The  public  official  serv- 
ice of  the  Church.  It  is  used  broad- 
ly to  indicate  all  the  public  rites, 
ceremonies  and  prayers  of  the 
church;  also  the  arrangement  of 
those  services  in  set  forms,  as  the 
Roman  Liturgy,  in  which  sense  it 
has  the  same  meaning  as  rite. 
Thus,  liturgical  services  are  those 
contained  in  any  official  book  of 
a  rite;  for  example,  Vespers  is  a 
liturgical  service.  Specifically,  lit- 
urgy signifies  the  chief  liturgical 
service,  the  Sacrifice  of  the  Mass. 

Lourdes  —  A  French  town  in  the 
Pyrenees  famous  for  the  shrine 
built  where  the  Immaculate  Virgin 
appeared  to  St.  Bernadette  Sou- 
birous. 

Lunula  or  Lunette  —  A  crescent- 
shaped  instrument  for  holding  the 
Sacred  Host  when  inserted  in  the 
monstrance. 

Magi  — Wise  men  who  visited  the 
Christ  Child  at  Bethlehem.  Their 
traditional  names  are  Melchior, 
Gaspar  and  Baltasar. 

M  ag  i  c — Marvelous  manifestations 
through  the  real  or  pretended  in- 
tervention of  spirits.  Magic  which 
invokes  evil  spirits  has  always 
been  regarded  as  sinful. 

Magnificat  —  Canticle  recited  by 
the  Blessed  Virgin  when  she  visited 
her  cousin,  Elizabeth. 

Mario  logy  —  A  branch  of  theolo- 
gy treating  of  the  life  and  pre- 
rogatives of  the  Blessed  Virgin  and 
the  part  she  played  in  our  redemp- 
tion and  sanctification. 


159 


Marks  of  the  Church  —  The 
Council  of  Trent  declared  the  four 
marks  of  the  church  to  be:  One, 
Holy,  Catholic  and  Apostolic. 

Marriage  without  a  Priest  — 
When  a  priest  will  not  be  avail- 
able for  a  period  of  time  such  as 
a  month,  a  Catholic  couple  may 
marry  by  expressing  mutual  con- 
sent before  two  witnesses.  Such 
a  marriage  also  may  be  transacted 
when  there  is  danger  of  death. 

Martyr  —  A  martyr  is  a  witness 
for  Christ.  In  early  times  the  title 
was  generally  given  to  those  who 
were  distinguished  witnesses  for 
Christ;  then  to  those  who  suffered 
for  Him,  and  eventually,  it  became 
restricted  to  those  who  died  for 
Him.  Martyrdom  is  the  voluntary 
endurance  of  death  for  the  faith  or 
some  other  act  of  virtue  relating  to 
God.  Nowadays  for  anyone  to  be 
deemed  a  martyr,  he  must  have 
either  actually  died  of  his  suffer- 
ings or  endured  pains  which  would 
have  caused  his  death  were  it  not 
for  miraculous  intervention. 

Martyrology  —  A  catalogue  of 
martyrs  and  other  saints  accord- 
ing to  the  calendar. 

Mass  —  The  Mass  is  the  unbloody 
renewal  of  the  Sacrifice  of  Our 
Lord  upon  the  Cross.  In  it  the 
priest,  as  the  representative  of 
Christ,  offers  to  God  the  bread  and 
wine,  which  he  changes  into  the 
Body  and  Blood  of  Our  Lord  at  the 
Consecration,  and  then  consum- 
mates the  sacrifice  by  consuming 
the  Host  and  drinking  the  chalice 
at  the  Communion. 

The  Church  has  prescribed  cer- 
tain prayers  and  ceremonies  for 
this  Sacrifice,  and  these  are  uni- 
versally followed  throughout  the 
entire  Church,  varying  only  in 
Rite.  The  name  is  derived  from 
Lat,  missa,  as  used  in  the  phrase, 
"Ite  missa  est,"  spoken  by  the 
priest  before  the  Last  Gospel;  this 
is  the  dismissal  of  the  faithful,  the 
Sacrifice  being  concluded,  and  grad- 
ually the  term  came  to  be  applied 
to  the  entire  Eucharistic  Sacrifice. 

Low  Mass  is  read  or  recited  by 
the  priest.  High  Mass  is  sung  by 


the  celebrant.  In  Solemn  High 
Mass  there  are  three  celebrants: 
the  priest,  deacon  and  subdeacon. 
Pontifical  Mass  is  said  by  the  Pope 
or  according  to  the  rites  of  such 
a  Mass.  Mass  of  the  Presanctified 
is  said  on  Good  Friday,  with  the 
Host  consecrated  on  Holy  Thurs- 
day. Nuptial  Mass  is  said  at  a  mar- 
riage ceremony,  to  ask  a  special 
blessing  upon  the  married  couple. 
Mass  of  the  Dead  is  said  at  a  fu- 
neral or  in  commemoration  of  the 
departed. 

Master  of  Ceremonies  —  He  who 

directs  the  proceedings  of  a  rite  or 
observance,  such  as  assisting  the 
celebrant  of  a  Mass. 

Master  of  Novices  —  He  who 
trains  novices  of  a  religious  order 
or  congregation.  He  must  be  at 
least  thirty-five  years  of  age,  have 
been  a  religious  for  ten  years,  be 
eminent  for  prudence,  charity, 
piety,  and  the  observance  of  the 
rules  of  the  society. 

Matrimony  —  The  conjugal  union 
of  man  and  woman,  contracted  be- 
tween two  Qualified  persons,  oblig- 
ing them  to  live  together  through- 
out life.  The  word  matrimony 
means  motherhood;  hers  is  the 
thought  of  conceiving,  of  bringing 
forth,  and  of  training  her  offspring. 
Marriage  is  a  natural  contract  but 
Christ  has  raised  it  to  the  dignity 
of  a  sacrament.  It  is  a  union  which 
gives  to  each  party  power  over 
the  other,  forging  an  indissoluble 
bond  of  partnership.  Marriage  is 
not  a  mere  donation  but  a  mutual 
agreement,  and  hence  the  volun- 
tary consent  of  both  contracting 
parties  is  essential.  This  consent 
must  be  mutual,  voluntary,  deliber- 
ate, and  manifested  by  external 
signs;  this  consent  must  be  given 
to  actual  marriage  then  and  there, 
and  not  at  some  future  time. 

Maundy  Thursday  —  Name  given 
to  Holy  Thursday  from  the  Anti- 
phon  "Mandatum"  said  at  the  cere- 
mony of  the  washing  of  the  feet. 

May  Laws  —  Laws  of  the  Prus- 
sian diet,  May,  1873,  known  as  the 
Kulturkampf,  which  abolished  the 


160 


Catholic  department  of  public  wor- 
ship, persecuted  the  clergy,  ex- 
pelled the  religious,  and  took,  over 
control  of  education.  The  May 
Laws  were  modified  in  1886,  when 
several  Religious  Orders  were  al- 
lowed to  return,  and  again  in  1887 
when  greater  concessions  were 
made  by  the  Prussian  government; 
the  last  remnant  of  the  May  Laws 
disappeared  in  1915,  when  the 
Jesuits  were  allowed  to  return. 

Meditation  —  Methodical  mental 
prayer,  or  the  application  of  mem- 
ory, understanding  and  will  to  some 
spiritual  principle,  event  or  mys- 
tery in  order  to  arouse  proper 
spiritual  emotions  and  sanctify 
one's  soul.  Exchanges  of  sentiment 
and  thought,  or  colloquies,  with  God 
or  the  saints  are  made  especially 
at  the  end  of  the  meditation,  which 
closes  with  a  formal  prayer. 

Mercy,  Divine  —  Love  and  good- 
ness of  God,  particularly  in  the 
time  of  need,  as  when  a  soul  is 
clouded  with  sin. 

Metropolitan  —  In  each  ecclesi- 
astical province  a  certain  episcopal 
see  is  constituted  by  the  Roman 
Pontiff,  the  superior  see,  and  the 
one  who  presides  over  this  see  is 
metropolitan  of  the  province.  He 
is  also  called  an  archbishop,  though 
the  two  titles  are  not  exactly  syn- 
onymous. 

Millennium  —  The  belief  based 
upon  a  false  interpretation  of  the 
Apocalypse  that  Christ  and  His 
saints  will  rule  upon  earth  for  a 
thousand  years  before  the  end  of 
the  world. 

Minor  Orders  —  Orders  in  ad- 
vancement to  the  priesthood:  por- 
ter, reader,  exorcist,  acolyte. 

Miracles  —  St.  Thomas  says  that 
a  miracle  "is  beyond  the  order  (or 
laws)  of  the  whole  of  created  na- 
ture." This  definition  makes  it  un- 
reasonable to  deny  the  possibility 
of  miracles,  unless  we  also  deny 
the  existence  of  God.  Nor  does  God 
in  working  miracles  contradict 
Himself,  for  He  need  not  be  re- 
stricted by  the  laws  of  nature 
which  He  Himself  made. 


It  is  also  clear  from  this  defini- 
tion that  God  alone  can  work  mir- 
acles. In  all  cases  a  miracle  is  a 
sign  of  God's  will,  and  cannot,  ex- 
cept through  our  own  perversity, 
lead  us  into  error.  True  miracles, 
then,  are  practically  distinguished 
from  false  ones  by  their  moral 
character. 

Miracles  did  not  cease  with  the 
Apostolic  Age.  The  Catholic  Church, 
by  her  constant  practice  in  the  can- 
onization of  saints  and  through  the 
teaching  of  her  theologians,  de- 
clares that  the  gift  of  miracles  is 
an  abiding  one,  manifested  from 
time  to  time  in  her  midst.  This 
belief  is  logical  and  consistent  be- 
cause heathen  nations  have  still  to 
be  converted  and  the  fervor  of  the 
Christians  must  necessarily  be  re- 
newed from  time  to  time.  The  only 
reasonable  course  is  to  examine  the 
evidence  for  modern  miracles,  when 
it  presents  itself,  and  to  give  or 
withhold  belief  accordingly.  This 
is  just  what  the  Church  does. 

Missal  —  The  book  which  con- 
tains the  complete  service  for  Mass 
throughout  the  year.  The  Roman 
missal  was  carefully  revised  and 
printed  under  Pius  V. 

Mission  — -  A  course  of  sermons 
and  spiritual  exercises,  conducted 
in  parishes  by  missionary  priests 
for  the  purpose  of  renewing  spirit- 
ual fervor  and  good  resolutions. 

Mitre  —  A  head-dress  worn  by 
bishops,  abbots,  and  in  certain 
cases  by  other  distinguished  ec- 
clesiastics. The  bishop  always  uses 
the  mitre  if  he  carries  the  pastoral 
staff.  Inferior  prelates  who  are  al- 
lowed a  mitre  must  confine  them- 
selves only  to  the  mitre,  unless  in 
case  of  an  express  concession  by 
the  Pope. 

Mixed  Marriages  —  Marriages  be- 
tween persons  of  different  reli- 
gions. Unless  a  dispensation  has 
been  obtained  from  the  chancellor 
of  the  diocese,  a  marriage  between 
a  baptized  and  an  unbaptized  per- 
son is  invalid;  one  between  a  Cath- 
olic and  a  person  of  another  com- 
munion, e.  g.,  a  Protestant,  is  valid, 
but  unlawful. 


161 


Monastery  —  A  dwelling  of  reli- 
gious, who  live  in  seclusion  and 
wlio  recite  the  office  in  common. 

Monstrance  —  The  sacred  vessel 
in  which  the  Blessed  Sacrament  is 
exposed  for  adoration  or  Benedic- 
tion. 

Morality  —  Conformity  to  right 
conduct.  Conditions  necessary  for 
the  growth  of  morality  are:  proper 
education  of  the  young  at  home 
and  at  school,  healthy  public  opin- 
ion, sound  legislation. 

Mortal  Sin  —  Called  mortal  be- 
cause it  brings  death  to  the  soul. 
Conditions  necessary  for  mortal  sin 
are:  gravity  of  matter,  sufficient 
reflection,  full  consent  of  the  will. 

Mortification  —  Hardships,  aus- 
terities, and  penances  undergone 
for  progress  in  virtue. 

Mosaic  —  The  Christian  art  of 
glass  mosaic  rose  in  the  fourth  cen- 
tury. The  pontifical  works  for  mo- 
saic were  established  in  1727.  Mod- 
ern mosaics  have  been  used  in  St. 
Paul's  and  Westminster  Cathedral, 
England. 

Motu  Proprio  —  Lat.  "own  ac- 
cord" —  applied  to  an  informal  de- 
cree of  the  Pope. 

Mysteries  —  Since  there  are 
countless  mysteries  in  nature  it  is 
not  surprising  to  find  them  in  God. 
The  three  great  mysteries  of  the 
Catholic  Church  are:  the  Trinity, 
Incarnation,  and  Eucharist. 

Necromancy  —  Supposed  com- 
munication with  the  dead.  It  is  a 
form  of  black  magic  or  sorcerous 
divination. 

Neophyte  —  A  term  used  in  the 
early  Church  to  designate  newly 
baptized  converts. 

Novena  —  Nine  days  of  public  or 
private  devotion  in  imitation  of  the 
apostles  who  gathered  for  prayer 
for  nine  days  between  Ascension 
Thursday  and  Pentecost. 

Novice  —  One  who  having  en- 
tered a  religious  order,  undergoes 
a  period  of  probation  in  prepara- 
tion for  the  religious  life. 


Nuncio  < —  The  Pope's  representa- 
tive at  a  foreign  government,  hand- 
ling affairs  between  the  Holy  See 
and  that  government. 

Nuptial  Mass  and  Blessing  —  A 
special  Mass  for  marriages  offered 
except  during  proscribed  times 
(Lent  and  Advent).  A  nuptial 
blessing  is  given  after  the  Pater 
Noster  and  before  the  last  blessing 
at  the  end  of  Mass. 

Oath  —  The  calling  upon  God  to 
witness  the  truth  of  a  statement. 
There  must  be  a  reason  for  taking 
an  oath  as  when  required  by  law- 
ful authority. 

Obedience  —  Submission  to  one 
in  authority;  one  of  the  chief  coun- 
sels, made  the  subject  of  a  vow. 

Obligation  —  The  necessity  of  do- 
ing what  is  good  and  avoiding  what 
is  evil.  It  is  the  essence  of  the  nat- 
ural, ecclesiastical  and  civil  law. 

Occasions  of  Sin — Circumstances 
which  lead  to  sin.  There  is  an  ob- 
ligation to  avoid  voluntary  proxi- 
mate occasions  of  sin. 

Octave  —  A  period  of  eight  days 
given  over  to  the  celebration  of  a 
major  feast,  such  as  Easter. 

Odium  Theologicum  —  Lat.  "the- 
ological hatred"  —  a  hatred  due  to 
differences  in  religious  beliefs. 

Oils,  Holy  —  There  are  three  holy 
oils  consecrated  by  bishops  on  Holy 
Thursday,  and  sent  to  parish 
priests.  1.  The  oil  of  catechumens 
used  in  Baptism,  at  the  ordination 
of  priests  and  at  the  blessing  and 
coronation  of  kings  and  queens,  2. 
Chrism,  used  after  Baptism,  in 
Confirmation,  at  the  consecration 
of  a  bishop,  in  the  consecration  of 
churches,  altars,  altar  stones,  chal- 
ices, patens  and  in  the  blessing  of 
bells  and  baptismal  water.  3.  Oil 
of  the  sick,  used  in  Extreme  Unc- 
tion. The  Roman  Ritual  requires 
these  oils  to  be  kept  in  vessels  of 
silver  or  alloyed  metals,  in  a  de- 
cent place  and  under  lock  and  key. 
The  'Sacred  Congregation  of  Rites 
strictly  forbids  the  pastor  to  keep 
them  in  his  house  except  in  cases 
of  necessity.  The  holy  oils  are  all 


162 


olive  oil,  except  the  chrism  which 
is  oil  mixed  with  balsam.  The  oils 
of  the  past  year  must  not  be  used, 
but  common  oil,  in  lesser  quantity, 
may  be  added  to  the  blessed  oils 
if  necessary. 

Old  Catholics  —  Swiss  and  Ger- 
man heretics  who  refused  to  ac- 
knowledge the  authority  of  the 
Pope  as  defined  in  the  Vatican 
Council  of  1870. 

Orders,  Religious  —  Orders  of 
monks  did  not  arise  so  long  as 
every  monastery  was  an  independ- 
ent entity  managing  its  own  affairs 
without  reference  to  any  other  au- 
thority but  the  general  law  of  the 
Church.  It  was  only  when,  com- 
mencing in  the  tenth  century,  sep- 
arate communities  such  as  those  of 
Cluny,  Citeaux  and  the  Chartreuse 
were  formed  within  the  great  Bene- 
dictine brotherhood,  that  the  term 
"order"  came  into  use.  Early  in 
the  thirteenth  century  the  mendi- 
cant orders  —  Franciscan,  Domini- 
can and  Carmelite  Friars  —  were 
either  founded  or  came  into  dis- 
tinct prominence;  in  the  second 
half  of  the  century  they  were 
joined  by  the  Augustinian  hermits. 
These  four  orders,  having  no 
landed  property,  but  subsisting  on 
alms,  began  in  all  parts  of  Europe, 
but  especially  in  cities,  where  lux- 
ury and  civic  pride  were  beginning 
to  show  themselves,  to  preach  the 
humbling  and  fortifying  doctrines 
of  Christ. 

Ordinary  —  One  who  has  the  ju- 
risdiction of  an  office:  The  Pope, 
diocesan  bishops,  vicars  general, 
prelates  nullius,  vicars  apostolic, 
prefects  apostolic,  vicars  capitular 
during  the  vacancy  of  a  see,  su- 
periors general,  abbots  primate, 
and  provincials. 

Ordination  —  The  creation  of  sa- 
cred ministers  in  the  Church  for 
divine  worship  and  to  rule  the 
faithful.  Minor  and  major  orders 
precede  the  priesthood  which  is  in- 
creased by  the  episcopacy. 

Original  Sin  —  The  consequences 
of  Adam's  sin  transmitted  to  the 
entire  human  race  with  the  loss  of 


immortality,  control  of  the  baser 
appetites,  and  the  supernatural 
state,  entailing  death  and  concupis- 
cence. 

Orthodoxy — Conformity  with  the 
standards  of  truth,  i.  e.,  belief  in 
and  agreement  with  the  true  doc- 
trine of  the  Catholic  Church. 
Though  the  schismatic  Eastern  or- 
thodox Church  claims  this  title, 
they  do  so  wrongly,  as  they  are  at 
variance  with  the  true  doctrine. 

Paganism  —  A  natural  religion 
without  true  knowledge  of  God  but 
rather  a  belief  in  false  gods  and  a 
degraded  morality.  Two-thirds  of 
the  world  is  still  pagan. 

Pallium  —  A  band  of  white  wool 
worn  on  the  shoulders.  It  has  two 
strings  of  the  same  material,  and 
four  purple  crosses  worked  on  it. 
It  is  worn  by  the  Pope  and  sent  by 
him  to  patriarchs,  primates,  arch- 
bishops and  sometimes,  though 
rarely,  to  bishops  as  a  token  that 
they  possess  the  "fullness  of  the 
episcopal  office."  The  pallia  are 
made  from  the  wool  of  two  lambs. 

Palms  —  Blessed  palms  are  a  sac- 
ramental. They  are  distributed  on 
Palm  Sunday  in  commemoration  of 
the  triumphant  entrance  of  Christ 
into  Jerusalem. 

Parable  —  The  fictitious  narra- 
tive composed  to  illustrate  a  truth 
of  comparison  of  religious  nature 
such  as  the  parable  of  the  cockle. 

Paraclete  —  A  Greek  word  mean- 
ing advocate  or  consoler,  applied 
to  the  Holy  Ghost. 

Parental  Duties  —  It  is  the  duty 
of  parents  to  educate  their  children 
for  God  and  for  salvation,  to  direct 
them  toward  good  and  bring  them 
under  the  guidance  of  the  Church, 
provide  for  their  temporal  welfare 
by  nourishing  them  and  developing 
their  faculties. 

Paschal  Candle  —  A  large  candle 
symbolic  of  the  Risen  Christ, 
blessed  and  lighted  on  Holy  Satur- 
day and  placed  at  the  Gospel  side 
of  the  altar  until  Ascension  Day. 


163 


Paschal  Precept  —  The  Church 
law  that  the  faithful  must  receive 
Holy  Communion  at  least  once  a 
year.  See  Easter  Duty. 

Passion  of  Christ — Sufferings  of 
Christ  recorded  in  the  four  Gospels. 
Passion  plays  were  developed  in 
the  fifteenth  century,  particularly 
in  Germany,  and  there  revived  in 
the  nineteenth  and  twentieth  cen- 
turies. 

Pater  Noster  —  The  Our  Father, 
or  Lord's  Prayer. 

Patriarch  —  The  highest  office  in 
the  hierarchy.  In  the  order  of  dig- 
nity they  are  as  follows:  major, 
Constantinople,  Alexandria,  Anti- 
och  and  Jerusalem:  minor,  Babylon 
Cilicia,  Venice,  Lisbon,  West  In- 
dies. The  last  four  are  merely  titu- 
lar. There  are  patriarchs  of  va- 
rious rites  in  certain  patriarchates 
as  the  Syrian,  Maronite  and  Mel- 
chite  Patriarchs  of  Antioch. 

Patron  Saint  —  A  saint  to  whom 
special  devotion  is  paid  by  certain 
peoples  in  certain  places;  one 
whose  aid  is  sought  in  special 
needs;  one  whose  name  is  received 
at  Baptism,  Confirmation  or  in  re- 
ligion, 

Pax  —  The  kiss  of  peace,  given  in 
the  Mass. 

Pectoral  Cross  —  A  small  cross 
worn  on  the  breast  by  bishops  and 
abbots  as  a  mark  of  their  office. 

Pelican— An  emblem  of  Christ  in 
the  Blessed  Sacrament,  from  the 
ancient  idea  that  a  pelican  fed  her 
young  with  blood  from  her  own 
breast 

Penance  —  Penance  is  a  sacra- 
ment instituted  by  Christ  for  the 
remission  of  sin  committed  after 
Baptism.  The  penitent  confesses 
his  sins  to  a  priest,  and  thereby  re- 
ceives forgiveness  from  God,  if  he 
is  truly  sorry,  sincerely  intends  to 
sin  no  more,  and  performs  the  pen- 
ance the  priest  gives  him. 

Pentateuch  —  The  first  five  books 
of  the  Old  Testament,  which  are 
the  work  of  Moses. 


Perjury  —  The  taking  of  a  false 
oath  which  is  always  a  grievous  sin. 

Persecutions — The  ten  great  per- 
secutions extended  from  about  the 
year  54  to  313.  The  Christians  were 
looked  upon  by  the  Roman  officials 
as  treasonable  men  who  refused  to 
honor  the  gods  of  the  empire,  who 
dealt  in  magic  and,  lastly,  practiced 
an  unlawful  religion.  If  anything 
went  adverse  with  the  empire  the 
cry  was  always:  The  Christians  to 
the  lions!  The  first  persecution 
started  under  Nero.  Domitian  con- 
tinued it,  and  Trajan  followed  in 
their  footsteps.  The  persecutions 
continued  up  to  Constantino's  Edict 
of  Toleration  at  Milan  in  313. 

Peter's  Pence  —  A  voluntary  con- 
tribution raised  among  Catholics 
and  sent  to  Rome  for  the  mainte- 
nance of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff.  It 
was  originally  a  tax  of  a  penny  on 
each  house,  and  was  collected  on 
St.  Peter's  day,  whence  the  name.  It 
originated  in  England  in  the  eighth 
century. 

Pilgrimage  —  Pilgrimages  to  the 
holy  places  at  Palestine  have  been 
customary  since  early  times.  Simi- 
lar journeys  to  celebrated  shrines 
are  still  made  to  worship,  ask  spe- 
cial favors,  or  discharge  obligations. 

Polyglot  Bible  —  The  Bible  in  a 
number  of  languages  arranged  gen- 
erally in  parallel  columns  in  He- 
brew, Greek,  Latin,  etc. 

Poor  Box  —  The  alms-box  has 
been  found  in  churches  from  the 
earliest  days  of  Christianity. 

Pope  —  Name  derived  from  the 
Greek  word  J>apm,  meaning  Father. 
The  Pope  is  elected  by  the  College 
of  Cardinals,  a  two-thirds  vote  be- 
ing necessary.  There  have  been 
261  popes. 

Portiuncula  —  The  little  Church 
near  Assisi,  Italy,  repaired  by  St. 
Francis;  the  annual  indulgence  at- 
tached to  this  church  and  later  ex- 
tended to  all  Franciscan  churches. 
It  may  be  gained  between  noon  of 
August  1  and  midnight  of  August 
2  or  on  the  Sunday  following. 


164 


Possession,  Diabolical — The  state 
of  a  person  inhabited  by  the  devil. 

Poverty  —  One  of  the  evangelical 
counsels,  a  voluntary  giving  up  of 
the  right  of  ownership  and  the  using 
of  goods  in  the  manner  of  the  poor. 

Precious  Blood  —  The  Blood  of 
Christ. 

Predella  —  The  platform  immedi- 
ately in  front  of  the  altar. 

Prelate  —  A  churchman  preferred 
above  others  in  papal  honor  or  ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction. 

Priest  —  A  sacred  minister  with 
the  power  to  celebrate  Mass,  ad- 
minister the  sacraments,  preach 
and  bless. 

Promoter    of    the    Faith  —  One 

whose  duty  is  to  insure  the  sanctity 
of  those  whose  cause  for  canoniza- 
tion is  considered.  Popularly  called 
"Devil's  Advocate." 

Prothonotary  Apostolic  —  A  mem- 
ber of  the  chief  order  of  prelates 
in  the  Roman  Curia. 

Province  —  A  territory  compris- 
ing several  dioceses  and  one  arch- 
diocese; a  territory  in  which  the 
members  of  a  religious  order  are 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  a  provin- 
cial superior. 

Pulpit  —  Originally,  preaching 
was  done  from  the  altar.  But  ap- 
parently even  in  St.  Augustine's 
time  the  ambo,  originally  meant  for 
singing  from,  was  raised  and  nar- 
rowed into  our  present  form  of  pul- 
pit. It  should  be  on  the  Gospel 
side,  unless  otherwise  hindered, 
e.g.,  by  the  bishop's  throne. 

Purgatory  —  A  place  and  state 
where  departed  souls,  having  died 
in  the  state  of  grace,  suffer  for  a 
time  in  order  to  be  cleansed  from 
venial  sin,  or  have  still  to  pay  the 
temporal  punishment  due  to  mortal 
sins,  the  guilt  and  the  eternal  pun- 
ishment of  which  have  been  re- 
mitted. The  idea  that  purgatory  is 
a  place  of  probation,  or  a  time  of 
trial,  is  absolutely  wrong;  the  peri- 
od during  which  the  soul  has  to 
choose  between  heaven  or  hell  ends 
with  death. 


Pyx  —  A  vessel  of  metal,  gold,  or 
silver  in  which  the  Host  is  pre- 
served or  carried. 

Quarantines  —  A  strict  fast  of 
forty  days  with  only  water,  bread 
and  salt  allowed  once  a  day.  The 
indulgence  of  quarantines  remits  as 
much  temporal  punishment  due  to 
sin  as  would  equal  forty  days  of 
such  penance. 

Quasi-domicile  —  Residence  which 
is  not  permanent  but  nevertheless 
lasts  for  a  considerable  time. 

Quinquagesima — The  last  Sunday 
before  Lent,  marking  a  period  of 
fifty  days  before  Easter. 

Rashness  —  A  vice  opposed  to 
prudence  and  counsel  by  which  one 
acts  without  consideration  of  ac- 
tual conditions,  without  foresight  or 
advice. 

Relics  —  The  remains  of  holy  per- 
sons, either  parts  of  their  bodies 
or  possessions,  entitled  to  venera- 
tion. 

Relics  of  the  Passion  —  There  are 
various  relics  of  the  true  cross  to 
be  found  principally  in  European 
cities:  Brussels,  Ghent,  Rome,  Ven- 
ice, Ragusa,  Paris,  Limbourg,  and 
Mt.  Athos.  The  inscription  placed 
above  the  cross  is  preserved  in  the 
Basilica  of  the  Holy  Cross  of  Jeru- 
salem at  Rome.  The  crown  of 
thorns  is  kept  at  Paris.  One  of  the 
nails  was  supposedly  thrown  into 
the  Adriatic  to  calm  a  storm;  an- 
other was  made  into  the  famous 
iron  crown  of  Lombardy;  another 
is  in  the  Church  of  Notre  Dame, 
Paris.  The  sponge  is  in  Rome  at 
the  Basilica  of  St.  John  Lateran. 
The  point  of  the  lance  is  in  Paris, 
the  rest  is  in  Rome.  The  robe  is  in 
the  Church  of  Treves.  The  tunic  is 
in  the  Church  of  Argenteuil  near 
Paris.  A  part  of  the  winding  sheet 
is  in  Turin.  The  linen  with  which 
Veronica  wiped  Christ's  face  is  in 
Rome.  Part  of  the  Pillar  of  the 
Scourging  is  in  Rome,  part  in  Jeru- 
salem. 

Religion  and  Science  —  There  is 
no  contradiction  between  religion 
and  science  since  one  deals  with 


165 


material  things  and  the  other  with 
supernatural.  Conflict  arises  only 
when  the  scientist  tries  to  turn 
theologian  or  the  theologian,  scien- 
tist. 

Reliquary — A  vessel  for  the  pres- 
ervation and  exposition  of  a  relic. 

Reparation — The  making  amends 
to  God  for  evil  done  by  men,  such 
as  rendering  homage  to  Him  in 
reparation  for  the  irreverence  done 
to  the  Blessed  Sacrament. 

Reserved  Case  — A  sin  which  can- 
not be  absolved  except  by  a  bishop 
or  the  Pope. 

Restitution  —  The  returning  of 
something  unjustly  taken  from  an- 
other or  its  equivalent.  In  serious 
cases  the  penitent  cannot  obtain 
pardon  for  his  sin  unless  he  makes 
restitution. 

Resurrection  —  The  rising  from 
the  dead,  the  resumption  of  life. 
Christ  rose  from  the  dead  by  His 
own  power  three  days  after  His 
Crucifixion.  This  great  miracle  is 
commemorated  by  the  Church  in 
the  glorious  feast  of  Easter.  On 
the  last  day  all  men  will  rise  from 
the  dead,  and  their  souls  will  be  re- 
united to  their  bodies  for  all  eter- 
nity. The  resurrection  of  the  body 
is  a  dogma,  our  belief  in  which  we 
attest  in  the  Apostles'  Creed. 

Retreat  —  A  few  days  withdrawal 
from  worldly  affairs  for  solitude, 
meditation,  self-examination  and 
amendment  of  life. 

Ring  —  A  circular  band  of  metal 
worn  as  an  emblem  of  fidelity.  A 
wedding  ring,  worn  by  the  wife  on 
the  fourth  finger,  is  blessed  at  the 
marriage  ceremony.  Nuns  also  wear 
a  ring  symbolic  of  their  betrothal 
to  their  heavenly  bridegroom.  The 
pontifical  ring  bestowed  on  a  bish- 
op at  his  consecration,  or  on  an 
abbot,  symbolizes  their  betrothal  to 
the  Church. 

Ritual  —  A  book  used  by  priests 
with  forms  to  be  observed  by  them 
in  the  administration  of  the  Sacra- 
ments, and  in  such  functions  as 
churching,  burials,  and  in  most  of 
the  blessings  which  they  can  give. 


Rogation  Days  —  April  25,  and 
the  three  days  before  Ascension 
Day,  when  special  prayers  are  of- 
fered to  appease  God's  anger  at 
man's  transgressions,  to  ask  His 
protection  in  calamities  and  for  the 
blessing  of  the  harvest. 

Rosary  -—A  set  form  of  prayer  re- 
cited on  beads  in  which  fifteen  dec- 
ades of  Hail  Marys  are  preceded 
by  an  Our  Father  and  followed  by 
a  Glory  Be  to  the  Father.  In  say- 
ing each  decade  (ten  beads)  a  mys 
tery  is  contemplated.  There  are  five 
glorious,  five  joyful  and  five  sorrow- 
ful mysteries.  The  joyful  mysteries 
are:  Annunciation,  Visitation,  Na- 
tivity, Presentation  of  the  Child 
Jesus  in  the  Temple,  and  Finding 
of  the  Child  Jesus  in  the  Temple. 
The  sorrowful  mysteries  are :  Agony 
in  the  Garden,  Scourging  at  the 
Pillar,  Crowning  with  Thorns,  Car- 
rying of  the  Cross,  and  Crucifixion. 
The  glorious  mysteries  are:  Resur- 
rection, Ascension,  Descent  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  Assumption,  and  Cor- 
onation of  the  Blessed  Virgin  in 
Heaven. 

Rota  —  A  tribunal  of  the  Roman 
Curia  where  cases  relating  to  mar- 
riage, ordination  and  religious  pro- 
fessions are  heard. 

Rubrics  —  Directions  printed  in 
red  in  liturgical  books  for  the 
proper  execution  of  liturgical  func- 
tions. 

Sabbath  —  The  Jewish  day  of 
rest.  Under  the  Christian  law  the 
day  of  rest  was  changed  to  Sun- 
day in  honor  of  the  Resurrection. 

Sacramentals  —  Rites,  actions, 
prayers  and  objects  instituted  and 
blessed  by  the  Church,  through 
which  we  obtain  special  grace 
or  favor  with  God.  They  do 
not  produce  grace  of  themselves 
but  by  virtue  of  the  blessing 
and  prayers  of  the  Church,  and 
since  they  were  not  instituted  by 
Christ  but  by  the  Church  their  num- 
ber may  be  added  to.  Their  proper 
use  can  drive  away  evil  spirits, 
bring  victory  over  temptation,  re- 
mit venial  sins,  and  obtain  an  in- 
crease of  piety  and  temporal  favors. 


166 


The  sacramentals  most  generally 
in  use  are:  holy  water;  holy  oils; 
blessed  candles,  palms  and  ashes; 
blessed  crucifixes,  scapulars,  med- 
als, rosaries,  prayer-books  and  sta- 
tues; the  blessings  of  these  ob- 
jects; blessings  of  houses  and 
fields;  the  Confiteor  recited  at 
Mass,  at  Communion,  in  the  Di- 
vine Office;  grace  before  and  after 
meals;  public  or  private  prayer  in 
a  church;  papal  and  episcopal 
blessing;  Benediction  of  the 
Blessed  Sacrament;  almsgiving. 

Sacramentary  —  A  book  contain- 
ing the  rites  for  the  Mass  and  the 
Sacraments  generally. 

Sacraments  —  Sacraments  are 
visible  signs  of  invisible  grace,  in- 
stituted by  Christ  for  our  justifica- 
tion. 

The  Sacraments  are  seven  in 
number.  In  Baptism  we  are  born 
again;  in  Confirmation  we  grow  up 
to  be  perfect  men  in  Christ;  the 
Holy  Eucharist  is  the  daily  bread 
by  which  the  life  of  the  soul  is 
maintained;  in  Penance  God  heals 
the  soul  which  has  sinned  against 
Him.  When  death  is  near  Extreme 
Unction  comes  to  remove  the  last 
remnant  of  infirmity  and  prepare 
the  soul  for  final  victory.  Matri- 
mony was  instituted  that  the  nat- 
ural impulses,  which  have  often 
proved  a  source  of  corruption  and 
crime,  might  become  a  source  of 
blessing,  and  that  children  might  be 
brought  up  in  the  fear  and  love  of 
God.  Holy  Orders  was  instituted 
that  the  Church  might  be  ruled  by 
those  whom  God  has  set  over  her, 
and  be  guided  by  the  Word  of  Life 
and  be  blessed  with  the  Sacra- 
ments. 

The  Sacraments  are  meant  for  all 
mankind;  but  in  order  that  they 
may  be  received  with  profit  by 
adults  especially,  certain  disposi- 
tions are  indispensable.  To  the 
Sacraments  of  the  dead,  i.  e.,  Bap- 
tism and  Penance,  the  recipient 
must  come  at  least  with  faith,  hope, 
sorrow  for  sin,  and  purpose  of 
amendment.  The  Sacraments  of  the 
living,  i.  e.,  the  other  five,  must  be 
received  by  those  who  are  already 


in  the  grace  and  love  of  God.  Other- 
wise the  Sacraments  only  add  to 
the  condemnation  of  those  who  re- 
ceive them. 

Sacred  Heart  —  The  corporal 
heart  of  Christ  united  to  the  full- 
ness of  His  divinity  and  symbolic 
of  His  love,  accorded  supreme  ad- 
oration in  the  Church.  (See  Heart 
of  Jesus.) 

Sacrilege  —  Irreverent  treatment 
of  sacred  persons,  places  or  things; 
a  grave  sin. 

Sacristy  —  A  room  where  vest- 
ments, church  furnishings  and  sa- 
cred vessels  are  kept  and  where 
the  clergy  vest  for  sacred  functions. 

Saints  —  All  inhabitants  of 
heaven.  In  the  strict  sense,  those 
who  have  received  the  official  ap- 
proval of  the  Church  for  public 
veneration,  this  approval  being 
given  because  of  the  holy  and  vir- 
tuous lives  which  these  persons 
lived  on  earth. 

Sanctifying  Grace  —  A  supernatu- 
ral gift  infused  into  the  soul  at 
Baptism  rendering  it  capable  of 
acting  in  a  way  to  merit  eternal 
happiness.  Sanctifying  grace  is  lost 
by  mortal  sin;  recovered  by  re- 
pentance. 

Sanctuary  —  Space  reserved  for 
the  high  altar  and  the  use  of  the 
clergy  in  a  church;  generally  en- 
closed by  a  rail. 

Sanctuary  Lamp  —  One  lamp 
must  continually  burn  before  the 
Blessed  Sacrament.  This  lamp 
should  be  fed  with  olive  oil  or  bees- 
wax. 

Sanhedrin  —  The  Jewish  supreme 
Council  of  Seventy  at  the  time  of 
Christ. 

Scandal — Words  or  actions  hav- 
ing at  least  the  appearance  of  evil 
and  leading  others  to  sin. 

Scapular  —  A  sacramental  con- 
sisting of  two  small  squares  of 
woolen  cloth  attached  to  a  cord  so 
that  one  is  worn  on  the  breast  and 
the  other  on  the  back  denoting 
that  the  wearer  is  spiritually  asso- 
ciated with  a  religious  order.  There 


167 


are  eighteen  kinds  of  scapulars  ap- 
proved by  the  Church  as  follows: 

White  —  scapular  of  the  hearts 
of  Jesus  and  Mary,  originated  by 
the  Daughters  of  the  Sacred  Heart; 
scapular  of  the  Holy  Face,  orig- 
inated by  the  Archconfraternity  of 
the  Holy  Face;  scapular  of  the  Im- 
maculate Heart  of  Mary,  badge  of 
the  Sons  of  the  Immaculate  Heart 
of  Mary;  scapular  of  the  Mother  of 
Good  Counsel,  promoted  by  the 
Augustinian  Fathers;  scapular  of 
Our  Lady  of  Ransom,  badge  of  a 
confraternity  of  the  Order  of  Our 
Lady  of  Mercy;  scapular  of  the 
Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus,  approTed  by 
Pope  Leo  XIII;  scapular  of  St. 
Dominic,  fostered  by  the  Dominican 
Order;  scapular  of  the  Most  Blessed 
Trinity,  badge  of  the  Confraternity 
of  the  Most  Blessed  Trinity. 

Black  —  scapular  of  the  Help  of 
the  Sick  associated  with  the  So- 
ciety of  St.  Camillus;  scapular  of 
the  Passion,  badge  of  a  confrater- 
nity associated  with  the  Passionist 
Fathers;  scapular  of  St.  Benedict, 
badge  of  a  confraternity  affiliated 
with  the  Benedictine  Order;  scapu- 
lar of  the  Seven  Dolors,  badge  of  a 
confraternity  established  by  the 
Servites  of  Mary. 

Red  —  scapular  of  the  Passion, 
promoted  by  Priests  of  the  Mission; 
scapular  of  the  Precious  Blood, 
badge  of  the  Confraternity  of  the 
Precious  Blood. 

Blue  —  scapular  of  the  Immacu- 
late Conception  introduced  by  the 
Theatine  Nuns;  scapular  of  St.  Jo- 
seph, promoted  by  the  Capuchin 
Fathers ;  scapular  of  St.  Michael  the 
Archangel,  part  blue,  part  black, 
badge  of  the  Archconfraternity  of 
St.  Michael. 

Brown  —  scapular  of  Mount  Car- 
mel,  badge  of  the  Confraternity  of 
Our  Lady  of  Mt.  Carmel,  originated 
by  the  Carmelites. 

Scapular  Medal  —  Introduced  by 
missionaries  in  Africa  to  replace 
the  cloth  scapular  which  became 
soiled  and  dirty  in  a  very  short 
time;  later  extended  to  the  whole 
world.  The  change  from  wearing 
the  cloth  scapular  to  the  use  of 


scapular  medal  may  be  made  after 
one  has  been  received  into  the 
cloth  scapular  but  the  medal  must 
be  blessed. 

Schism  —  Term  applied  by  the 
Fathers  and  theologians  to  a  formal 
separation  from  the  unity  of  the 
Church.  St.  Matthew  and  St.  Mark 
call  it,  "a  tear  or  rent";  St.  John, 
"a  division  of  opinion,"  and  again, 
"a  party  spirit  in  the  Christian 
Church." 

Schoo!  —  The  Catholic  School  is 
an  institution  having  for  its  aim 
the  development  of  the  mind,  and, 
above  all,  the  perfection  of  the 
soul.  The  earliest  Christian  school 
(of  which  a  distinct  account  has 
come  down  to  us)  was  established 
by  Pantaenus  at  Alexandria  in  180 
A.  D.  Later  cathedrals  and  monas- 
teries became  education  centers. 
Modern  universities  and  secondary 
schools  were  founded  in  the  twelfth 
century.  The  primary  or  elementary 
schools  had  their  origin  in  the  sev- 
enteenth century. 

Scruple  —  An  unreasonable  fear 
and  anxiety  that  one's  actions  are 

sinful. 

Seal  of  Confession  —  A  priest's 
obligation  to  keep  sacred  the  se- 
crets of  the  confessional  even  at 
the  cost  of  his  life. 

Secret  Societies  —  The  Catholic 
Church  condemns  and  forbids  Cath- 
olics to  enter  societies  formed 
against  the  Church  or  the  State, 
those  that  require  undue  secrecy 
and  absolute  obedience  and  which 
employ  a  ceremonial  equivalent  to 
religious  sects.  A  Catholic  who  joins 
the  Freemasons  is  excommunicated 
from  the  Church.  The  Catholic  who 
joins  the  Odd  Fellows,  Knights  of 
Pythias,  etc.,  commits  grievous  sin. 
Those  who  join  these  latter  groups 
in  good  faith,  may  with  permission 
retain  nominal  membership  if  scan- 
dal can  be  removed  and  there  is  no 
danger  to  faith.  The  general  rule  to 
be  followed  is  that  one  cannot  sacri- 
fice the  demands  of  faith  for  the  so- 
cial advantages  accruing  from  mem- 
bership in  these  societies.  The  same 
rule  applies  to  secret  societies  of 


168 


women  sucli  as  the  Eastern  Star 
and  the  Ladies  of  Pythias. 

Secular  Clergy  —  Clergy  not  affili- 
ated with  religious  *  orders,  under 
the  allegiance  and  direction  of  a 
bishop. 

Septuagesima  —  The  ninth  Sun- 
day before  Easter  and  the  third 
Sunday  before  Lent. 

Septuagint  —  The  chief  Greek 
translation  of  the  Old  Testament. 

Servile  Work  —  Bodily  as  con- 
trasted with  mental  labor. 

Seven  Last  Words  of  Christ  —Af- 
ter being  nailed  to  the  cross:  "Fa- 
ther, forgive  them  for  they  know 
not  what  they  do";  to  the  penitent 
thief:  "Amen,  Amen,  I  say  to  thee, 
this  day  thou  shalt  be  with  Me  in 
Paradise";  to  the  Blessed  Virgin 
and  St.  John:  "Woman,  behold  thy 
son :  son,  behold  thy  mother" ;  in  an 
agony  of  loneliness:  "My  God,  My 
God,  why  hast  Thou  forsaken  Me?"; 
parched  with  thirst:  "I  thirst"; 
when  every  prophecy  foretold  of 
Him  had  been  fulfilled:  "It  is  con- 
summated"; lastly:  "Father,  into 
Thy  hands  I  commend  My  Spirit." 

Sexagesima  —  The  eighth  Sunday 
before  Easter  and  the  second  Sun- 
day before  Lent. 

Sign  of  the  Cross  —  Sacred  sym- 
bol used  by  Catholics  to  signify  be- 
lief in  the  mystery  of  Redemption 
wrought  by  Christ  on  the  Cross. 

Simony — The  sacrilegious  vice  of 
purchasing  or  selling  ecclesiastical 
offices,  benefices,  and  sacred  objects. 

Sins  against  the  Holy  Ghost  — 
Despair  of  salvation,  presumption 
of  God's  mercy,  impugning  the 
known  truths  of  faith,  envy  at  an- 
other's spiritual  good,  obstinacy 
in  sin,  final  impenitence.  Those 
guilty  of  such  sins  stubbornly  re- 
sist the  influence  of  grace  and  as 
long  as  they  do  so  cannot  be  for- 
given. 

Sins  That  Cry  to  Heaven  for  Ven- 
geance —  Wilful  murder;  sins 
against  nature;  oppression  of  the 
poor,  widows,  and  orphans;  de- 
frauding laborers  of  their  wages. 

Slander  —  Attributing  to  another 
a  fault  that  one  knows  him  to  be 
innocent  of;  doubly  sinful  since  it 


destroys  a  good  name  and  is  based 
on  a  lie. 

Socialism  —  A  system  based  on 
common  ownership  of  the  means  of 
production. 

Sodality  —  An  association  of  lay 
persons,  meeting  under  certain 
rules  for  pious  purposes. 

Sorcery  —  A  species  of  magic  by 
which  evil  is  brought  on  men  or 
beasts  with  the  aid  of  the  devil. 

Sorrows  of  the  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary  —  Prophecy  of  Simeon,  flight 
into  Eg37pt,  loss  of  Jesus  at  Jeru- 
salem, meeting  Jesus  on  the  way  to 
Calvary,  standing  at  the  foot  of  the 
Cross,  descent  of  Jesus  from  the 
Cross,  burial  of  Jesus. 

Species,  Sacred  —  The  appear- 
ances of  bread  and  wine  which  re- 
main after  the  consecration. 

Spiritism  —  Condemned  by  the 
Church  as  dangerous  to  faith  and 
morals.  Attempted  communication 
with  spirits,  whether  good  or  bad 
by  means  of  seances,  table  tapping, 
the  ouija  board,  etc.,  is  strictly  for- 
bidden. 

Spiritual  .Bouquet  —  An  offering 
to  God  of  religious  practices  and 
devotions  for  someone  living  or 
dead. 

Spiritualism  —  A  philosophical 
doctrine  that  there  is  a  spiritual 
order  of  things  as  well  as  a  mate- 
rial order  and  that  the  soul  is  a 
spiritual  substance. 

Spiritual  Works  of  Mercy,  The  — 
To  counsel  the  doubtful ;  to  instruct 
the  ignorant;  to  admonish  sinners; 
to  comfort  the  afflicted;  to  forgive 
offences;  to  bear  wrongs  patiently; 
to  pray  for  the  living  and  the  dead. 

Sponsor  —  The  godparent  at  Bap- 
tism or  Confirmation  who  promises 
to  safeguard  the  spiritual  welfare 
of  the  person  baptized  or  confirmed. 

State  of  Grace  —  Freedom  from 
mortal  sin,  whether  actual  or  origi- 
nal. 

Station  (from  the  ancient  mili- 
tary term,  statio,  that  post  where 
a  guard  kept  constant  watch)  signi- 
fies the  congregation  of  the  faithful 
in  a  designated  church  where  spe- 
cial Lenten  services  are  held  on  a 
certain  day.  Thus  according  to 


169 


ancient  usage  various  churches  in 
Rome  have  a  Station  Day;  high 
Mass  is  celebrated,  usually  by  the 
Cardinal  Titular  of  the  church, 
relics  are  exposed  for  veneration, 
and  in  the  afternoon  a  procession 
takes  place. 

Stations  of  the  Cross  —  A  devo- 
tion commemorating  the  fourteen 
stages  of  Christ's  passage  from 
Pilate's  House  to  Mount  Calvary, 
first  adopted  by  the  Franciscans  in 
1350.  The  fourteen  stations  are: 

(1)  Jesus  is  condemned  to  death; 

(2)  Jesus  takes  up  His  Cross;   (3) 
Jesus  falls  the  first  time;  (4)  Jesus 
meets    His    afilicted    Mother;     (5) 
Simon  the  Cyrene  helps  Jesus  to 
carry  His  Cross;  (6)  Veronica  wipes 
the  Face  of  Jesus;    (7)  Jesus  falls 
the   second  time;    (8)    Jesus   com- 
forts the  women  of  Jerusalem;   (9) 
Jesus    falls    the   third    time;    (10) 
Jesus  is  stripped  of  His  garments; 

(11)  Jesus  is  nailed  to  the  Cross; 

(12)  Jesus  dies  on  the  Cross;   (13) 
Jesus    is    taken    down    from    the 
Cross;    (14)    Jesus   is   laid   in  the 
tomb. 

Stigmata  —  The  miraculous  im- 
press of  the  five  wounds  of  our 
Saviour  on  the  body  of  a  person. 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi  received  this 
divine  favor  in  1224,  two  years  be- 
fore his  death.  On  September  17, 
the  Feast  of  the  Stigmata  is  yearly 
kept  by  the  whole  Church  to  com- 
memorate this  fact.  Other  saints  in 
the  history  of  the  Church  have  been 
known  to  have  received  the  stig- 
mata. 

Stole  —  A  long  narrow  vestment 
worn  around  the  neck  indicative  of 
the  priestly  power.  Bishops,  priests 
and  deacons  must  wear  it  when 
exercising  their  orders,  administer- 
ing the  sacraments,  blessing  per- 
sons and  things,  as  well  as  at  Mass. 

Stole  Fees  —  Offerings  made  to 
priests  who  administer  the  sacra- 
ments. 

Stoup  —  A  vessel  used  to  contain 
holy  water. 

Stylites  —  Religious  men  of  early 
centuries  who  lived  atop  pillars, 
there  performing  acts  of  heroic 
penance. 


Superstition  —  Worship  of  false 
divinity,  or  worship  unfit  for  the 
true  God. 

Surplice  —  A  white  linen  garment 
worn  over  the  cassock.  It  is  a  vest- 
ment proper  to  priests  and  clerics 
assisting  in  the  sanctuary  and  in 
performing  their  sacred  duties.  Al- 
tar-boys wear  it  while  serving  Mass 
and  at  other  Church  ceremonies. 

Suspension  —  A  penalty  by  which 
a  cleric  is  prohibited  from  exer- 
cising some  or  all  sacred  functions. 

Tabernacle  —  The  receptacle  in 
which  vessels  containing  the 
Blessed  Sacrament  are  reserved 
above  the  altar.  The  tabernacle 
should  be  solidly  built,  gold  plated 
within  or  lined  with  silk  and  be 
kept  locked.  The  sacred  vessels 
within  should  rest  on  a  corporal. 
Flowers  should  not  be  placed  on 
the  altar  before  the  tabernacle,  and 
nothing  should  be  put  over  it  but 
the  crucifix. 

Te  Deum  —  A  hymn  of  praise  and 
thanksgiving  sung  on  solemn  oc- 
casions. It  is  also  recited  daily  in 
the  Divine  Office  at  the  conclusion 
of  Matins. 

Temperance  —  One  of  the  four 
cardinal  virtues  which  imposes 
moderation  and  self  control  in  the 
use  of  food,  drink  and  sexual  grati- 
fication. 

Temporal  Power  —  The  right  of 
the  Pope  to  hold  and  govern  terri- 
try,  such  as  Vatican  City,  and  to 
be  recognized  by  the  nations  of  the 
world. 

Tenebrae  —  The  Matins  and 
Lauds  of  the  following  day  which 
are  usually  sung  on  the  afternoon 
or  evening  of  Wednesday,  Thurs- 
day and  Friday  in  Holy  Week.  The 
extinction  of  the  candles  during 
this  ceremony  represents  the  grow- 
ing darkness  of  the  time  when 
Christ,  the  Light  of  the  World,  was 
taken.  The  last  candle  is  hidden, 
not  extinguished,  to  signify  that 
death  could  not  really  obtain  domin- 
ion over  Christ,  though  it  appeared 
to  do  so.  The  clapping  made  at 
the  end  of  the  office  symbolizes  the 
confusion  consequent  on  Christ's 
death. 


170 


Tertiary  —  A  member  of  a  Third 
Order. 

Theological  Virtues  —  Those  vir- 
tues which  have  God  directly  for 
their  object:  faith,  or  belief  in  God; 
hope;  charity,  or  love  of  God. 

Theology  —  The  knowledge  which 
we  have,  or  can  have,  of  God  and 
divine  things. 

Third  Orders  —  Religious  associ- 
tions  affiliated  with  the  Francis- 
cans, Dominicans,  Augustinians, 
Servites,  Carmelites,  Premonstra- 
tensians,  Benedictines  and  Sales- 
ians,  for  the  laity  and  those  who 
while  desiring  to  embrace  the  re- 
ligious life  do  not  desire  to  enter 
first  or  second  orders.  Members 
share  in  the  prayers  and  privileges 
of  the  order  and  are  buried  in  the 
habit  of  the  order. 

Three  Hours  —  A  devotion  origi- 
nated by  the  Jesuits  to  be  prac- 
tised on  Good  Friday  from  noon  to 
three  o'clock  in  remembrance  of 
the  three  hours  our  Lord  hung  up- 
on the  cross. 

Thurible  —  The  vessel  in  which 
incense  is  burned  during  sacred 
ceremonies. 

Tiara  —  A  cylindrical  head-dress 
pointed  at  the  top  and  surrounded 
with  three  crowns,  which  the  Pope 
wears  as  a  symbol  of  sovereignty. 
It  is  made  up  from  the  princely 
crown  joined  with  the  bishop's 
mitre.  It  has  been  used  as  far  back 
as  the  seventh  century.  At  the  cor- 
onation ceremonies  it  is  placed  on 
the  head  of  the  Pope  with  these 
words,  "Receive  the  tiara  adorned 
with  three  crowns  and  know  that 
thou  art  Father  of  princes  and 
kings,  Ruler  of  the  world,  Vicar 
of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ." 

Tithes  — Offerings  of  the  faithful 
for  the  support  of  their  pastors, 
originally  the  tenth  part  of  one's 
income. 

Titular  Sees  —  Catholic  bishops 
without  residential  sees  are  given 
titular  sees  or  ancient  bishoprics 
now  destroyed,  of  which  there  are 
some  900. 

Tonsure  —  A  crown  made  by 
shaving  the  upper  part  of  the  head, 
distinctive  of  clerics  and  religious. 


Toties  Quoties  —  Lat.  "as  often 
as"  —  applied  to  indulgences  signi- 
fying they  may  be  obtained  as  of- 
ten as  one  wishes  by  fulfilling  the 
obligations. 

Tradition  —  The  oral  handing 
down  of  information,  doctrines  and 
practices.  Tradition  is  part  of  the 
deposit  of  faith,  handed  down  by 
the  apostles.  It  supplies  certain  in- 
formation which  the  Bible  does  not 
give,  such  as  concerning  the  Bap- 
tism of  infants. 

Transubstantiation  —  The  process 
by  which  the  bread  and  wine  of  the 
Mass  is  changed  into  the  substance 
of  the  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ  in 
the  act  of  consecration. 

Treasury  of  the  Church  —  The 
merits  of  Christ  and  the  saints  from 
which  the  Church  may  draw  to  con- 
fer spiritual  benefits  such  as  the 
granting  of  indulgences. 

Triduum  —  A  three  days'  prayer 
or  celebration. 

Twilight  Sleep  —  A  sleep  in- 
duced in  obstetrical  cases  by  cer- 
tain drugs  to  lull  the  sense  of  pain 
and  diminish  the  power  of  recol- 
lection, without  completely  taking 
away  consciousness.  From  medical 
testimony,  if  drugs  are  adminis- 
tered a  competent  nurse  should  be 
in  attendance,  and  a  doctor  within 
easy  call.  The  use  of  this  aid  to 
difficult  parturition  is  to  be  de- 
cided by  a  physician. 

Urbi  et  Orbi  —  Lat  "for  the  city 
and  for  the  world"  —  applied  to  the 
blessing  given  by  the  Pope  after 
his  election,  also  several  times  dur- 
ing the  year. 

Usury  —  A  species  of  theft  by 
which  interest  is  unjustly  exacted, 
or  an  unjust  rate  of  interest  is 
charged  for  a  loan. 

Vatican  City  —  Property  owned 
and  ruled  by  the  Holy  See,  with 
extra-territorial  possessions,  most- 
ly churches  and  palaces,  amounting 
to  about  160  acres. 

Veils  —  There  are  two  common 
veils  used  in  the  liturgy  of  the 
Church.  The  one  is  a  small  veil 
used  to  cover  the  chalice  before 
the  Offertory,  the  other  is  the 
humeral  veil  used  by  the  sub-dea- 
con at  High  Mass  and  by  the  priest 


171 


at  Benediction  of  the  Blessed  Sac- 
rament. 

Venerable  —  Title  given  to  per- 
sons found  by  the  Sacred  Congre- 
gation of  Rites  to  have  led  a  life 
of  heroic  virtue. 

Veneration  —  The  reverence  paid 
to  saints,  relics,  etc.  It  is  of  a 
different  kind  and  degree  than  that 
given  to  God  which  is  properly 
called  worship. 

Venial  Sin  —  An  offense  against 
God  deserving  only  temporal  pun- 
ishment. Nevertheless,  venial  sin 
dims  the  intellect,  weakens  the 
will  and  leads  to  mortal  sin. 

Veronica's  Veil  —  The  cloth  with 
which  Veronica  wiped  the  face  of 
Jesus  and  on  which  the  imprint  of 
Christ's  features  remained,  pre- 
served at  St.  Peter's  in  Rome. 

Vestments — Distinctive  garments 
—  now  known  as  vestments  —  have 
ever  been  used  by  the  Church  in 
her  divine  worship;  however,  orig- 
inally these  garments  did  not  dif- 
fer in  form  from  the  ordinary  garb. 
Those  worn  by  the  priest  at  Mass 
are  the  amice,  alb,  girdle,  maniple, 
stole,  chasuble.  At  High  Mass  the 
deacon  wears  a  dalmatic  and  the 
subdeacon  a  tunic.  At  Benediction, 
the  priest  wears  a  surplice,  stole 
and  cape,  and  when  giving  the 
Benediction,  the  humeral  veil. 

Viaticum  —  The  word  Viaticum 
means  provision  for  a  journey,  and 
it  is  now  used  exclusively  to  de- 
note Holy  Communion,  given  to 
those  in  danger  of  death. 

Vicar  Apostolic  —  Formerly  this 
title  was  given  to  bishops,  arch- 
bishops, and  sometimes  to  ecclesi- 
astics, not  necessarily  bishops,  who 
were  commissioned  by  the  Roman 
Pontiff  to  exercise  episcopal  juris- 
diction (except  in  certain  special 
cases)  in  a  diocese  where  the  ordi- 
nary, for  some  reason,  was  unable 
to  discharge  his  office  fully.  At 
present  the  term  is  generally  used 
to  denote  titular  bishops  or  priests 
appointed  by  the  Holy  See  who  are 
stationed  in  regions  where  episcopal 
sees  have  not  yet  been  established. 

Vigil  —  The  day  before  a  promi- 
nent feast  set  aside  for  preparation, 
watching,  prayer  and  fasting. 


Vigil  Light—The  oil  light  kept  in 
the  sanctuary  to  denote  the  pres- 
ence of  the  Blessed  Sacrament. 

Virgin  Birth  of  Christ — The  doc- 
trine that  Christ,  conceived  by  the 
Holy  Ghost,  was  born  of  the  Vir- 
gin Mother.  The  fact  that  St.  Luke 
refers  to  Mary's  first-born  does  not 
imply  that  she  had  more  children, 
but  rather  to  the  law  by  which  she 
was  to  offer  her  first-born  to  God 
in  the  Temple. 

Virtue  —  Some  stable  or  habitual 
element  developing  the  human  char- 
acter. The  ideals  of  human  perfec- 
tion vary.  To  a  group  of  moral 
philosophies  the  western  world  owes 
its  ideal  of  humanist  virtue:  pru- 
dence, justice,  fortitude,  temper- 
ance. Christian  virtue  begins  with 
God,  and  the  theological  virtues 
are:  faith,  hope,  charity. 

Visitation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary  —  The  visit  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  to  her  cousin  Elizabeth  be- 
fore the  birth  of  Christ.  To  her 
Mary  expressed  her  great  joy.  This 
canticle  is  known  as  the  Magnificat. 

Vocation  —  The  disposition  of 
Divine  Providence  in  diverse  ways 
whereby  persons  are  called  to  serve 
God  in  a  particular  state  of  life. 

Votive  Candles  and  Offerings  — 
Candles  burned  before  a  statue  or 
shrine  in  honor  of  our  Lord  or  the 
saints  and  out  of  devotion  to  them. 
Offerings  are  presented  in  thanks- 
giving for  favors  received,  either 
in  virtue  of  previous  promises  or 
as  free  will  offerings. 

Vows  —  A  vow  is  a  deliberate 
promise  made  to  God  of  a  possible 
and  greater  good  with  the  intention 
of  binding  oneself  under  pain  of 
sin.  The  promise  must  be  free;  it 
must  be  made  to  God  —  to  vow  to 
a  saint  means  to  vow  to  God  in 
honor  of  a  saint  The  matter  of 
the  vow  cannot  be  illicit,  altogether 
indifferent,  imperfect  or  impossible. 
Vows  are  temporal  or  perpetual, 
dependent  upon  the  time  of  their 
duration;  conditional  or  absolute, 
according  as  they  are  recognized 
as  simple  or  solemn  by  the  Church. 


172 


Vulgate  —  The  Latin  version  of 
the  Bible  founded  on  the  transla- 
tion of  St.  Jerome  and  authorized 
by  the  Church. 

Wine  —  Pure  fermented  grape 
juice,  unsoured,  is  used  in  the  Mass 
and  changed  at  the  consecration 
into  the  blood  of  Christ. 

Witchcraft  —  Dealing  with  the 
devil,  either  directly  or  through 
someone  who  has  a  compact  with 
him. 

Worldling  —  One  who  prefers  the 
ambition  and  show  of  the  world 
with  its  distractions  and  dissipa- 


tions   to    the    serious    and    better 
things  of  life. 

Worship  —  Homage  paid  to  God. 
This  is  the  highest  form  of  rever- 
ence, and  is  paid  to  God  alone. 
Veneration,  or  reverence  in  lesser 
degree  is  paid  to  saints  and  relics. 

Zeal  —  Love  in  action  manifested 
in  propagating  the  faith,  sanctifying 
souls  and  making  God  better  known. 

Zelator  —  An  active  member  or 
officer  of  a  confraternity. 

Zuchetto  —  A  skull  cap  worn  by 
clerics  over  the  tonsure. 


PRINCIPAL  HERESIES 

Schismatics,  according  to  the  definition  of  Canon  Law,  are  those  bap- 
tized persons  who  "refuse  to  be  subject  to  the  Supreme  Pontiff,  or  to 
have  communication  with  the  members  of  the  Church  subject  to  the 
Pope"  (Canon  1325).  Many  heresies,  e.g.,  Anglicanism,  began  as  schisms. 
But  separation  from  the  Pope,  the  Vicar  of  Christ  on  earth  and  the 
custodian  of  Revelation,  inevitably  leads  to  errors  concerning  dogmatic 
truths. 

Heretics  are  denned  in  Canon  Law  as  "baptized  persons  who,  while 
retaining  the  name  of  Christian,  obstinately  deny  or  doubt  any  of  the 
truths  proposed  for  belief  by  the  divine  and  Catholic  faith"  (Canon  1325). 
The  underlying  idea  of  heresy  is  the  selection  of  some  truths  and  the 
rejection  of  others.  Heretics  arbitrarily  assume  the  right  to  choose  their 
beliefs,  whereas  only  the  infallible  Church  alone  has  the  right  to  define 
dogmas  and  to  propose  to  men  the  truths  they  are  to  believe. 


Adoptionism  (700-1177)  —  Lead- 
ers: Elipandus  of  Toledo;  Felix  of 
Urgel.  Adoptionism  taught  that 
Christ  in  His  divinity  was  the  nat- 
ural Son  of  God,  but  that  in  His 
humanity,  He  was  only  the  Son  of 
God  by  adoption,  through  grace. 
Pope  Adrian  I  condemned  these 
teachings  in  785.  They  were  again 
condemned  in  the  decrees  of  the 
Council  of  Frankfort  in  794.  Abe- 
lard  (1079-1142)  revived  Adoption- 
ism and  denied  the  substantial 
reality  of  the  Man  Christ.  This 
Neo-Adoptionism  was  condemned 
by  Pope  Alexander  III  in  1177. 

Albigensianism  (1175-1400)  is  a 
revival  of  Manichaean  dualism.  The 
Albigenses  asserted  the  co-exist- 
ence of  two  mutually  opposed  prin- 
ciples: a  good  spirit  who  created 


the  spiritual  world;  and  an  evil 
spirit  who  created  the  material 
world.  Because  the  evil  spirit  cre- 
ated the  body,  Christ  the  Redeemer 
could  not  have  taken  a  genuine 
human  body.  Suicide  was  recom- 
mended; marriage  condemned;  and 
the  sacraments  denied.  The  Fourth 
Lateran  Council  in  1215  condemned 
this  heresy.  The  devotion  of  the 
rosary,  popularized  particularly  by 
St.  Dominic,  aided  in  repelling  this 
heresy. 

Anabaptism  (1521-1553)  —  Ana- 
baptists proposed  to  reestablish 
"primitive"  Christianity,  using 
Scripture  as  the  sole  rule  of  faith. 
The  State  was  to  be  reconstructed 
along  the  lines  of  early  Christian 
community  life.  Infant  baptism  was 
rejected  because  non-scriptural. 


173 


Anglicanism  (1534-  )  —  Lead- 
ers: Henry  VIII  (1491-1547);  Cran- 
mer  (1489-1556).  The  Henrician  Pe- 
riod of  Anglicanism  (1534-1547)  set 
up  an  independent  national  church 
and  transferred  the  supreme  au- 
thority from  the  Pope  to  the 
Crown.  The  Elizabethan  Period 
(1558-1603)  carried  the  work  of 
separation  much  further.  With  logi- 
cal sequence,  doctrinal  and  liturgi- 
cal changes  quickly  followed  the 
denial  of  papal  supremacy.  Scrip- 
ture was  declared  the  sole  rule 
of  faith.  The  Real  Presence  was 
denied,  and  the  Mass  was  replaced 
by  a  communion  service.  The  rite 
of  ordination  was  changed,  all  men- 
tion of  the  sacrificial  office  of  the 
priesthood  being  rigorously  ex- 
cluded. Invocation  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  Mary  and  the  saints  was 
rejected  as  idolatry.  The  Anglican 
Church  in  the  United  States  be- 
came known  as  the  Protestant 
Episcopal  Church,  taking  its  name 
from  the  fact  that  it  is  governed 
by  bishops.  The  tenets  of  Episco- 
palianism  are  the  same  as  those  of 
Anglicanism. 

A  nanism  (320-380)  —  Leader: 
Arius  (2807-336).  This  first  great 
heresy  that  rocked  the  infant 
Church  was  an  attempt  to  rational- 
ize the  Trinity.  Concerned  prin- 
cipally with  the  relations  between 
the  Father  and  the  Son,  Arius 
found  it  necessary  to  subject  one 
to  the  other  in  order  to  formulate 
a  rational  explanation.  He  assigned 
Christ  a  unique  place  in  creation 
—  the  only  one  made  by  the  Fa- 
ther —  yet  he  made  Christ  a  mere 
creature.  St.  Athanasius  was  the 
great  champion  of  orthodoxy 
against  Arius.  The  heresy  was  con- 
demned at  the  Council  of  Nicea  in 
325. 

Baptists  (1600-  )  —  Leaders: 
John  Smythe,  in  England  (d.  1612) ; 
Roger  Williams,  in  America  (1600- 
1683).  Baptists  reject  infant  bap- 
tism, and  consider  only  baptism  by 
immersion  as  valid.  Baptism  and 
the  Eucharist,  the  only  two  sacra- 
ments they  admit,  they  consider 
as  mere  symbols.  Scripture  is  their 
sole  rule  of  faith.  They  allow  pri- 


vate interpretation  of  Scripture. 
All  non-scriptural  doctrines  and 
duties  are  rejected  as  without  au- 
thority. 

Berengarius,  Heresy  of  (999- 
1080)  —  The  first  heresy  touching 
the  Eucharist.  Berengarius  taught 
that  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ 
were  not  really  present  in  the  Holy 
Eucharist,  but  only  figuratively.  He 
was  condemned  at  Rome  in  1079. 

Calvinism  (1541-1648)  —  Leader: 
John  Calvin  (1509-1564).  The  dogma 
of  absolute  predestination  consti- 
tutes the  essence  of  Calvinism. 
God  wills  the  salvation  of  some 
and  the  damnation  of  others  by  a 
direct  act  of  His  will.  Original  sin 
has  so  completely  vitiated  human 
nature  that  man  is  deprived  of 
free  will,  and  justification  must 
come  from  an  extrinsic  principle. 
Calvinism  also  denied  the  Real 
Presence.  Presbyterians  today  pro- 
fess Calvinistic  doctrines,  their 
name  being  derived  from  the 
presbyter es  who,  according  to  Calvin, 
held  equal  rank  with  the  episcopus 
or  bishop.  Calvinism  was  con- 
demned at  the  Council  of  Trent 
(1545-1563). 

Catharism  (1100-1500)  was  *  the 
forerunner  of  Albigensianism  in 
the  revival  of  Manichaean  dualism. 
The  Cathari  are  divided  into  two 
groups:  the  absolute  dualists,  who 
believed  in  the  existence  of  two 
eternal  principles;  and  the  miti- 
gated dualists,  who  considered  the 
evil  principle  a  mere  fallen  spirit. 
The  Cathari  believed  in  the  mi- 
gration of  souls,  rejected  matri- 
mony and  sexual  intercourse,  de- 
nied the  authority  of  the  State,  and 
approved  suicide.  Catharism  was 
condemned  by  the  Third  Lateran 
Council  in  1179. 

Christian  Science  (1879-  )  — 
Leader:  Mary  Baker  Eddy  (1821- 
1910).  Christian  Science  rejects 
doctrine  as  the  foundation  of  re- 
ligion. It  claims  to  heal  ailments 
through  the  scientific  application 
of  faith.  After  Mrs.  Eddy  declared 
herself  cured  of  hysterical  fits 
through  mental  cure  she  became  in- 
terested in  faith  healing.  In  1879 
she  founded  the  Third  Church  of 


174 


Christ  Scientist  with  26  members 
and  herself  as  pastor. 

Congregationalism  (1600-  )  — 
Leader:  Robert  Brown.  Congrega- 
tionalism teaches  the  freedom  of 
the  individual  soul  and  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  local  church.  The 
name  was  adopted  by  the  Pilgrim 
Fathers. 

Episcopalianism.  See  Anglican- 
ism. 

Eutychianism.  See  Monophysitism. 

Gnosticism  (117-400)  —  A 
name  given  to  early  attempts 
to  create  a  purely  rational  Chris- 
tianity. Gnostics  denied  everything 
they  could  not  understand.  They 
attempted  to  find  in  Christianity 
a  deeper  meaning  than  the  Gos- 
pels allow.  Gnosticism  pretended 
to  be  a  high  science  replacing  or- 
dinary faith.  Gnostics  claimed  they 
perfectly  understood  their  belief 
and  completely  penetrated  every 
mystery  they  held. 

Greek  Heresy  and  Schism  (850- 
)  —  Leaders:  Photius  (c.  816- 
869)  and  Cerularius.  Photius,  by 
taking  unjust  possession  of  the  See 
of  Constantinople  set  the  stage  for 
the  Greek  Schism.  It  was,  however, 
Cerularius  who  was  responsible  for 
the  break  with  Rome  (1054).  He  it 
was  who  rejected  the  supremacy  of 
the  Pope  and  established  the  Greek 
Church.  The  Greek  Church  teaches 
that  the  Holy  Ghost  proceeds  from 
the  Father  alone,  in  opposition  to 
the  Catholic  teaching.  This  error 
was  condemned  by  the  Fourth 
Council  of  Constantinople  in  870. 

Hus,  Heresy  of  (1400-  ).  See 
Wycliff. 

Iconoclasm  (726-787)  —  Leader: 
Leo  the  Isaurian  (717-741).  The 
Iconoclasts  rejected  all  veneration 
of  images  of  Christ,  and  the  Blessed 
Mother;  also  the  veneration  of  all 
relics.  St.  John  Damascene  wrote 
against  them.  The  Iconoclasts  be- 
came fanatical,  going  about  de- 
stroying pictures,  statues  and  relics 
wherever  they  found  them.  The 
heresy  was  condemned  at  the  Sec- 
ond Council  of  Nicea  in  787. 

Jansenism  (1636-  )  —  Lead- 
ers: Jansenius  (1585-1638);  Ar- 
nauld  (1612-1694).  Jansenism  is  a 


rigoristic  doctrine  garnered  from 
"Augustinus,"  a  posthumous  work 
of  Jansenius.  Its  basic  error  is 
disregard  for  the  supernatural  or- 
der. Man  is  not  free;  it  is  impos- 
sible to  keep  some  of  the  com- 
mandments; good  works  of  unbe- 
lievers are  sinful;  God  will  punish 
man  for  practising  virtues  not  in 
his  power  to  accomplish;  Christ 
died  not  for  mankind  in  general 
but  for  a  privileged  few.  Arnauld 
proposed  the  insidious  doctrine 
that  for  the  worthy  reception  of 
Holy  Communion  severe  penance 
for  past  sins  and  most  pure  love 
of  God  are  required.  It  was  only 
with  the  inauguration  of  the  de- 
votion to  the  Sacred  Heart  and  the 
decrees  of  Pius  X  that  the  rigor- 
istic tendencies  of  Jansenism  were 
counteracted. 

Judaizers  (33-200)  —  Convert 
Jews  who  adhered  to  the  observance 
of  the  Old  Law.  They  held  that 
pagans  must  first  observe  the  Old 
Law  before  becoming  Christians. 
They  would  make  Christianity  a 
mere  branch  on  the  parent  tree  of 
Judaism.  The  heresy  split  into  sev- 
eral factions  over  the  Question  of 
Christ's  nature.  Sts.  Peter  and 
Paul  condemned  this  heresy. 

Lutheranism  (1517-  )  —  Lead- 
ers: Martin  Luther  (1483-1546)  and 
Melanchthon,  Luther's  "theologian," 
The  twofold  principle  of  invincible 
concupiscence,  and  justification  by 
faith  alone  constitutes  the  funda- 
mental error  of  Lutheranism. 
Luther  formulated  the  principle  of 
private  interpretation  of  Scripture; 
cast  aside  the  Sacrifice  of  the 
Mass;  ridiculed  the  doctrine  of  in- 
dulgences; taught  that  confession, 
fasting  and  mortification  were  not 
necessary;  denied  the  supremacy 
of  the  Pope;  and  repudiated  celi- 
bacy of  the  clergy.  He  wrote,  in 
fact,  against  almost  every  article 
of  Christian  belief.  The  Council 
of  Trent  (1545-1563)  condemned 
Lutheranism. 

Macedonianism  (342-381)  — 
Leader:  Macedonius  (d.  362).  The 
Macedonians  denied  the  divinity  of 
the  Holy  Ghost.  They  erred  in 
saying  that  the  Holy  Ghost  is  a 


175 


creature;  a  ministering  spirit  who 
differs  from  the  angels  only  in  de- 
gree. The  First  Council  of  Con- 
stantinople in  381  condemned  this 
doctrine. 

Manichaenism  (241-1600)  — 
Leader:  Mani  (216-276).  Manicha- 
enism is  essentially  a  dualistic 
theory  teaching  that  in  the  begin- 
ning there  existed  two  sharply  op- 
posed principles;  one  good,  the 
other  evil.  The  creation  of  the 
world  was  the  result  of  the  struggle 
for  supremacy  between  these  two 
principles.  Christ  came  clothed  in 
an  ethereal  body  to  teach  men  the 
distinction  between  the  kingdom  of 
light  and  that  of  darkness.  To 
facilitate  the  victory  of  the  king- 
dom of  light,  marriage,  use  of  meat 
and  wine,  ordinary  work  and  evil 
speech  were  forbidden  the  elect. 
Manichaenism  was  refuted  by  St. 
Augustine. 

Methodism  (1739-  )  —  Leader: 
John  Wesley  (1703-1791).  Meth- 
odism, a  movement  to  infuse  a 
higher  life  into  the  Anglican 
Church,  drifted  away  from  the  Es- 
tablished Church  and  split  into 
many  denominations.  The  distinc- 
tive doctrines  of  Methodism  are 
the  "witness  of  the  Spirit"  to  the 
individual  soul  and  the  consequent 
assurance  of  salvation,  or  the  cer- 
tainty of  present  pardon.  Meth- 
odists admit  two  sacraments,  Bap- 
tism and  the  Eucharist.  They  hold 
that  Baptism  does  not  produce 
sanctifying  grace  in  the  soul  but 
merely  increases  faith.  They  regard 
the  Eucharist  only  as  a  memorial 
of  the  Passion  and  death  of  Christ. 

Monophysitism  (400-700) — Lead- 
ers: Eutyches  and  Dioscorus.  The 
Monophysites  (or  Eutychians)  de- 
nied the  doctrine  of  two  natures 
in  Christ,  stressing  only  His  unity. 
They  seem  to  have  confused  the 
notions  of  person  and  nature.  In 
his  "Epistola  Dogmatica  ad  Fla- 
vianum/'  Pope  Leo  I  set  forth  the 
Catholic  teaching  on  the  two  na- 
tures in  Christ.  The  heresy  was 
condemned  at  the  Council  of  Chal- 
cedon  in  451. 

Monothelitism  (625-681)  —  Lead- 
er: Sergius  (d.  638).  MonotheUtes 


taught  that  Christ  had  only  one 
will  and  one  energy,  at  the  same 
time  both  human  and  divine.  By 
destroying  the  human  will  and 
activity  which  is  necessary  for  the 
complete  human  nature,  the  Mono- 
thelites  implicitly  denied  the  hu- 
manity of  Christ  The  Third  Coun- 
cil of  Constantinople  in  681  con- 
demned the  heresy. 

Montanism  (156-400)  —  Leader: 
Montanus.  The  basic  error  of  Mon- 
tanism  consists  in  the  inaugura- 
tion of  the  reign  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
succeeding  the  time  of  Christ's  rev- 
elation which  had  passed.  As 
prophet  of  the  new  revelation, 
Montanus  denied  the  divinity  of 
the  Church,  declared  that  only 
Montanists  could  forgive  sins.  Mon- 
tanism  would  have  had  few  follow- 
ers had  not  Tertullian,  a  leading 
light  of  the  early  Church,  joined 
its  ranks. 

Mormonism  (1830-  )  — 
Leader:  Joseph  Smith  (1805-1844). 
He  claimed  to  have  received  from 
an  angel  the  records  of  the  prophet 
Mormon  which  were  later  proven 
fictitious.  Established  at  Salt  Lake 
City,  the  new  church  came  to  re- 
semble closely  Mohammedanism 
and  adopted  polygamy  which  was 
forbidden  by  the  United  States 
courts  in  1871. 

Nestorianism  (400-  )  — 
Leader:  Nestorius  (d.  451).  The 
Church  teaches  that  there  is  but 
one  Person  in  Christ.  Nestorius 
implicitly  denied  this  doctrine  by 
denying  the  divine  motherhood  of 
Mary.  He  held  that  Mary  is  only 
the  Mother  of  the  Man  Christ,  not 
the  Mother  of  God.  The  Council 
of  Ephesus  in  431  and  that  of  Chal- 
cedon  in  451  condemned  Nestorian- 
ism. 

Pelagianism  (405-529) — Leaders: 
Pelagius,  Caelestius,  and  Julian. 
Beginning  with  the  idea  that  God's 
help  was  unnecessary  to  man  (ac- 
tual grace),  Pelagius  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  sanctifying  grace 
was  not  necessary  either.  To  be 
logical,  he  then  denied  the  fact  of 
original  sin.  Pelagius  overstressed 
the  free  will  of  man  in  the  prob- 
lem of  grace.  He  forgot  to  cUstin- 


176 


guish  between  the  natural  and 
supernatural  end  of  man,  holding 
that  Adam  was  born  to  enjoy  super- 
natural life  as  a  natural  reward. 
St.  Augustine  refuted  Pelagianism. 
It  was  finally  condemned  at  the 
Council  of  Ephesus  in  431. 

Presbyterian  ism.    See   Calvinism. 

Quakerism  (1648-  ) — Leader: 
George  Fox  (1624-1691).  Quakerism, 
founded  on  isolated  texts  of  Scrip- 
ture, is  a  sect  at  variance  with 
every  existing  form  of  Christianity. 
Its  central  doctrine  is  that  of  the 
"inner  light"  communicated  to  the 
individual  soul  by  Christ.  It  re- 
jects the  priesthood,  exterior  cere- 
mony, and  authority. 

Rosicrucianism  (1600-  )  — 
Leader:  John  Andrea  (1586-1654). 
The  Rosicrucians  are  a  secret  so- 
ciety conceived  by  Andrea  and 
spread  by  means  of  the  fictitious 
writings  of  an  imaginary  author, 
Christian  Rosenkreuz.  Rosicrucians 
teach  a  pantheistic  theosophy; 
have  their  own  ideas  of  God,  na- 
ture, morality,  and  the  soul. 

Semipelagianism  (420-529) — 
Leaders:  Sts.  Cassian,  Victor  of 
Marseilles,  Gennadius,  and  Faus- 
tus.  In  refuting  the  Pelagians  St. 
Augustine  did  in  several  instances 
overstress  the  divine  element  in 
grace.  His  theory  of  predestination 
was  taken  strictly  by  some  monks 
of  Marseilles.  Fighting  thts  state 
of  affairs,  St.  Cassian  and  others 
again  brought  the  factor  of  free 
will  to  the  fore,  and  went  just  a 
bit  too  far.  They  were  in  perfectly 
good  faith,  and  would  have  cor- 
rected their  mistake  had  attention 
been  brought  to  it.  What  they 
taught,  however,  viz.,  that  the  be- 
ginnings of  faith  could  be  merited 
by  man,  was  wrong  and  was  ac- 
cordingly condemned. 

Sweden borgian ism  (1787-  )  — 
Leaders  Emmanuel  Swedenborg.  He 
professed  to  have  received  revela- 
tions, and  rejected  the  Trinity, 
original  sin,  the  resurrection  and 
all  sacraments  except  Baptism  and 
the  Eucharist.  He  taught  that  after 
death  souls  pass  into  an  inter- 
mediate state  preparatory  to  enter- 
ing heavexi. 


Unitarianism  (1570-  )  —  A 
heterogeneous  sect  whose  bond  of 
unity  consists  more  in  its  anti- 
dogmatic  tendency  than  in  its  uni- 
formity of  belief.  Its  distinctive 
tenet  is  belief  in  a  uni-personaJ 
God,  Unitarians  hold  to  private  in- 
terpretation of  Scripture.  The  local 
church  is  autonomous. 

Universalism  (1750-  )  —  The 
distinctive  tenet  of  this  sect  is 
the  final  salvation  of  all  souls. 
Present-day  Universalists  reject 
the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity.  Tha 
reception  of  the  sacraments  is  not 
enjoined,  but  Baptism  and  the 
Lord's  Supper  are  administered. 

Waldensianism  (1180-  )  — 
Leader:  Waldes.  The  Waldenses 
were  an  heretical  sect  claiming  to 
practise  Christianity  in  its  pris- 
tine purity.  Among  the  doctrinal 
errors  are  the  denial  of  purga- 
tory, of  indulgences,  and  of  pray- 
ers for  the  dead.  Waldensians  de- 
nounced all  lying  as  a  grievous  sin, 
refused  to  take  oaths,  and  consid- 
ered the  shedding  of  human  blood 
unlawful.  The  Third  Lateran  Coun- 
cil in  1179  condemned  this  heresy. 

Wycliff,  Heresy  of  (1350-  )  — 
Leader:  John  Wycliff  (1324-1384). 
Wycliff  claimed  the  Bible  to  be  the 
sole  truth  of  faith.  He  defended 
predestination,  maintained  that  all 
power  depends  on  one's  state  of 
grace;  denied  the  freedom  of  the 
will  and  the  doctrine  of  transub- 
stantiation.  He  rejected  the  divine 
institution  of  the  hierarchy  and 
taught  that  the  Pope  is  not  the 
head  of  the  Church;  that  the  bish- 
ops have  no  pre-eminence  over 
other  priests.  He  held  that  all  ec- 
clesiastical powers  are  forfeited  or 
are  in  abeyance  when  the  subject 
is  in  mortal  sin.  He  taught  that 
confession  is  useless,  for  man  can- 
not help  but  sin,  and  that  God  ap- 
proves sin.  He  thought  that  ec- 
clesiastics who  sin  should  be  pun- 
ished with  the  death  penalty. 
After  the  death  of  Wycliff,  John 
Hus  spread  his  doctrines  through- 
out Bohemia.  The  Council  of  Con- 
stance in  1414  condemned  these 
doctrines  as  heretical, 


177 


CHRSUBLE 


PRLMRTIC 


©St.  Anthony's  Guild,  1938 


178 


THE    CHURCH     EDIFICE    AND    LITURGICAL    APPURTENANCES 

The  church  is  a  sacred  building  dedicated  to  divine  worship  and  open 
to  all  the  faithful  who  assemble  there  to  offer  up  the  Holy  Sacrifice  of 
the  Mass  and  there  take  part  in  other  services.  What  distinguishes  a 
Catholic  church  from  all  other  sacred  edifices  is  the  fact  that  every 
Catholic  church  becomes,  through  the  Mass,  the  dwelling  place  of  God. 

During  the  first  three  centuries  of  Christianity  there  were  no  special 
buildings  consecrated  to  Eucharistic  worship.  Services  were  held  in 
private  homes  (Acts  ii,  46;  Rom.  xvi,  5;  1  Cor.  xvi,  15;  Col.  iv,  15).  The 
persecutions  of  those  early  days  made  it  impossible  to  have  public  places 
of  worship.  But  when  the  Church  came  up  from  the  catacombs,  when  she 
was  no  longer  persecuted,  then  began  the  building  of  churches.  Through 
the  centuries  men  have  used  the  very  best  that  architecture  can  offer  in 
order  to  make  their  churches  fit  dwelling  places  for  God. 

The  aisle  of  the  church  from  the  The  altar  is  the  most  important 
main  door  to  the  Communion  rail-  part  of  the  church.  It  is  in  fact  the 


ing  is  called  the  nave.  If  another 
aisle  cuts  across  the  nave,  forming 
a  cross,  the  two  arms  of  this  aisle 
are  called  transepts.  The  part  in- 
side the  communion  railing  i  s 
called  the  sanctuary.  The  back  por- 
tion of  the  sanctuary,  which  is 
often  arched,  is  called  the  apse. 

Stained  glass  windows,  paintings 
and  statues  are  the  ordinary  orna- 
ments of  the  church.  Their  pur- 
pose is  to  depict  the  main  events  in 
the  life  of  Christ  and  the  Saints. 
When  the  Blessed  Sacrament  is 
kept  in  the  church  a  sanctuary 
lamp  burns  before  the  tabernacle 
day  and  night.  At  the  entrance 
there  are  fonts  containing  holy 
water  with  which  the  faithful  bless 
themselves  when  entering  and  leav- 
ing the  church.  In  the  rear  or  along 
the  sides  are  confessionals  used  in 
the  administration  of  the  Sacra- 
ment of  Penance.  Generally  on  the 
Gospel  side  of  the  church  there  is 
a  pulpit  from  which  the  priest  an- 
nounces to  the  people  the  word  of 
God.  Inside  the  sanctuary  are  the 
sedilia,  the  seats  used  by  the  priest 
and  ministers  when  they  sit  down 
for  any  part  of  the  ceremonies.  At- 
tached to  the  wall  of  the  sanctuary 
is  a  locked  box  called  the  ambry 
which  contains  the  holy  oils  used 
in  the  various  sacraments.  In  the 
sanctuary  on  the  epistle  side  is  a 
table  or  shelf  called  the  credence 
table  which  is  used  to  hold  the 
cruets,  basin  and  finger  towel 
which  are  needed  in  the  sacrifice 
of  the  Mass. 


very  reason  why  we  have  churches. 
The  Mass  is  the  center  of  Catholic 
worship  and  the  altar  is  the  table 
on  which  the  Mass  is  offered  up. 

At  the  Last  Supper  the  Mass  was 
offered,  very  probably,  on  a  plain 
wooden  table  covered  with  linens 
according  to  the  Jewish  rite  of  the 
Paschal  supper.  In  the  early  Church 
the  Sacrifice  of  the  Mass  was  of- 
fered on  ordinary  wooden  tables. 
During  the  Roman  persecutions 
Mass  was  celebrated  in  the  cata- 
combs, on  the  tombs  of  martyrs. 
Because  of  this  practice  in  the  cata- 
combs every  altar-stone  today  must 
contain  the  relics  of  martyrs.  To- 
day our  altar  still  retains  the  form 
of  the  table  and  the  tomb.  It  is  in 
reality  a  combination  of  the  two: 
the  table  on  which  Christ  offered 
the  first  Mass,  and  the  coffin  of  the 
catacombs. 

Because  of  the  use  of  stone  in 
the  catacombs,  and  because  stone 
is  far  more  permanent  than  wood, 
it  became  customary  to  erect  stone 
altars.  Only  stone  altars  may  be 
consecrated  today.  Altars  of  other 
material  are  in  use,  but  it  is  re- 
quired that  the  altar-stone  placed 
in  the  center  of  the  table,  contain- 
ing the  relics  of  martyrs,  and  on 
which  the  consecration  takes  place, 
be  of  stone.  Stone  is  durable,  and 
according  to  St.  Paul  (1  Cor.  x,  4) 
symbolizes  Christ. 

In  order  to  stress  the  importance 
of  the  altar  and  to  increase  rever- 
ence for  it,  it  was  covered  by  a 
canopy  called  the  baldakin.  Though 


179 


not  universally  used,  baldakins  are 
found  in  many  of  our  large 
churches.  Gradually  ornamental 
screens  containing  paintings,  sculp- 
tures and  niches  for  statues  were 
placed  back  of  the  altar.  These 
ornamented  backs  of  altars  are 
called  reredos  or  retables. 

The  tabernacle  is  a  box-like  en- 
closure set  in  the  center  of  the  al- 
tar containing  sacred  vessels  in 
which  the  Blessed  Sacrament  is 
reserved.  It  should  be  solidly  built 
and  gold-plated  within  or  at  least 
lined  with  white  silk. 

A  crucifix  must  be  placed  in  the 
middle  of  the  altar  where  it  can 
easily  be  seen  by  all.  It  should  be 
an  outstanding  feature  of  the  altar 
because  its  purpose  is  to  remind 
the  priest  and  the  faithful  of  the 
Sacrifice  of  Calvary,  of  which  the 
Mass  is  the  unbloody  renewal. 

Steps  were  placed  before  the  al- 
tar as  soon  as  it  became  fixed  in 
the  church.  The  obvious  and  prac- 
tical reason  of  a  raised  altar  is 
that  those  who  assist  at  Mass  may 
see  the  priest.  The  raised  altar  also 

Altar   Linens 

Three  altar-cloths  of  white  linen 
or  hemp  must  be  placed  on  every 
altar.  The  two  lower  ones  must 
cover  the  whole  table  of  the  altar. 
The  top  one  should  extend  to  the 
platform.  Three  cloths  are  pre- 
scribed out  of  reverence  for  the 
Precious  Blood,  which,  if  it  were  ac- 
cidentally spilled,  would  be  absorbed 
by  these  cloths.  Under  the  three 
altar-cloths  is  placed  another  linen 
cloth,  waxed  on  the  side  next  to 
the  altar  and  called  the  cere-cloth. 
The  altar-cloths  symbolize  the 
winding  sheets  in  which  the  Body 
of  Christ  was  laid  in  the  tomb. 

Veils  —  The  tabernacle  should  be 
covered  by  a  veil  when  the  Blessed 
Sacrament  is  reserved  there.  It 
should  strictly  cover  the  entire 
tabernacle  but  is  often  merely  a 
small  veil  hung  before  the  door  of 
the  tabernacle.  The  tabernacle  veil 
may  be  white  or  the  color  of  the 
feast  A  veil  of  white  silk  always 
covers  the  ciborium  when  it  is  in 
the  tabernacle.  The  monstrance, 
when  it  stands  upon  the  altar  be- 


reminds  us  of  the  hill  of  Calvary. 
Every  altar  must  have  at  least  one 
step. 

Ledges  were  not  used  in  the  back 
of  the  altar  table  in  the  early 
church.  They  were  introduced  later 
for  the  purpose  of  holding  the  cru- 
cifix, candles  and  flowers. 

Candles  are  a  reminder  of  the 
Church  of  the  catacombs,  when 
candle  light  was  a  necessity.  The 
Church  prescribes  that  the  candles 
used  at  Mass  be  made  of  beeswax. 
The  pure  wax  symbolizes  the  pure 
flesh  of  Christ  received  from  His 
Virgin  Mother,  the  wick  signifies 
the  Soul  of  Christ,  and  the  flame 
represents  His  divinity. 

The  missal  is  the  book  contain- 
ing the  Mass  prayers  for  the  en- 
tire year. 

Three  altar  cards  are  placed  upon 
the  altar.  They  contain  certain 
prayers  which  the  priest  says  dur- 
ing the  Mass. 

A  bell  is  rung  by  the  server  to 
draw  the  attention  of  the  faithful 
to  the  important  parts  of  the  Mass. 

and   Draperies 

fore  or  after  Benediction,  is  also 
covered  with  a  white  silk  cloth. 
The  missal  stand  may  be  covered 
with  a  veil  of  the  color  of  the  feast. 
The  chalice  veil  (see  illustration) 
is  a  piece  of  silk  fabric  of  the  same 
color  and  quality  as  the  vestments. 
It  is  ornamented  with  a  cross  and 
is  used  to  cover  the  chalice  on  the 
way  to  and  from  the  altar,  and  dur- 
ing the  earlier  and  later  parts  of 
the  Mass.  The  antependium  is  a 
sort  of  veil  covering  the  front  of 
the  altar.  It  is  usually  of  the  same 
material  as  the  vestments. 

The  burse  (see  illustration)  is  a 
sort  of  purse  open  at  one  end  in 
which  the  corporal  is  placed.  The 
top  of  the  burse  is  covered  with 
silk  of  the  same  material  and  color 
as  the  vestments.  It  is  placed  on 
top  of  the  covered  chalice. 

The  corporal-  (see  illustration) 
which  is  carried  to  the  altar  in  the 
burse  is  a  square  piece  of  fine 
linen  or  hemp.  At  the  Offertory  it 
is  spread  out  on  the  altar  over  the 
altar-stone  and  should  be  large 


180 


enougli  to  contain  the  chalice,  the 
Host  and  the  ciborium  at  the  cele- 
bration of  Mass. 

The  pal!  consists  of  two  pieces  of 
linen  or  hemp,  between  which  card- 
board is  inserted  for  the  sake  of 
stiffening  it  (see  illustration).  The 
upper  side  of  the  pall  may  be  orna- 
mented but  the  lower  side  must  be 
plain.  It  must  be  large  enough  to 
cover  the  paten  completely. 

The  purificator  (see  illustration) 
is  a  linen  or  hemp  cloth  from 
twelve  to  eighteen  inches  long  and 
nine  or  ten  inches  wide.  It  is 


folded  over  twice  and  placed  be- 
tween the  chalice  and  paten.  It  is 
used  for  cleansing  the  chalice  be- 
fore the  wine  is  put  into  it  at  the 
Offertory,  for  cleaning  the  paten 
after  the  Our  Father  before  the 
Host  is  placed  on  it,  and  for  dry- 
ing the  priest's  lips  and  the  chalice 
after  the  priest's  communion. 

A  finger  towel  is  used  by  the 
priest  when  he  washes  his  hands 
at  the  Offertory.  Finger  towels  are 
of  varying  sizes  and  may  be  of  any 
suitable  material,  preferably  linen 
or  hemp. 


Sacred  Vessels 


The  chalice  (see  illustration)  is 
the  cup  which  the  priest  uses  at 
the  Mass  in  which  to  consecrate 
and  from  which  to  receive  the 
Precious  Blood  of  Our  Lord.  Chal- 
ices of  glass,  ivory,  wood  and  even 
clay  have  been  used  at  different 
times.  Today  only  metal  may  be 
used.  They  should  be  of  gold  or 
silver;  if  an  inferior  metal  is  used, 
then  the  inside  of  the  cup  must  be 
heavily  plated  with  gold.  The 
Church  insists  upon  this  use  of 
gold  because  the  Precious  Blood 
comes  into  direct  contact  with  the 
inside  of  the  cup.  There  is  a  very 
special  blessing  for  the  chalice  by 
which  it  is  dedicated  to  the  service 
of  God.  Lay  persons  may  not  touch 
the  chalice. 

The  paten  (see  illustration)  is 
the  plate  upon  which  the  priest 
puts  the  Host  which  he  offers  and 
consecrates  in  the  Mass.  It  must 
be  of  the  same  metal  as  the  chalice. 
Like  the  chalice  it  is  consecrated 


with  a  special  blessing  and  may  not 
be  handled  by  lay  persons. 

The  ciborium  (see  illustration)  is 
a  sacred  vessel  used  to  contain  the 
consecrated  Hosts  for  the  Com- 
munion of  the  faithful.  Like  the 
chalice  it  must  be  at  least  gold- 
plated. 

The  pyx  is  a  small  vessel  of  gold 
or  silver  used  in  carrying  the  Holy 
Eucharist  to  the  sick.  Its  shape  re* 
sembles  that  of  the  case  of  a  watch. 
It  is  kept  in  a  silk-lined  leather 
case,  called  a  burse,  with  a  small 
purificator  and  corporal. 

The  monstrance  or  ostensorium 
is  a  kind  of  portable  tabernacle 
made  in  such  a  way  that  the 
Blessed  Sacrament  may  be  distinct- 
ly seen  by  the  faithful.  It  is  used 
at  Benediction  and  for  Exposition. 

The  luna  or  lunnette  is  a  recep- 
tacle which  holds  the  Sacred  Host 
in  an  upright  position  in  the  mon- 
strance. It  is  removed  from  the 
monstrance  after  Benediction  and 
placed  in  the  tabernacle. 


Vestments 


In  the  early  Church  the  liturgical 
vestments  were  the  same  as  the 
ordinary  civil  dress.  The  Church 
continued  to  use  the  same  style  of 
clothing  for  sacred  functions  so 
that  as  the  styles  of  civil  attire 
changed  there  emerged  a  distinc- 
tive type  of  liturgical  attire.  There 
have  been  minor  changes  in  some 
of  the  vestments  but  in  general 
they  have  kept  their  distinctively 
Roman  appearance. 

Many  symbolical  meanings  have 
been  attached  to  the  different  vest- 


ments by  various  writers.  The 
prayers  the  priest  says  as  he  puts 
on  each  vestment  signify  the  mean- 
ing the  Church  attaches  to  them. 

The  amice  (see  illustration) 
serves  the  practical  purpose  of  pro- 
tecting the  rich  fabric  of  the  chasu- 
ble from  perspiration.  When  he 
puts  it  on  the  priest  says:  "Place, 
O  Lord,  on  my  head  the  helmet  of 
salvation,  that  I  may  overcome  the 
attacks  of  Satan." 

The  alb  (see  illustration)  is  a 
survival  of  the  long  inner  tunic 


181 


worn  by  men  in  the  early  centuries. 
The  vesting  prayer  reads:  "Purify 
me,  O  Lord,  from  all  stain  and 
cleanse  my  heart,  that  washed  in 
the  blood  of  the  Lamb  I  may  enjoy 
eternal  delights." 

The  cincture  (see  illustration) 
holds  the  alb  in  place  close  to  the 
body,  allowing  freedom  of  move- 
ment for  the  feet.  As  he  puts  it  on 
the  priest  says:  "Gird  me,  0  Lord, 
with  the  girdle  of  purity,  and  ex- 
tinguish in  me  all  concupiscence 
that  the  virtue  of  continence  and 
chastity  may  remain  in  me." 

The  maniple  (see  illustration) 
was  originally  an  ornamental  hand- 
kerchief held  in.  the  right  hand  by 
Roman  officials.  It  is  worn  only  in 
the  Mass.  It  is  the  special  badge  of 
the  order  of  subdeaconship  and 
may  not  be  worn  by  those  in  lower 
orders.  The  prayer:  "Let  me  merit, 
O  Lord,  to  bear  the  maniple  of 
tears  and  sorrow  so  that  one  day  I 
may  come  with  joy  into  the  re- 
ward of  my  labors." 

The  stole  (see  illustration)  was 
probably  worn  by  Roman  court  of- 
ficials as  a  sign  of  their  authority. 
At  any  rate  it  is  the  symbol  of  au- 
thority in  the  Church.  Today  only 
the  Pope  has  the  right  to  wear  the 
stole  everywhere  as  a  sign  of  his 
universal  authority.  As  a  sign  of 
the  plenitude  of  the  priestly  power 
which  he  has,  the  bishop  does  not 
cross  the  stole  in  front.  The  deacon 
wears  the  stole  diagonally  from  his 
left  shoulder  to  his  right  side.  It 
was  once  the  distinguishing  mark 
of  the  priesthood  but  is  now  worn 
only  when  performing  a  religious 
function.  The  vesting  prayer  says: 
"Return  to  me,  O  Lord,  that  stole 
of  immortality  which  was  lost  to 
me  by  my  first  parents,  and  though 
unworthy  I  approach  Thy  great 
Mystery,  nevertheless,  grant  me  to 
merit  joy  eternal." 

The  chasuble  (see  illustration) 
was  originally  a  large  round  mantle 
or  cloak  covering  the  whole  body. 
In  the  Middle  Ages  the  chasuble 
was  considerably  shortened  and 
cut  away  at  the  sides  to  secure 
freedom  of  movement.  The  vesting 
prayer:  "O  Lord,  Who  has  said, 
'My  yoke  is  sweet,  My  burden  light,' 


grant  that  I  may  carry  this  yoke 
and  burden  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
obtain  Thy  grace.  Amen." 

The  dalmatic  (see  illustration)  is 
the  outward  vestment  worn  by  the 
deacon  at  High  Mass.  It  was  part 
of  the  clothing  of  the  higher  classes 
adapted  for  ecclesiastical  use. 
When  putting  it  on  the  deacon 
says:  "Clothe  me,  O  Lord,  with  the 
garment  of  salvation,  and  cover  me 
with  the  vestment  of  joy  and  the 
dalmatic  of  justice." 

The  tunic  is  the  outward  gar- 
ment worn  by  the  subdeacon  of  the 
Mass.  It  differs  only  slightly,  in 
ornamentation,  from  the  dalmatic 
of  the  deacon.  The  prayer:  "May  the 
Lord  clothe  me  with  the  tunic  of 
delight  and  the  garments  of  joy." 

Color  of  the  vestments  varies 
with  the  feast  that  is  being  cele- 
brated. 

White,  the  color  of  light,  is  a 
symbol  of  joy,  purity  and  inno- 
cence; it  is  used  on  feasts  of  the 
Holy  Trinity,  Our  Lord,  the  Blessed 
Virgin,  the  angels,  confessors,  holy 
women  not  martyrs,  and  on  Sun- 
days after  Easter. 

Red,  the  language  of  fire  and 
blood,  is  a  symbol  of  love  and  of 
the  sacrifice  of  the  martyrs.  It  is 
also  a  reminder  of  Christ's  Passion. 
It  is  used  on  Pentecost  Sunday,  the 
feasts  of  Our  Lord's  Passion,  and  the 
feasts  of  the  Apostles  and  martyrs. 

Green,  the  symbol  of  hope,  is 
used  on  the  Sundays  after  Epiphany 
and  the  Sundays  after  Pentecost. 

Violet,  the  color  of  penance, 
mortification  and  sorrow,  is  used 
during  Advent  and  Lent,  on  the 
three  Sundays  preceding  the  first 
Sunday  of  Lent,  on  vigils  except 
those  occurring  during  Paschal 
time,  and  on  Rogation  Days. 

Rose,  less  penitential  than  violet, 
is  used  on  the  Third  Sunday  of  Ad- 
vent and  the  Fourth  Sunday  of 
Lent,  because  these  Sundays  are 
joyful  in  the  midst  of  the  peniten- 
tial season. 

Black,  the  symbol  of  mourning 
and  death,  is  used  in  Masses  for 
the  Dead  and  on  Good  Friday. 

Cloth  of  gold  may  take  the  place 
of  white,  red  or  green,  but  not  of 
purple  or  black. 


182 


WHAT  THE   MASS   IS 


The  Council  of  Trent  summarizes 
and  defines  the  Church's  teaching 
in  reference  to  the  Sacrifice  of  the 
Mass  as  follows: 

(1)  There    is    in    the    Catholic 
Church  a  true  Sacrifice,  the  Mass, 
instituted  by  Jesus  Christ;  the  sacri- 
fice of  His  Body  and  Blood  under 
the  appearances  of  bread  and  wine. 

(2)  This     Sacrifice    is    identical 
with  the  Sacrifice  of  the  Cross,  in- 
asmuch  as   Jesus   Christ  is   Priest 
and  Victim  in  both;   the  only  dif- 
ference lies  in  the  manner  of  offer- 
ing, which  is  bloody  upon  the  Cross 
and  bloodless  on  our  altars, 

(3)  It  is  a  propitiatory  Sacrifice, 
atoning  for  our  sins,  and  the  sins 
of  the  living  and   of  the  dead  in 
Christ,  for  whom  it  is  offered. 

(4)  Its  efficacy  is  derived  from  the 
Sacrifice  of  the  Cross,  whose  super- 
abundant merits  it  applies  to  us. 

(5)  Although     offered     to     God, 
alone,  it  may  be  celebrated  in  hon- 
or and  memory  of  the  saints. 

(6)  The  Mass  was  instituted  at 
the  Last  Supper  when  Christ  about 
to   offer  Himself   on   the   altar  of 
the  Cross  by  His  death  (Heb,  x,  10) 
for  our  redemption   (Heb.  ix,  12), 
wished  to  endow  His  Church  with 
a  visible  Sacrifice,  commemorative 
of    His    Bloody    Sacrifice    of    the 
Cross.  As  High  Priest,  according  to 
the  order  of  Melchisedech  (Ps.  cix, 
4),  He  offered  to  His  Father  His 
own  Body  and  Blood  under  the  ap- 
pearances of  bread  and  wine,  and 
constituted  His  Apostles  priests  of 
the  New  Testament  to  renew  this 
same  offering  until  He  came  again 
(1  Cor.  xi,  26)   by  the  words,  "Do 
this  for  a  commemoration  of  me" 
(Lk.  xxii,  19;   1  Cor.  xi,  24). 

Instituted  by  Jesus  Christ,  the 
Mass  is  the  most  perfect  offering 
that  man  can  make  to  God,  his 
Creator  and  Redeemer.  By  the 
Mass  we  call  to  mind  particularly 
the  Passion  and  death  of  Christ 
But  around  this  central  thought  of 
Calvary  is  built  up  also  the  other 
events  of  Our  Saviour's  life.  In  the 
"Sunday  Cycle"  which  begins  with 
the  first  Sunday  of  Advent  we  fol- 
low the  earthly  life  of  Our  Saviour 


through  its  every  stage  until  we 
come  finally  to  the  last  Sunday 
after  Pentecost  which  describes  the 
Last  Judgment  and  the  coming  of 
Christ  in  power  and  majesty.  The 
"Festal  Cycle,"  i.  e.,  the  Masses  in 
honor  of  the  Saints,  is  interwoven 
with  the  story  of  Christ's  earthly 
life  in  the  liturgy  of  the  Mass.  But 
in  the  very  center  and  heart  of  it 
all  stands  the  hill  of  Calvary  with 
its  Cross  of  Sacrifice. 

The  Mass  is  the  unbloody  re- 
newal of  this  Sacrifice  of  Calvary. 
Through  the  Mass  men  of  every 
generation  have  been  brought  to 
the  very  scene  of  Redemption 
and  every  land  has  become  in 
reality  a  Holy  Land.  The  Mass, 
then,  is  the  perpetuation  of  the 
great  Sacrifice. 

One  of  the  essential  characteris- 
tics of  any  sacrifice  is  immolation, 
or  destruction  of  the  thing  sacri- 
ficed. In  the  Mass  this  immolation 
of  the  Victim  takes  place  at  the 
Communion. 

Briefly,  the  Mass  is  the  remem- 
brance and  re-enactment  of  the  life 
of  Christ;  the  perpetuation  of  the 
Sacrifice  of  Calvary;  and  the  ban- 
quet by  which  Our  Crucified  Sav- 
iour comes  to  our  souls  to  make  us 
part  of  Himself. 

Jesus  Christ  Himself  instituted 
the  Mass  at  the  Last  Supper  the 
night  before  His  death.  "Jesus 
took  bread,  and  blessed,  and  broke: 
and  gave  to  His  disciples,  and  said: 
Take  ye  and  eat.  This  is  My  Body. 
And  taking  the  chalice,  He  gave 
thanks,  and  gave  to  them,  saying: 
Drink  ye  all  of  this.  For  this  is  My 
Blood  of  the  new  testament,  which 
shall  be  shed  for  many  unto  the  re- 
mission of  sins"  (Matt,  xxvi,  26-28). 
In  these  words  of  institution  we 
find  the  three  essential  elements  of 
the  Mass,  viz.,  Offertory,  Consecra- 
tion, and  Communion.  Through  the 
course  of  centuries  the  Church  has 
added  various  prayers  and  cere- 
monies, but  the  essence  of  the  Mass 
must  ever  be  those  sacred  words 
of  Him  Who  gave  the  Mass  to  us 
as  a  loving  memorial  of  His  death 
on  Calvary. 


183 


EUCHARISTJC  DIAL 
Where  Mass  is  celebrated  every  hour  of  the  day. 

184 


PRAYERS  AND   CEREMONIES   OF  THE    MASS 
1.  From  the  Beginning  of  Mass  to  the  Epistle 


Words   of  the    Liturgy 

Priest:  In  the  name  of  the  Fa- 
ther, and  of  the  Son  and  of  the 
Holy  Ghost.  Amen. 

Priest:  I  will  go  unto  the  altar 
of  God. 

Server:  To  God,  Who  giveth  joy 
to  my  youth. 

Psalm  xlii  (said  by  priest  and 
server) :  Judge  me,  0  God,  and  dis- 
tinguish my  cause  from  the  nation 
that  is  not  holy:  deliver  me  from 
the  unjust  and  the  deceitful  man. 

For  Thou,  O  God,  art  my  strength: 
why  hast  Thou  cast  me  off?  and 
why  do  I  go  sorrowful  whilst  the 
enemy  afflicteth  me? 

Send  forth  Thy  light  and  Thy 
truth:  they  have  conducted  me  and 
brought  me  unto  Thy  holy  mount, 
and  unto  Thy  tabernacles.  And  I 
will  go  unto  the  altar  of  God;  to 
God,  Who  giveth  joy  to  my  youth. 

I  will  praise  Thee  on  the  harp, 
O  God,  my  God:  why  art  thou  sor- 
rowful, O  my  soul?  and  why  dost 
thou  disquiet  me, 

Hope  in  God,  for  I  will  still  give 
praise  to  Him;  Who  is  the  salva- 
tion of  my  countenance,  and  my 
God. 

Glory  be  to  the  Father,  and  to 
the  Son,  and  to  the  Holy  Ghost. 
As  it  was  in  the  beginning,  is  now, 
and  ever  shall  be,  world  without 
end.  Amen. 

I  will  go  unto  the  altar  of  God. 
To  God,  Who  giveth  joy  to  my 
youth. 


Our  help  is  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord. 

Who  made  heaven  and  earth. 

Priest:  I  confess  to  almighty  God, 
to  blessed  Mary  ever  virgin,  to 
blessed  Michael  the  Archangel,  to 
blessed  John  theBaptist,  to  the  holy 
Apostles  Peter  and  Paul,  to  all  the 
saints,  and  to  you,  brethren,  that 
I  have  sinned  exceedingly,  in 
thought,  word,  and  deed,  through 
my  fault,  through  my  fault,  through 


Significance   of  the    Ritual 

The  sign  of  the  Cross  is  a  fitting 
introduction  for  the  renewal  of  the 
Sacrifice  of  the  Cross. 

The  very  thought  of  the  great  un- 
told benefits  derived  from  every 
Mass  fills  us  with  the  joy  of  youth 
as  we  begin  Mass  with  the  priest. 

To  understand  Psalm  xlii  it  must 
be  considered  in  connection  with 
Psalm  xli  because  both  Psalms 
form  a  unit  and  were  written  by 
the  same  author.  The  writer  of 
these  psalms  is  an  exile  from  Jeru- 
salem: his  ardent  desire  is  to  re- 
visit the  Sanctuary;  he  looks  Tor- 
ward  to  the  day  when  he  will  be 
once  more  with  the  pilgrims  wor- 
shiping at  Jerusalem. 

It  should  be  the  earnest  wish  of 
all  Catholics  to  "go  unto  the  altar 
of  God"  (verse  4)  because  the  altar 
on  which  the  Sacrifice  of  the  Mass 
is  offered  far  surpasses  the  Taber- 
nacle of  the  Jews  which  was  but 
a  shadow  and  a  figure.  If  the  Jews 
found  joy  and  hope  in  the  symbolic 
sacrifices  of  the  Old  Law,  how 
much  more  should  Catholics  re- 
joice in  the  Mass  which  is  the  ful- 
filment of  those  symbols. 

The  addition  of  the  "Glory  be  to 
the  Father"  etc.,  which  the  Church 
adds  to  the  Psalms  when  using 
them  in  the  liturgy  shows  that  she 
wishes  to  interpret  these  Psalms 
in  a  Christian  sense. 

The  antiphon  is  repeated.  Its 
very  repetition  serves  as  a  re- 
minder that  joy  is  the  keynote  of 
the  Christian  preparing  to  assist 
at  Mass. 

Making  the  sign  of  the  Cross  the 
priest  calls  upon  God  for  assistance. 

The  priest's  joy  at  the  thought 
of  the  great  Sacrifice  which  is 
about  to  begin  is  suddenly  clouded 
by  the  remembrance  that  he  is  a 
sinful  man.  Bowed  down  with  eyes 
cast  to  the  ground  he  acknowledges 
his  guilt  to  God  and  the  whole 
court  of  heaven.  He  blames  him- 
self for  his  sins,  confessing  three 


185 


my  most  grievous  fault.  Therefore 
I  beseech  the  blessed  Mary  ever 
virgin,  blessed  Michael  the  Arch- 
angel, blessed  John  the  Baptist,  the 
holy  Apostles  Peter  and  Paul,  all 
the  saints,  and  you  brethren,  to 
pray  to  the  Lord  our  God  for  me. 

Server:  May  almighty  God  have 
mercy  upon  you,  forgive  you  your 
sins,  and  bring  you  to  life  ever- 
lasting. 

Priest:  Amen. 

Server:  I  confess  to  almighty 
God,  etc.  (as  above).  Where  the 
priest  said  "brethren"  the  server 
says  "father"  because  the  priest 
confesses  to  the  people,  and  they 
confess  to  him. 

Priest:  May  almighty  God  have 
mercy  upon  you,  forgive  you  your 
sins,  and  bring  you  to  life  ever- 
lasting. 

Server:    Amen. 

Priest:  Thou  shalt  turn  again, 
O  God,  and  quicken  us. 

Server:  And  Thy  people  shall  re- 
joice in  Thee. 

Priest:  Show  us,  O  Lord,  Thy 
mercy. 

Server:  And  grant  us  Thy  salva- 
tion. 

Priest:  O  Lord,  hear  my  prayer. 

Server:  And  let  my  cry  come  un- 
to Thee. 

Priest:  The  Lord  be  -with  you. 

Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 

Priest:  Let  us  pray:  Take  away 
from  us  our  iniquities,  we  be- 
seech Thee,  O  Lord;  that  we  may  be 
worthy  to  enter  with  pure  minds 
into  the  Holy  of  Holies.  Through 
Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

Priest:  We  beseech  Thee,  0 
Lord,  by  the  merits  of  Thy  saints 
whose  relics  are  here,  and  of  all 
the  saints,  that  Thou  wouldst 
vouchsafe  to  forgive  me  all  my 
sins.  Amen. 

Introit.  (The  Introit  differs  for 
each  Mass,  It  is  composed  as  a  rule 
of  an  antiphon,  a  verse  of  a  Psalm, 
the  Glory  be  to  the  Father,  and 
repetition  of  the  antiphon.  Orig- 
inally the  entire  Psalm  was  sung 
by  tie  choir  and  people  as  the  cele- 


times  as  he  strikes  his  breast,  that 
they  were  committed  "through  my 
fault"  etc.  But  immediately  he 
takes  heart  and  begs  the  Blessed 
Mother,  the  angels  and  saints  of 
heaven,  and  the  people  assisting  at 
Mass  to  ask  God  to  pardon  him. 

The  server  expresses  the  hope 
that  God  will  deal  mercifully  with 
the  priest. 

So  be  it.  In  other  words:  May 
your  prayers  for  me  be  heard. 

The  server  in  his  turn  says  the 
Confiteor.  All  those  assisting  at 
Mass  should  join  the  altar-boy  in 
his  confession  of  guilt,  saying  it 
with  the  same  sentiments  with 
which  the  celebrant  has  just  re- 
cited it. 

The  priest  asks  God  to  have  mer- 
cy on  the  server  just  as  the  server 
asked  God  to  pardon  the  sins  of  the 
priest. 

So  be  it. 

Confident  in  God's  forgiveness 
and  mercy  the  priest  and  server  re- 
cite  these  ejaculations.  The 
thought  of  God's  mercy  brings  back 
the  joy  of  heaven  to  their  hearts. 
In  the  Mass  God  will  answer  the 
prayer,  "Grant  us  Thy  salvation," 
by  sending  down  from  heaven  the 
Saviour  Himself.  The  prayer,  "The 
Lord  be  with  you,  and  with  thy 
spirit,"  finds  its  best  possible  ful- 
filment when,  in  the  Mass,  Christ 
comes  down  from  heaven  upon  the 
altar. 

As  he  ascends  the  steps  of  the 
altar  the  priest  once  more  begs  God 
to  take  away  his  sins  so  that  he 
may  offer  the  Sacrifice  with  a  pure 
mind  and  heart. 

Kissing  the  altar  containing  the 
relics  of  martyrs  the  priest  makes 
a  final  plea  for  the  forgiveness  of 
his  sins,  calling  upon  all  the  saints 
in  heaven  to  obtain  God's  pardon 
for  him. 

The  prayers  at  the  foot  of  the 
altar  were  preparatory.  The  In- 
troit begins  the  Mass  itself.  Sign- 
ing himself  with  the  sign  of  the 
Cross,  the  priest  recites  this  "over- 
ture of  the  Mass."  In  the  Introit 
we  find  the  theme  of  the  Mass,  the 


186 


brant  went  from  the  sacristy  to  the 
altar.  Today  the  choir  chants  the 
Introit  when  the  priest  begins  the 
prayers  at  the  foot  of  the  altar.) 


Kyrie  (recited  by  priest  and 
server  alternately) : 
Lord  have  mercy  on  us. 
Lord  have  mercy  on  us. 
Lord  have  mercy  on  us. 
Christ  have  mercy  on  us. 
Christ  have  mercy  on  us. 
Christ  have  mercy  on  us. 
Lord  have  mercy  on  us. 
Lord  have  mercy  on  us. 
Lord  have  mercy  on  us. 


Gloria:  Glory  to  God  in  the  high- 
est, and  on  earth  peace  to  men  of 
good- will.  We  praise  Thee;  we 
bless  Thee;  we  adore  Thee;  we 
glorify  Thee.  We  give  Thee  thanks 
for  Thy  great  glory.  O  Lord  God, 
heavenly  King,  God  the  Father  al- 
mighty. O  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  the 
only-begotten  Son.  O  Lord  God, 
Lamb  of  God,  Son  of  the  Father, 
Who  takest  away  the  sins  of  the 
world,  have  mercy  upon  us.  Who 
takest  away  the  sins  of  the  world, 
receive  our  prayer.  Who  sittest  at 
the  right  hand  of  the  Father,  have 
mercy  upon  us.  For  Thou  only  art 
holy,  Thou  only  art  Lord.  Thou 
only,  O  Jesus  Christ,  art  most  high, 
together  with  the  Holy  Ghost  in 
the  glory  of  God  the  Father. 

Amen. 


Priest:  The  Lord  be  with  you. 
Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 


key  to  the  mystery  of  the  feast  be- 
ing celebrated.  Its  purpose  is  to 
arouse  in  us  fitting  thoughts  and 
sentiments;  to  place  us,  as  it  were, 
in  the  atmosphere  of  the  feast  we 
are  commemorating. 

Fervently  we  cry  to  God:  "Have 
mercy  on  us."  Three  times  we  ad- 
dress our  plea  to  God  the  Father, 
three  times  to  God  the  Son,  three 
times  to  God  the  Holy  Ghost.  With 
the  simplicity  of  children  we  re- 
peat the  selfsame  phrase,  insisting 
that  God  have  mercy  upon  us.  God, 
surely,  cannot  turn  a  deaf  ear  to 
such  earnest  pleading.  In  fact,  the 
prayer's  very  simplicity  —  its  child- 
ishness almost  —  must  delight  the 
heart  of  Him  Who  allows  us  to  ad- 
dress Him  as  "Our  Father." 

The  Gloria  is  the  answer  to  the 
Kyrie.  In  the  Kyrie  we  asked  God 
the  Father  to  have  mercy  on  us; 
we  now  "praise,  bless,  worship  and 
glorify"  Him;  we  address  Him  as 
"God  the  Father  Almighty,"  thus 
reminding  Him  that  it  is  within 
His  power  to  hear  our  prayer.  In 
the  Cbriste  elehon  we  begged  God 
the  Son  also  to  have  mercy  on  us; 
and  now,  as  adopted  children  of 
the  Redeemer  Who  came  down  up- 
on earth  to  save  us  we  address 
Him  with  those  titles  so  dear  to 
His  heart:  "Only  begotten  Son," 
"Lamb  of  God."  He  too  can  grant 
our  request  for  He  sits  "at  the 
right  hand  of  the  Father."  Finally 
in  the  last  Kyrie  we  implored  the 
Holy  Ghost  to  have  mercy  on  us; 
now  we  address  Him  as  God,  equal 
to  the  Father  and  the  Son.  Real- 
izing the  grandeur  and  power  of 
the  Most  Blessed  Trinity  we  feel 
confident  that  our  plea  for  mercy 
will  be  heard. 

After  kissing  the  altar,  which  is 
the  symbol  of  Christ,  the  priest 
turns  to  the  congregation  with 
hands  extended  and  says,  "The 
Lord  be  with  you."  He  transmits 
to  the  people  the  graces  he  has 
received  from  the  altar.  This  same 
greeting  occurs  eight  times  during 
the  Mass  and  each  time  it  is  a  re- 
minder to  those  assisting  at  Mass 
that  they  are  to  take  an  active  part 
in  what  follows. 


187 


Collect.  (The  Collect  or  Oration 
as  it  is  often  called,  is  different  for 
each.  Mass.  It  is  a  prayer  of  peti- 
tion. It  begins  with  the  words,  "Let 
us  pray/'  followed  by  a  form  of  ad- 
dress to  God,  the  reason  for  our  pe- 
tition, and  the  petition  itself;  it 
closes  with  a  formula  something 
like  the  following:  "Through  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  Who  lives  and 
reigns  with  the  Holy  Ghost,  world 
without  end.  Amen.") 


By  the  words,  "Let  us  pray,"  the 
celebrant  indicates  that  this  prayer 
is  not  his  alone  but  the  prayer  of 
all  those  present.  The  priest  is  the 
representative  of  the  people  and 
when  he  prays  he  beseeches  God  to 
hearken  to  the  common  petition  of 
the  congregation.  The  prayer  ends 
with  an  invocation  to  Christ.  Con- 
fidently we  invoke  His  aid  Who 
said:  "Whatsoever  you  shall  ask 
the  Father  in  My  Name,  that  will 
I  do"  (Jn.  xiv,  13). 

Summary.  This  first  part  of  the  Mass  is  called  by  some  "the  service  of 
prayer."  By  the  confession  of  sins  (Confiteor)  we  have  told  God  how 
sorry  we  are  for  having  offended  Him,  how  unworthy  we  feel  to  assist 
at  the  sublime  Sacrifice;  but  with  the  thought  of  God's  kindness  and 
goodness  before  us  we  cry  to  heaven  for  mercy  (Kyrie) ;  almost  instinc- 
tively we  burst  into  the  praises  of  the  Most  Blessed  Trinity  (Gloria) 
and  the  thought  of  the  power  and  majesty  of  the  Triune  God  fills  us  with 
the  assurance  that  our  plea  for  mercy  will  be  heard;  and  finally  we  lay 
before  God  our  special  petitions  (Collect). 

Thus  by  our  prayers  we  have  gradually  ascended  toward  God  —  it  is 
our  preparation  and  introduction  to  the  Mystery  of  Calvary.  God,  Who 
is  never  outdone  in  generosity,  now  responds  to  our  prayers  through  the 
words  of  Sacred  Scripture.  We  are  entering  the  second  part  of  the  drama 
of  the  Mass. 

II.    From   the    Epistle  to  the   Creed 


Words  of  the   Liturgy 

Epistle.  (The  Epistles  of  Sundays 
are  always  taken  from  the  letters 
of  the  Apostles.  In  many  of  the 
ferial  Masses  of  Lent,  Ember  Days, 
and  many  of  the  old  Masses  of  the 
Saints  the  Lesson  is  taken  from 
some  Book  of  the  Old  Testament.) 

Server:    Thanks   be  to   God. 

Gradual.  (The  Gradual  is  made  up 
generally  of  two  verses  from  one 
of  the  psalms.  It  is  found  in  all 
Masses  except  those  during  the 
Easter  season.) 

Alleluia.  (Two  Alleluias,  a  verse, 
and  another  Alleluia  follow  the 
Gradual  in  Masses  between  Trinity 
Sunday  and  Septuagesima  Sunday. 
The  so-called  greater  Alleluia  is 
the  only  chant  between  the  Epistle 
and  Gospel  in  the  Masses  from 
Easter  Saturday  until  Trinity  Sun- 
day.) 

Tract.  (The  Tract  replaces  the 
Alleluia  on  days  of  penance  and  in 
Requiem  Masses.  It  is  made  up  of 
several  verses  from  one  of  the 
psalms.) 


Significance   of  the    Ritual 

The  Epistle  is  chosen  with  a  view 
to  the  development  of  the  feast  be- 
ing celebrated.  It  is  taken  from 
the  inspired  books.  Through  the 
Epistle  God  speaks  to  those  assist- 
ing at  Mass,  and  man  shows  his 
gratitude  by  answering  with  the 
server:  "Thanks  be  to  God." 

The  Gradual  affords  a  pause  for 
reflection  on  the  Lesson  that  has 
been  read.  It  may  be  considered  as 
the  echo  of  the  reading  from  Sa- 
cred Scripture. 

The  Alleluia  is  the  prelude  to  the 
Gospel.  It  is  the  joyful  anticipa- 
tion of  the  great  privilege  that  is 
ours:  namely,  that  the  sublime,  the 
life-giving  words  of  Christ  Himself 
are  about  to  be  read  to  us. 


The  Tract  presents  thoughts  con- 
ducive to  quiet  meditation  and  in- 
tensive reflection,  the  theme  being 
always  sorrowful  in  accordance 
with  the  penitential  seasons  in 
which  it  is  used  in  the  Mass. 


188 


Sequence.  (The  Sequence  devel- 
oped by  adding  words  to  the  notes 
of  the  "a"  of  the  Alleluia.  These 
words  were  later  put  into  metrical 
form.  Sequences  occur  in  Masses 
of  Easter,  Pentecost,  Corpus  Chris- 
ti  and  Seven  Dolors,  and  Requiem 
Masses.) 

Priest:  Cleanse  my  heart  and  my 
lips,  O  almighty  God,  Who  didst 
cleanse  the  lips  of  the  prophet 
Isaias  with  a  burning  coal:  vouch- 
safe through  Thy  gracious  mercy 
so  to  cleanse  me  that  I  may  worth- 
ily proclaim  Thy  holy  Gospel 
Through  Christ  Our  Lord.  Amen. 

Gospel.  (The  Gospel  is  a  reading 
selected  from  one  of  the  Evange- 
lists. The  particular  part  which  is 
read  has  been  chosen  by  the 
Church  to  fit  the  particular  feast 
or  occasion  which  is  being  cele- 
brated.) 

Priest:   The  Lord  be  with  you. 

Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 

Priest:  The  continuation  of  the 
holy  Gospel  according  to  St.  N. 
(here  he  mentions  the  name  of  the 
Evangelist  from  whose  account  the 
Gospel  of  the  Mass  is  taken  and 
then  reads  the  Gospel) 

Server:  Praise  be  to  Jesus  Christ. 

Priest  (having  finished  the  Gos- 
pel, kisses  the  book  and  says) :  By 
the  words  of  the  Gospel  may  our 
sins  be  blotted  out. 


The  purpose  of  the  Sequence  is 
to  form  a  sort  of  meditation  on  the 
Alleluia  verse.  This  purpose  is  ad- 
mirably carried  out  in  the  Se- 
quences for  Easter  and  Pentecost 
Sundays. 


Raising  his  eyes  to  the  crucifix 
the  priest  indicates  that  he  wishes 
the  Crucified  Saviour  to  commis- 
sion him  to  announce  the  sublime 
words  of  the  Gospel;  bowing  pro- 
foundly he  asks  God  to  cleanse  him, 
because  only  the  pure  may  presume 
to  speak  the  holy  words  of  the 
Gospel. 

The  holy  Gospel  is  worthy  of  the 
highest  respect.  This  reverence  is 
manifested  by  the  congregation  in 
arising  to  hear  the  sacred  word.  By 
the  greeting,  "The  Lord  be  with 
you,"  the  priest  reminds  the  people 
that  they  are  to  take  an  active  part 
in  the  Gospel.  The  priest  makes 
the  sign  of  the  Cross  on  the  Gospel. 
Then  to  indicate  that  they  wish  to 
apply  the  blessing  of  God's  words 
to  themselves,  both  the  priest  and 
people  make  a  small  sign  of  the 
Cross  on  the  forehead,  lips  and 
breast.  "Praise  be  to  Jesus  Christ" 
is  the  server's  expression  of  grati- 
tude, which  all  experience  at  the 
privilege  of  being  allowed  to  hear 
the  very  words  of  God  Himself. 
Finally  the  priest's  prayer  that  "our 
sins  be  blotted  out"  shows  what 
value  we  attach  to  the  Gospel. 


Summary.  This  second  part  of  the  Mass  from  the  Epistle  to  the  Creed 
is  made  up  entirely  of  passages  from  Holy  Scripture.  It  is  the  word  of 
God  spoken  to  us  in  answer  to  our  prayers  of  preparation  that  preceded. 
Both  parts  taken  together  form  the  Mass  of  the  Catechumens  or  the  Ante- 
Mass.  So  far  the  real  Sacrifice  has  not  begun,  but  everything  is  prepara- 
tory. We  have  come  to  God's  holy  altar,  away  from  the  noise  of  the 
world,  to  lay  our  cares  and  worries,  our  hopes  and  petitions  before  the 
Lord.  Then  God  spoke  to  us  through  the  words  of  the  inspired  writers. 
We  listened  to  His  teaching;  and  now,  before  we  enter  upon  the  first 
essential  part  of  the  Mass,  i.  e.,  the  Offertory,  we  assure  God  that  our 
faith  in  Him  is  strong.  We  do  this  by  reciting  the  Creed: 


Creed:  I  believe  in  one  God,  the 
Father  almighty,  maker  of  heaven 
and  earth,  and  of  all  things  visible 
and  invisible.  And  in  one  Lord 
Jesus  Christ,  the  only-begotten  Son 
of  God,  born  of  the  Father  before 


In  the  words  of  this  profession 
of  faith  we  join  the  host  of  adorers 
who  have  paid  homage  to  the  Al- 
mighty through  the  ages.  The  very 
same  words  have  been  used  by 
Catholics  since  the  fourth  century. 


189 


all  ages;  God  of  God,  light  of  light, 
true  God  of  true  God;  "begotten  not 
made;  consubstantial  with  the 
Father;  by  Whom  all  things  were 
made.  Who  for  us  men,  and  for  our 
salvation,  came  down  from  heaven 
(the  celebrant  genuflects  and 
adores  the  Word  made  flesh) ;  and 
was  Incarnate  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  oj 
the  Virgin  Mary;  and  was  made  man, 
He  was  crucified  also  for  us,  suf- 
fered under  Pontius  Pilate,  and  was 
buried.  And  the  third  day  He  arose 
again  according  to  the  Scriptures; 
and  ascended  into  heaven.  He 
sitteth  at  the  right  hand  of  the 
Father;  and  He  shall  come  again 
with  glory  to  judge  the  living  and 
the  dead;  and  His  kingdom  shall 
have  no  end.  And  in  the  Holy 
Ghost,  the  Lord  and  giver  of  life, 
who  proceedeth  from  the  Father 
and  the  Son,  who  together  with  the 
Father  and  the  Son  is  adored  and 
glorified;  who  spoke  by  the  Proph- 
ets. And  one,  holy,  catholic  and 
apostolic  Church.  I  confess  one 
baptism  for  the  remission  of  sins. 
And  I  await  the  resurrection  of  the 
dead,  and  the  life  of  the  world  to 
come.  Amen. 


They  serve  to  unite  us  intimately 
to  Catholics  of  all  times  and  all 
places  professing  our  belief  in  the 
essential  doctrines  that  Our  Blessed 
Saviour  came  to  earth  to  teach  us. 

We  begin  by  professing  our  be- 
lief in  God  the  Father.  We  dwell 
at  length  on  the  truths  that  center 
around  Christ,  for  in  Him  the  eyes 
of  men  have  seen  as  much  of  the 
Divinity  of  God  as  it  is  permitted 
mortals  to  behold.  Then  comes 
our  profession  of  faith  in  the  Holy 
Ghost.  Our  faith  in  the  three  Di- 
vine Persons  we  confirm  by  our 
belief  in  the  Catholic  Church,  for 
the  Father  commissioned  the  Son 
to  establish  that  Church,  and  the 
Son  sent  the  Holy  Ghost  to  guide 
and  guard  it.  Belief  in  the  Church 
demands  faith  in  baptism  by  which 
men  enter  it;  demands  also  belief 
in  the  resurrection  and  in  the  life 
to  come  which  is  the  reward  or 
punishment  of  man's  life  while  a 
member  of  it. 

The  Creed  is  thus  seen  to  be  a 
concise  statement  of  the  chief 
dogmas  of  our  holy  faith. 


III.  From  the  Offertory  to  the  Canon 


Words  of  the  Liturgy 
Priest:  The  Lord  be  with  you. 
Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 
Priest:  Let  us  pray. 


Offertory.  (The  Offertory  prayer 
is  proper  to  each  Mass,  and  like  the 
other  proper  parts  it  changes  with 
each  Mass.  Formerly  it  was  a  long 
prayer  chanted  during  the  proces- 
sion of  the  people  as  they  brought 
their  gifts  to  the  altar.  Today  it  is 
a  short  form  of  this  processional 
chant.) 

Receive,  O  holy  Father,  almighty 
and  eternal  God,  this  spotless  host, 
which  I,  Thy  unworthy  servant, 
offer  unto  Thee,  my  living  and  true 
God,  for  mine  own  countless  sins, 
offenses  and  negligences,  and  for 
all  here  present;  as  also  for  all 
faithful  Christians  living  and  dead, 
that  it  may  avail  both  me  and  them 


Significance  of  the  Ritual 
Once  again  the  priest  reminds 
the  people  of  their  active  part  in 
the  Sacrifice.  The  words,  "Let  us 
pray,"  are  an  exhortation  to  those 
present  to  join  in  all  the  prayers 
of  the  Offertory. 

By  bringing  gifts  to  the  altar  at 
this  part  of  the  Mass  the  early 
Christians  showed  their  eagerness 
to  take  part  in  the  Sacrifice.  Though 
that  early  custom  no  longer  ob- 
tains, we  can  and  we  should  offer 
to  God  at  this  point  the  gift  He 
most  desires  —  the  gift  of  our  very 
selves. 

Raising  the  host  the  priest  offers 
it  in  the  name  of  all  those  present 
to  God;  he  offers  it  "for  mine  own 
countless  sins  . . .  and  for  all  here 
present";  then,  as  it  were,  he  looks 
beyond  the  present  and  visualizes 
this  same  host  after  it  has  been 
consecrated  and  he  prays  that  He 
Who  is  to  come  down  from  heaven 


190 


unto  salvation  for  life  everlasting. 
Amen. 


O  God,  who  in  a  marvellous  man- 
ner didst  create  and  ennoble  hu- 
man nature,  and  still  more  mar- 
vellously has  renewed  it,  grant 
that,  by  the  mystical  union  of  this 
water  and  wine,  we  may  be  made 
partakers  of  His  divinity  who 
vouchsafed  to  become  partaker  of 
our  humanity,  Jesus  Christ  Thy 
Son,  our  Lord:  Who  liveth  and 
reigneth  with  Thee  in  the  unity  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  one  God,  world 
without  end.  Amen, 

We  offer  unto  Thee,  O  Lord,  the 
chalice  of  salvation,  beseeching 
Thy  clemency;  that  it  may  rise  up 
in  the  sight  of  Thy  divine  majesty 
as  a  sweet  savour,  for  our  own  sal- 
vation and  for  that  of  the  whole 
world.  Amen. 

In  a  humble  spirit  and  a  contrite 
heart  may  we  be  received  by  Thee, 
O  Lord,  and  may  our  sacrifice  so 
be  offered  up  in  Thy  sight  this  day 
that  it  may  be  pleasing  to  Thee,  O 
Lord  God. 


Come,  Thou  who  makest  holy,  al- 
mighty and  eternal  God,  and  bless 
this  sacrifice  prepared  for  Thy 
holy  name. 

Psalm  xv,  6-12:  I  will  wash  my 
hands  among  the  innocent:  and 
will  compass  Thy  altar,  O  Lord: 

That  I  may  hear  the  voice  of  Thy 
praise,  and  tell  of  all  Thy  won- 
drous works. 

I  have  loved,  O  Lord,  the  beauty 
of  Thy  house,  and  the  place  where 
Thy  glory  dwelleth. 

Take  not  away  my  soul,  O  God, 
with  the  wicked,  nor  my  life  with 
bloody  men: 

In  whose  hands  are  iniquities: 
their  right  hand  is  filled  with  gifts. 

But  as  for  me,  I  have  walked  in 
my  innocence:  redeem  me,  and 
have  mercy  on  me. 

My  foot  hath  stood  in  the  direct 
way:  In  the  churches  I  will  bless 
Thee,  O  Lord. 

Glory  be  to  the  Father,  etc. 


at  the  moment  of  Consecration  may 
grant  salvation  to  those  who  now 
offer  it  with  him  to  the  Eternal 
Father. 

The  priest,  after  he  has  poured 
the  wine  into  the  chalice,  says  this 
prayer  while  blessing  the  water.  As 
can  be  seen  from  the  prayer,  the 
Church  attaches  a  deep  symbolical 
meaning  to  the  mingling  of  the 
wine  and  water.  The  wine  repre- 
sents Christ  (hence  the  wine  is  not 
blessed),  the  water  represents  man. 
As  the  water  is  merged  in  the  wine, 
so  do  we  desire  to  be  assumed  into 
the  nature  and  the  very  being  of 
Our  Lord. 

Once  more  the  priest  looks  be- 
yond the  present  moment:  as  he 
raises  the  chalice  to  offer  it  to  God 
he  is  thinking  not  of  the  wine  it 
contains  but  of  the  Blood  that  is 
to  be.  The  salvation  of  the  world 
is  what  he  asks  from  heaven. 

The  very  posture  of  the  priest 
who  bows  profoundly  as  he  says 
this  prayer  conveys  the  idea  of  hu- 
mility and  contrition  which  gives 
the  keynote  of  the  prayer.  Humble 
and  contrite  we  ask  God  to  accept 
not  only  the  bread  and  wine  which 
we  have  offered,  but  to  receive  us 
also. 

The  priest  raises  his  hands  as 
though  he  would  compel  the  Holy 
Ghost  to  come  down  from  heaven 
to  bless  the  offering. 

This  psalm  is  said  by  the  priest 
while  he  washes  his  hands.  Be- 
sides the  very  practical  purpose  of 
washing  of  the  hands,  there  is  also 
a  symbolic  purpose  and  meaning 
attached  to  the  ceremony.  Cleanli- 
ness and  innocence  go  hand  in 
hand,  and  the  priest  who  is  about 
to  offer  the  most  sublime  of  sacri- 
fices needs  to  be  cleansed  from 
even  the  slightest  speck  of  Imper- 
fection. 

The  psalm  itself  is  a  mixture  of 
praise  and  petition:  praise  of  God 
in  the  glory  and  beauty  of  His 
house,  petition  for  mercy  from  the 
realization  that  man  is  ever  too  sin- 
ful to  offer  fitting  sacrifice  to  his 
Maker. 

The  request  to  be  numbered 
among  the  innocent  has  a  very  defi- 


191 


Receive,  O  Holy  Trinity,  this  of- 
fering which  we  make  to  Thee  in 
remembrance  of  the  Passion,  Re- 
surrection and  Ascension  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  in  honor  of 
blessed  Mary  ever  Virgin,  of  blessed 
John  the  Baptist,  of  the  holy  Apos- 
tles Peter  and  Paul,  of  these  and  of 
all  the  saints:  that  it  may  avail  to 
their  honor  and  our  salvation:  and 
may  they  vouchsafe  to  intercede 
for  us  in  heaven,  whose  memory  we 
keep  on  earth.  Through  the  same 
Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

Priest:  Brethren,  pray  that  my 
sacrifice  and  yours  may  be  accep- 
table to  God  the  Father  almighty. 

Server:  May  the  Lord  receive  the 
sacrifice  at  thy  hands,  to  the  praise 
and  glory  of  His  name,  to  our  own 
benefit,  and  to  that  of  all  His  holy 
Church.  Amen. 

Secret.  (This  is  another  prayer 
which  varies  with  each  Mass.  The 
best  explanation  of  the  term  "se- 
cret" seems  to  be  that  this  prayer 
was  the  Offertory  prayer  of  the  "se- 
cret" or  "select"  congregation 
which  remained  after  the  catechu- 
mens had  been  dismissed.) 

Priest :  . . .  world  without  end. 

Server:  Amen. 

Priest:  The  Lord  be  with  you. 

Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 

Priest:  Lift  up  your  hearts. 

Server:  We  have  lifted  them  up 
unto  the  Lord. 

Priest:  Let  us  give  thanks  to  the 
Lord  our  God. 

Server:  It  is  meet  and  right. 

Preface.  It  is  truly  meet  and  just, 
right  and  availing  unto  salvation, 
that  we  should  at  all  times  and  in 
all  places  give  thanks  unto  Thee, 
O  holy  Lord,  Father  almighty  and 
everlasting  God,  through  Christ  our 
Lord.  Through  whom  the  angels 
praise  Thy  majesty,  the  domina- 
tions worship  it,  the  powers  stand 
in  awe.  The  heavens,  and  the  heav- 
enly hosts  and  the  blessed  sera- 
phim join  together  in  celebrating 


nite  objective  in  view,  viz.,  to  be 
able  to  offer  God  the  most  perfect 
sacrifice  possible  to  sinful  man. 

Man's  preparation  for  the  sacri- 
fice of  the  Mass  needs  the  approba- 
tion of  heaven  if  it  is  to  be  a  wor- 
thy sacrifice.  Bowing  down  the 
priest  addresses  his  prayer  to  the 
Most  Blessed  Trinity  (a  very  rare 
thing  in  the  Liturgy),  and  calls  up- 
on the  saints  of  heaven  to  help 
make  the  sacrifice  a  fitting  one. 
With  the  saints  interceding  for  us 
we  feel  more  certain  that  our  offer- 
ing will  be  pleasing  to  the  Most 
High. 

All  are  called  upon  to  petition 
heaven  to  receive  the  sacrifice 
which  the  priest  is  about  to  offer 
in  the  name  of  all. 

The  glory  of  God,  our  own  salva- 
tion, and  the  salvation  of  the  whole 
Church  —  these  form  the  basis  of 
our  claim  upon  the  Lord  for  the  ac- 
ceptance of  our  sacrifice. 

The  thoughts  contained  in  these 
secret  prayers  are  always  linked 
up  with  the  sacrificial  act  which  is 
soon  to  take  place.  Our  offerings, 
unimportant  in  themselves,  become 
tremendous  in  the  light  of  what 
they  are  soon  to  become  —  Christ 
Himself. 

These  are  the  last  words  of  the 
Secret  which  the  priest  says  aloud. 
The  responsories  that  follow  form 
the  introduction  to  the  Preface. 
They  were  originally  acclamations 
used  by  the  people  when  meeting 
each  other  (see  Book  of  Ruth  ii,  4). 
Their  function  here  is  to  remind 
us  once  again  that  all  who  assist 
at  the  Sacrifice  of  the  Mass  should 
take  an  active  part  in  it. 

This  is  the  Common  Preface  used 
throughout  the  year  on  feasts  and 
ferias  which  have  no  Proper  Pref- 
ace. There  are  fifteen  Prefaces  in 
the  Roman  Missal  of  today. 

The  main  thought  of  the  Preface 
is  praise  and  adoration  of  God. 
This  praise  of  God  is  the  spontane- 
ous cry  of  our  souls  as  we  draw 
ever  closer  to  the  central  point  in 
the  great  drama  of  the  Mass. 


192 


their  joy.  With,  whom  we  pray  Thee 
join  our  voices  also,  while  we  say 
with  lowly  praise: 

Sanctus.  Holy,  holy,  holy,  Lord 
God  of  hosts.  Heaven  and  earth 
are  full  of  Thy  glory.  Hosanna  in 
the  highest. 

Benedictus.  Blessed  is  He  that 
cometh  in  the  name  of  the  Lord. 
Hosanna  in  the  highest. 


We  repeat  the  words  of  the  an- 
gelic hosts  who  worship  at  the 
throne  of  God  singing  continually 
their  Holy,  Holy,  Holy. 

He  who  came  to  Bethlehem  is 
now  about  to  come  down  upon  our 
altar. 

Summary.  The  Offertory  is  the  first  of  the  three  principal  parts  of  the 
Mass.  It  is  the  preparation  for  the  Sacrifice.  Together  with  the  priest 
we  offer  to  God  our  gifts  of  bread  and  wine;  by  the  mingling  of  water 
and  wine  we  indicate  that  we  wish  to  become  one  with  Christ  so  that 
we  may  be  offered  with  Him  at  the  moment  of  Consecration;  we  beg 
God's  blessing  upon  our  offerings  so  that  they  may  become  a  pleasing 
sacrifice;  we  wash  our  hands  in  spirit  with  the  priest  because  only  the 
pure  can  presume  to  offer  sacrifice  to  the  Lord;  we  call  upon  the  angels 
and  saints  and  upon  God  Himself  to  supply  what  is  wanting  to  make 
our  offering  a  worthy  sacrifice;  and  finally  we  sing  a  hymn  of  praise  and 
adoration  as  we  join  that  everlasting  chant  of  the  angelic  choirs:  "Holy, 
holy,  holy,  Lord  God  of  hosts.  Heaven  and  earth  are  full  of  Thy  glory. 
Hosanna  in  the  highest  Blessed  is  He  that  cometh  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord.  Hosanna  in  the  highest." 

IV.  From  the  Beginning  of  the  Canon  to  the  Our  Father 
Words  of  the   Liturgy  Significance  of  the  Ritual 

We  therefore  humbly  pray  and  The  priest  bows  low,  kisses  the 
beseech  Thee,  O  most  merciful  altar,  and  silently  prays  to  God, 
Father,  through  Jesus  Christ  Thy 
Son,  our  Lord,  that  Thou  wouldst 
vouchsafe  to  receive  and  bless 
these  gifts,  these  offerings,  and 
these  holy  and  unblemished  sacri- 
fices, which  in  the  first  place,  we 
offer  up  to  Thee  for  Thy  holy 
Catholic  Church,  that  it  may  please 
Thee  to  grant  her  peace,  to  pro- 
tect, unite  and  govern  her  through- 
out the  world,  together  with  Thy 
servant  Pius  XII  our  Pope,  (name 
of)  our  Bishop,  and  all  true  be- 
lievers and  professors  of  the  Catho- 


asking  Him  to  receive  our  offer- 
ings through  Jesus  Christ.  He 
makes  three  signs  of  the  Cross 
over  the  oblation  to  show  that 
Christ  obtained  for  us  the  blessing 
of  the  Trinity  by  His  death  on  Cal- 
vary. The  offering  is  made  in  the 
name  of  the  Pope  and  the  Bishop, 
and  of  "all  true  believers  and  pro- 
fessors of  the  Catholic  and  Apos- 
tolic Faith."  The  entire  Churclj 
thus  participates  in  every  Mass 
that  is  offered  up  to  God. 


lie  and  Apostolic  faith. 

Be  mindful,  O  Lord,  of  Thy  serv- 
ants and  handmaids  NN.  (here  are 
mentioned  the  names  of  the  liv- 
ing) and  of  all  here  present,  whose 
faith  and  devotion  are  known  to 
Thee,  for  whom  we  offer,  or  who 
offer  up  to  Thee,  this  sacrifice  of 
praise  for  themselves  and  all  those 
dear  to  them,  for  the  redemption 
of  their  souls,  the  hope  of  their 
safety  and  salvation:  who  now  pay 
their  vows  to  Thee,  the  eternal, 
living  and  true  God. 

In  communion  with,  and  vener- 
ating the  memory  in  the  first  place 


Here,  in  the  Memento  for  the 
living,  the  priest  mentions  those 
living  persons  in  particular  for 
whom  he  wishes  to  pray.  He  like- 
wise prays  for  all  those  present  at 
the  Mass.  He  recommends  their 
friends  to  God  also.  Notice  that 
throughout  the  Canon  the  priest 
prays  in  the  plural  to  indicate  that 
the  sacrifice  being  offered  is  the 
sacrifice  of  all. 


The  two  prayers  above  were  con- 
cerned with  the   Church  militant. 


193 


of  the  glorious  ever  Virgin  Mary, 
Mother  of  our  God  and  Lord  Jesus 
Christ;  and  also  of  Thy  blessed 
Apostles  and  Martyrs  Peter  and 
Paul,  Andrew,  James,  John,  Thom- 
as, James,  Philip,  Bartholomew, 
Matthew,  Simon  and  Thaddeus, 
Linus,  Cletus,  Clement,  Sixtus, 
Cornelius,  Cyprian,  Laurence,  Chry- 
sogonus,  John  and  Paul,  Cosmas, 
and  Damian,  and  of  all  Thy  saints; 
by  whose  merits  and  prayers  grant 
that  we  may  be  defended  in  all 
things  by  the  help  of  Thy  protec- 
tion. Through  the  same  Christ  our 
Lord.  Amen. 

This  oblation,  therefore,  of  our 
service  and  that  of  Thy  whole  fam- 
ily, we  beseech  Thee,  O  Lord,  gra- 
ciously to  accept,  and  to  order  our 
days  in  Thy  peace  and  bid  us  to 
be  delivered  from  eternal  damna- 
tion and  numbered  among  the  flock 
of  Thy  elect.  Through  Christ  our 
Lord.  Amen. 

Which  oblation  do  Thou,  O  God, 
vouchsafe  in  all  things  to  bless,  ap- 
prove, ratify,  make  worthy  and  ac- 
ceptable: that  it  may  become  for 
us  the  Body  and  Blood  of  Thy  most 
beloved  Son  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

Who  the  day  before  He  suffered 
took  bread  into  His  holy  and  ven- 
erable hands,  and  with  His  eyes 
lifted  up  to  heaven,  unto  Thee,  God, 
His  almighty  Father,  giving  thanks 
to  Thee  He  blessed,  broke,  and 
gave  it  to  His  disciples  saying: 
Take  and  eat  ye  all  of  this,  for  this 
is  my  Body. 

In  like  manner,  after  He  had 
supped,  taking  also  this  excellent 
chalice  into  His  holy  and  vener- 
able hands,  and  giving  thanks  to 
Thee,  He  blessed  and  gave  it  to  His 
disciples,  saying:  Take  and  drink 
ye  all  of  this,  for  this  is  the  Chalice  of 
my  Blood)  of  the  new  testament:  the 
mystery  of  iaith:  which  shall  be  shed 
for  you  and  for  many  unto  the  remis- 
sion of  sins. 

As  often  as  ye  shall  do  these 
things,  ye  shall  do  them  in  remem- 
brance of  Me. 

Wherefore,  O  Lord,  we  Thy  serv- 
ants, and  likewise  Thy  holy  people, 
calling  to  mind  the  blessed  Passion 
of  the  same  Christ  Thy  Son  our 


In  this  prayer  the  supplications  of 
earth  are  joined  with  those  of  the 
Church  triumphant  in  heaven.  Our 
Blessed  Lady,  the  Apostles,  a  num- 
ber of  Popes,  and  a  few  of  the  mar- 
tyrs specially  venerated  in  Rome 
are  mentioned  by  name.  They  are 
the  representatives  of  the  whole 
celestial  court  upon  whom  we  call. 
Here  we  see  quite  clearly  the  in- 
timate connection  between  the 
faithful  on  earth  and  the  saints  in 
heaven. 


Spreading  his  hands  over  the 
chalice  and  host,  a  sign  of  vicari- 
ous atonement,  the  priest  now  en- 
ters upon  the  most  solemn  part  of 
the  Mass.  He  begs  God  to  accept 
our  sacrifice.  Once  accepted,  that 
sacrifice  will  bring  us  peace  and 
salvation  and  "number  us  among 
the  flock  of  the  elect." 

The  priest  repeats  the  plea  for 
the  acceptance  of  the  sacrifice  and 
adds  a  new  petition:  "That  it  may 
become  for  us  the  Body  and  Blood 
of  Thy  most  beloved  Son." 

The  Consecration  is  enclosed  in 
the  simple  Gospel  narrative.  Man 
fades  into  the  background  and 
Christ,  the  great  Celebrant  of  the 
Sacrifice,  repeats  those  solemn 
words  which  change  bread  and 
wine  into  His  Body  and  Blood.  The 
stupendous  miracle  of  miracles 
takes  place  before  our  very  eyes. 

The  very  simplicity  of  the  Con- 
secration is  a  stumbling  block  to 
many.  But  the  Church  adheres 
strictly  to  this  simple  form  because 
she  wishes  to  perform  this  most 
solemn  and  sacred  of  human  acts 
in  exactly  the  same  manner  as  our 
Divine  Saviour  performed  it  on 
that  night  before  He  died. 


This  loving  command  of  Our 
Lord  is  obeyed  every  time  Holy 
Mass  is  celebrated. 

The  living  memorial  which  the 
Mass  is,  recalls  not  only  Christ's 
Passion  but  His  Resurrection  and 
Ascension  as  well.  The  shadows  of 


194 


Lord,  His  Resurrection  from  hell 
and  also  His  glorious  ascension 
into  heaven,  offer  unto  Thy  most 
excellent  Majesty,  of  Thy  gifts  and 
presents,  a  pure  Victim,  a  holy  Vic- 
tim, a  spotless  Victim,  the  holy 
Bread  of  eternal  life,  and  the  Chal- 
ice of  everlasting  salvation. 

Upon  which  vouchsafe  to  look 
with  a  propitious  and  serene  coun- 
tenance and  to  accept  them  as 
Thou  wert  pleased  to  accept  the 
gifts  of  Thy  just  servant  Abel,  and 
the  sacrifice  of  our  Patriarch  Abra- 
ham, and  that  which  Thy  priest 
Melchisedech  offered  to  Thee,  a 
holy  sacrifice,  a  spotless  Victim. 

We  most  humbly  beseech  Thee, 
almighty  God,  command  these 
things  to  be  carried  up  by  the 
hands  of  Thy  holy  angel  to  Thine 
altar  on  high,  in  the  sight  of  Thy 
divine  majesty,  that  as  many  of  us 
who,  by  participation  at  this  altar, 
shall  receive  the  most  sacred  Body 
and  Blood  of  Thy  Son  may  be  filled 
with  every  heavenly  blessing  and 
grace.  Through  the  same  Christ 
our  Lord.  Amen. 

Be  mindful  also,  O  Lord,  of  Thy 
servants  and  handmaids  (here  are 
mentioned  the  names  of  the  dead) 
who  are  gone  before  us  with  the 
sign  of  faith  and  repose  in  the 
sleep  of  peace.  To  these,  O  Lord, 
and  to  all  that  rest  in  Christ,  grant, 
we  beseech  Thee,  a  place  of  re- 
freshment, light  and  peace. 
Through  the  same  Christ  our  Lord. 
Amen. 

And  to  us  sinners  also,  Thy  serv- 
ants, hoping  in  the  multitude  of 
Thy  mercies,  vouchsafe  to  grant 
some  part  and  fellowship  with  Thy 
holy  apostles  and  martyrs:  with 
John,  Stephen,  Matthias,  Barnabas, 
Ignatius,  Alexander,  Marcellinus, 
Peter,  Felicitas,  Perpetua,  Agatha, 
Lucy,  Agnes,  Cecilia,  Anastasia, 
and  with  all  Thy  saints,  into  whose 
company  admit  us,  we  beseech 
Thee,  not  considering  our  merits 
but  pardoning  our  offenses.  Through 
Christ  our  Lord. 


Through    whom,    O   Lord,    Thou 
dost  always  create,  sanctify,  quick- 


Calvary  are  dispersed  by  the  glory 
of  Easter  morn  and  Ascension 
Thursday.  More  than  a  memorial 
is  the  Mass,  it  is  a  true  sacrifice 
—  the  holiest  sacrifice  ever  known 
to  man.  Further,  it  is  the  "Bread 
of  eternal  life,"  the  Bread  which 
sustains  us  here  on  earth  and  which 
will  bring  us  ultimately  to  heaven. 

The  sacrifices  of  Abel,  Abraham, 
and  Melchisedech  (Gen.  iv,  4;  xxii, 
10;  xiv,  18)  were  types  of  the  sacri- 
fice of  the  Mass.  We  ask  God  that 
as  He  was  pleased  to  accept  the 
sacrifices  of  these  holy  men  so  also 
to  receive  our  sacrifice  —  our  sac- 
rifice which  is  a  "holy  sacrifice,  a 
spotless  Victim." 

But  Abel,  Abraham,  and  Mel- 
chisedech were  holy  men,  whereas 
we  are  sinners.  Lest  our  faults 
stand  in  the  way  the  priest  begs 
God  to  send  down  an  angel  from 
heaven.  Carried  to  heaven  by  the 
pure  hands  of  a  spirit  our  sacri- 
fice must  surely  find  favor  with  the 
Most  High. 


Before  the  Consecration  we 
prayed  for  the  Church  militant  and 
we  called  to  mind  the  Church  tri- 
umphant. Now  we  turn  our  thoughts 
to  the  Church  suffering.  We  re- 
member our  own  loved  ones  and 
also  the  entire  army  of  souls  that 
have  gone  "before  us  with  the  sign 
of  faith." 


Finally,  we  pray  for  ourselves. 
In  Christian  modesty  we  have  re- 
membered the  Church,  the  living, 
the  saints,  and  the  dead.  To  this 
gathering  we  now  join  ourselves. 
Once  again  we  become  conscious 
of  the  communion  of  saints  because 
our  union  with  Christ  in  the  Sacri- 
fice has  rekindled  our  hope  of  a 
share  in  their  happiness.  In  the 
list  of  saints  before  the  Consecra- 
tion Our  Lady  was  mentioned  first. 
Here  we  give  the  first  place  to  St. 
John  the  Baptist,  the  great  saint  of 
the  Old  Testament. 

In  this  prayer  we  summarize  all 
that  has  gone  before.  We  repeat 


195 


en,  bless,  and  bestow  upon  us  all 
these  Thy  gifts. 

Through  Him,  and  with  Him,  and 
in  Him,  be  unto  Thee,  O  God  the 
Father  almighty,  in  the  unity  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  all  honor  and  glory, 
world  without  end. 

Server:  Amen. 


our  belief  in  Christ  as  the  Mediator 
of  all  gifts,  both  natural  and  super- 
natural. 

The  Canon  comes  to  a  close  with 
the  most  solemn  Doxology  in  all 
the  Liturgy.  It  is  eminently  fitting 
to  pay  our  respects  to  the  three 
Divine  Persons  at  so  solemn  a 
moment. 


By  this  response,  the  server  in 
the  name  of  the  people,  ratifies 
all  the  prayers  of  the  Canon  that 
have  gone  before. 

Summary.  We  have  seen  the  very  heart  of  the  Mass.  Christ  has 
come  down  upon  the  altar.  Around  the  central  act  of  the  Consecration 
the  Church  has  entwined  a  wreath  of  prayers.  We  pray  for  the  entire 
Church  and  all  her  members,  and  especially  for  the  Pope,  the  Bishop 
of  the  diocese,  and  all  the  promoters  of  our  holy  faith;  then  for  the 
Church  in  miniature  which  is  assembled  before  the  altar;  we  gaze  heaven- 
ward and  call  to  mind  the  Church  triumphant;  then  after  the  Consecra- 
tion we  are  mindful  of  the  Church  suffering;  then  finally  we  pray  for 
ourselves.  All  creation  has  gathered  together  at  the  altar  of  God  in 
fulfilment  of  those  prophetic  words  of  Our  Blessed  Saviour:  "And  I,  if 
I  be  lifted  up  from  the  earth,  will  draw  all  things  to  myself"  (Jn.  xii,  32). 

V.  From  the  Our  Father  to  the  End  of  the  Mass 


Words  of  the  Liturgy 
Our  Father.  Let  us  pray:  Taught 
by  Thy  saving  precepts  and  guided 
by  the  divine  institution,  we  make 
bold  to  say:  Our  Father,  Who  art 
in  heaven,  hallowed  be  Thy  name; 
Thy  kingdom  come;  Thy  will  be 
done  on  earth  as  It  is  in  heaven. 
Give  us  this  day  our  daily  bread; 
and  forgive  us  our  trespasses  as 
we  forgive  them  that  trespass 
against  us.  And  lead  us  not  into 
temptation.  But  deliver  us  from 
evil.  Amen. 

Deliver  us,  we  beseech  Thee,  O 
Lord,  from  all  evils,  past,  present 
and  to  come,  and  by  the  interces- 
sion of  the  blessed  and  glorious 
ever  Virgin  Mary,  Mother  of  God, 
together  with  Thy  blessed  Apostles 
Peter  and  Paul,  and  Andrew,  and 
all  the  saints,  mercifully  grant 
peace  in  our  days:  that  through 
the  bounteous  help  of  Thy  mercy 
we  may  be  always  free  from  sin 
and  secure  from  all  disturbance. 
Through  the  same  Jesus  Christ 
Thy  Son  our  Lord  who  liveth  and 
reigneth  with  Thee  in  the  unity  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  one  God,  world 
without  end.  Amen. 


Significance  of  the  Ritual 

The  Our  Father  is  the  most  per- 
fect prayer  known  to  man.  Christ 
Himself  gave  it  to  us.  The  first 
three  petitions  are  directed  to 
God's  honor  and  glory,  the  last  four 
deal  with  the  needs  of  man.  The 
Our  Father  is  primarily  the  prayer 
of  the  multitude  and  not  that  of 
the  individual  {Our  Father;  give 
us;  etc.).  In  the  Mass  the  petitions 
of  the  Our  Father  are  realized: 
God's  kingdom  is  firmly  established, 
and  sin  is  vanquished. 

This  prayer  is  a  continuation  of 
the  last  petition  of  the  Our  Father : 
"deliver  us  from  evil."  The  thought 
of  our  wickedness  overwhelms  us 
and  we  insist  that  God  come  to  our 
assistance.  But  we  go  farther  than 
that  merely  negative  request  for 
deliverance  from  evil  —  we  ask  for 
peace.  Peace  is  the  keynote  of 
Christianity.  Confidently  we  ask 
for  this  gift  of  peace  knowing  that 
Christ  will  say  to  us  as  He  said  to 
His  disciples  long  ago:  "Peace  I 
leave  with  you,  My  peace  I  give  un- 
to you:  not  as  the  world  giveth  do  1 
give  unto  you"  (Jn.  xiv,  27). 


196 


Priest:  The  peace  of  the  Lord 
be  always  witli  you. 

Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 

Breaking  of  Bread.  May  this 
mingling  and  consecration  of  the 
Body  and  Blood  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  be  to  us  who  receive  it  ef- 
fectual to  life  everlasting.  Amen. 

Agnus  Dei.  Lamb  of  God  who 
takest  away  the  sins  of  the  world, 
have  mercy  on  us  (said  three 
times). 

Prayer  before  Communion.  O 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  saidst  to 
Thy  Apostles,  Peace  I  leave  with 
you,  My  peace  I  give  unto  you; 
look  not  upon  my  sins,  "but  upon 
the  faith  of  Thy  Church;  and 
vouchsafe  to  grant  her  peace  and 
unity  according  to  Thy  will:  O  God 
who  livest  and  reignest  world  with- 
out end.  Amen. 

0  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  Son  of  the 
living   God,  who  according  to  the 
will  of  the  Father,  through  the  co- 
operation of  the  Holy  Ghost,  hast 
by   Thy    death    given   life   to    the 
world :  deliver  me  by  this  Thy  most 
holy  Body  and  Blood  from  all  my 
transgressions  and  from  all  evils; 
make    me   always    adhere   to   Thy 
commandments    and    never    suffer 
me   to   be   separated    from    Thee; 
who  with  the  same  God  the  Father 
and    the    Holy    Ghost    livest    and 
reignest  God,  for  ever  and  ever. 

Let  not  the  partaking  of  Thy 
Body,  O  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  which 
I,  though  unworthy,  presume  to  re- 
ceive, turn  to  my  judgment  and 
condemnation:  but  through  Thy 
goodness  may  it  be  unto  me  a  safe- 
guard and  a  healing  remedy  both 
of  soul  and  body;  who  livest  and 
reignest  with  God  the  Father  in 
the  unity  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  God, 
world  without  end.  Amen. 

1  will  take  the  bread  of  heaven, 
and  call  upon  the  name  of  the  Lord. 
Lord,  I  am  not  worthy  that  Thou 
shouldst  enter  under  my  roof;  say 
but  the  word  and  my  soul  shall  be 
healed   (repeated  three  times). 


May  the  Body  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  preserve  my  soul  to  life 
everlasting.  Amen. 


The  priest  as  Christ's  representa- 
tive wishes  us  that  peace  for  which 
we  have  asked. 

The  priest  breaks  off  a  small 
piece  of  the  Host,  and  drops  It  into 
the  Precious  Blood,  praying  for  sal- 
vation particularly  for  those  who 
are  about  to  receive  God  in  Holy 
Communion. 

Mercy  and  peace  are  the  gifts  we 
beg  of  God.  Insistently  we  repeat 
the  petition  three  times. 

We  are  all  sinful  men;  the  priest 
himself  realizes  his  own  unworthi- 
ness;  yet,  relying  on  Christ's  prom- 
ise, we  ask  once  again  for  peace  — 
that  peace  which  only  God  can  give. 
Look  not  at  our  sins  and  failings, 
O  Lord,  but  consider  the  faith  of 
Thy  holy  Church. 


Here  the  priest  prays  that  he 
may  be  preserved  from  an  un- 
worthy Communion,  asking,  at  the 
same  time,  for  the  blessed  effects 
of  that  Body  and  Blood  which  he  is 
soon  to  receive.  Freedom  from  sin, 
obedience  to  the  commandments, 
and  perseverance  to  the  end — these 
are  the  requests  of  God's  minister. 
He  prays  confidently,  knowing  that 
God  can  do  all  things. 


This  third  prayer  in  prepara- 
tion for  Holy  Communion  is  pri- 
marily a  prayer  of  humility.  The 
priest  here  prays  for  the  real  ef- 
fects of  the  Holy  Eucharist,  viz., 
protection  against  the  dangers  of 
soul  and  body,  and  the  healing  of 
the  wounds  of  fallen  nature. 


Here  the  priest  uses  that  excel- 
lent prayer  of  the  centurion,  a 
prayer  alive  with  humility,  faith  in 
God,  and  trust  in  His  Omnipotence. 
Christ  heard  the  prayer  of  the  cen- 
turion; He  will  hear  our  prayer 
also  if  we  say  it  as  sincerely  as  did 
the  centurion. 

A  plea  for  eternal  life  is  the 
priest's  last  request  as  he  receives 
the  sacred  Body  of  Christ. 


197 


What  shall  I  render  to  the  Lord 
for  all  the  things-  that  He  hath 
rendered  to  me?  1  will  take  the 
chalice  of  salvation,  and  I  will  call 
upon  the  name  of  the  Lord, 

Praising,  I  will  call  upon  the 
Lord,  and  I  shall  be  saved  from  my 
enemies. 

May  the  Blood  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  preserve  my  soul  to  life 
everlasting.  Amen. 

Server:  I  confess  to  almighty 
God  to  blessed  Mary  ever  Virgin, 
etc.  (as  at  the  beginning  of  Mass). 

Priest:  May  almighty  God  have 
mercy  upon  you,  forgive  you  your 
sins,  and  bring  you  to  life  everlast- 
ing. Amen. 

May  the  almighty  and  merciful 
Lord  grant  you  pardon,  absolution, 
and  remission  of  your  sins.  Amen. 

Behold  the  Lamb  of  God,  behold 
Him  who  taketh  away  the  sins  of 
the  world, 

Lord  I  am  not  worthy  that  Thou 
shouldst  enter  under  my  roof;  say 
but  the  word  and  my  soul  shall  be 
healed  (said  three  times). 

May  the  Body  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  preserve  thy  soul  to  life 
everlasting.  Amen. 

Grant,  O  Lord,  that  what  we  have 
taken  with  our  mouth,  we  may  re- 
ceive with  a  pure  mind:  and  that 
from  a  temporal  gift  it  may  become 
for  us  an  eternal  remedy. 

May  Thy  Body,  O  Lord,  which  I 
have  received,  and  Thy  Blood 
which  I  have  drunk,  cleave  to  my 
inmost  parts,  and  grant  that  no 
stain  of  sin  may  remain  in  me, 
whom  these  pure  and  holy  sacra- 
ments have  refreshed.  Who  livest 
and  reignest  world  without  end. 
Amen. 

Communion.  (This  prayer  changes 
with  each  Mass.  Originally  it  was 
composed  of  an  entire  psalm,  but 
now  it  is  made  up  of  only  a  few 
verses  taken  from  a  psalm.) 

Priest:   The  Lord  be  with  you. 

Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 

Postcommunion.  (This  is  the  last 
of  the  variable  prayers  of  the  Mass. 
In  the  Postcommunion  the  priest 
makes  new  petitions,  and  he  makes 
them  with  great  confidence  because 
he  has  become  one  with  Christ 


JH.OW  can  man  thank  God  ade- 
quately for  the  wonderful  gift  of 
the  Eucharist?  "I  will  take  the 
chalice  of  salvation,"  says  the 
priest,  realizing  that  the  only  prop- 
er way  to  thank  God  is  through  the 
gifts  that  He  Himself  has  given  us. 

Eternal  life  is  the  insistent  plea 
of  the  priest  as  he  reverently  re- 
ceives the  Precious  Blood. 

In  these  prayers  that  precede  the 
Communion  of  the  faithful  we  find 
the  same  elements  which  are  con- 
tained in  the  priest's  preparatory 
prayers:  sorrow  for  sin,  humility, 
confidence  and  trust.  We  find  like- 
wise the  plea  for  eternal  life.  Here 
in  the  Eucharist  man  receives  a 
foretaste  of  the  life  in  heaven. 
Christ  came  to  save  men  from  sin; 
He  came  not  for  the  men  of  His 
own  day  only  but  for  men  of  all 
time;  in  the  Eucharist  the  men  of 
every  century  of  time,  of  every  na- 
tion under  the  sun  find  the  answer 
to  the  riddle  of  life.  Through  the 
Eucharist  all  men  can  become  par- 
takers of  Him  who  said  of  Him- 
self: "I  am  the  life." 

Our  hearts  are  set  on  receiving 
life  everlasting  and  we  do  not  grow 
weary  of  asking  this  great  gift 
from  Christ  who  now  resides  in  our 
souls. 

In  order  to  be  worthy  of  everlast- 
ing life  we  must  spend  pur  pres- 
ent life  in  accordance  with  God's 
wishes.  Hence  the  priest  prays 
God  to  live  in  him  and  keep  him 
free  from  every  stain  of  sin. 


For  a  proper  appreciation  of  the 
Communion  Prayer  it  must  be 
studied  with  the  rest  of  the  psalm 
from  which  it  is  taken. 

Once  again  the  congregation  is 
reminded  of  its  active  role  in  the 
Mass. 

With  the  thought  of  the  great 
graces  that  have  come  with  the  re- 
ception of  Holy  Communion  the 
priest  petitions  God  for  further 
blessings,  both  natural  and  super- 
natural. 


198 


through  the  reception  of  His  Body 
and  Blood.) 

Priest:  The  Lord  be  with  you. 

Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 

Priest:  Go,  you  are  dismissed. 
Server:  Thanks  be  to  God. 


May  the  homage  of  my  bounden 
duty  be  pleasing  to  Thee,  O  holy 
Trinity;  and  grant  that  the  sacri- 
fice which  I,  though  unworthy,  have 
offered  in  the  sight  of  Thy  majesty 
may  be  acceptable  to  Thee,  and 
through  Thy  mercy  be  a  propitia- 
tion for  me  and  for  all  those  for 
whom  I  have  offered  it.  Through 
Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

May  almighty  God  bless  you,  the 
Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy 
Ghost.  Amen. 

Priest:  The  Lord  be  with  you. 
Server:  And  with  thy  spirit. 

Priest:  The  beginning  of  the  holy 
Gospel  according  to  St.  John. 

Server:  Glory  be  to  Thee,  O 
Lord. 

Priest:  In  the  beginning  was  the 
Word,  and  the  Word  was  with  God, 
and  the  Word  was  God.  The  same 
was  in  the  beginning  with  God.  All 
things  were  made  by  Him,  and 
without  Him  was  made  nothing 
that  was  made.  In  Him  was  life, 
and  the  life  was  the  light  of  men: 
and  the  light  shineth  in  darkness, 
and  the  darkness  did  not  compre- 
hend it. 

There  was  a  man  sent  from  God, 
whose  name  was  John.  This  man 
came  for  a  witness,  to  bear  witness 
of  the  light,  that  all  men  through 
Him  might  believe.  He  was  not  the 
light,  but  was  to  bear  witness  of 
the  light. 

That  was  the  true  light,  which  en- 
lighteneth  every  man  that  cometh 
into  this  world.  He  was  in  the 
world,  and  the  world  was  made  by 
Him,  and  the  world  knew  Him  not. 
He  came  unto  His  own,  and  His 
own  received  Him  not.  But  as 
many  a»  received  Him,  to  them 
He  gave  power  to  become  the  sons 


Another  admonition  to  the  faith- 
ful to  unite  their  prayers  with 
those  of  the  celebrant. 

The  formal  dismissal  "Ite  missa 
est"  seemed  so  characteristic  of  the 
entire  ceremony  that  the  sacri- 
ficial rite  came  to  be  known  as  the 
"Mass." 

The  Sacrifice  is  completed.  Again 
the  priest  remembers  his  sinful- 
ness  and  unworthiness  as  he  sends 
a  fervent  prayer  to  the  Most 
Blessed  Trinity  whom  he  asks  to 
accept  the  sacrifice  from  his  own 
unworthy  hands,  a  propitiation  for 
himself  and  for  all  those  for  whom 
he  has  offered  it. 

The  priest  kisses  the  altar,  raises 
his  eyes  and  hands  as  if  to  receive 
the  blessing  from  above,  and  then 
gives  the  blessing  to  the  faithful. 

The  final  plea  of  the  priest  beg- 
ging those  present  to  join  him  in 
prayer. 

This  Gospel  from  the  pen  of  St. 
John  is  filled  with  deep  meaning. 
Briefly:  St.  John  first  tells  us  of 
Christ  as  God,  as  Creator,  and  as 
Redeemer;  he  then  narrates  the 
coming  of  the  precursor,  St.  John 
the  Baptist,  being  careful  to  empha- 
size the  fact  that  John  was  not  the 
Messias  but  only  His  herald;  then 
follows  the  story  of  Christ's  com- 
ing into  the  world  —  He  is  the  light 
of  the  world  "and  the  world  knew 
Him  not";  even  His  chosen  people 
failed  to  receive  Him,  but  they  who 
do  receive  Him  will  be  made  "sons 
of  God";  finally  the  climax  "and 
the  Word  was  made  Flesh,"  that 
incomprehensible  mystery  of  God's 
goodness  to  sinful  man. 

The  Mass  is  truly  the  verification 
of  St.  John's  words.  In  the  most 
sublime  manner  possible  we  have 
seen  that  the  "Word  was  made 
Flesh,  and  dwelt  among  us ;  and  we 
saw  His  glory,  the  glory  as  it  were 
of  the  only-begotten  of  the  Father, 
full  of  grace  and  truth."  Sinful  man 
could  never  have  dared  to  ask  so 
much  from  God  had  not  God  Him- 
self freely  granted  us  so  great  a 
grace. 


199 


of  God:  to  them  tliat  believe  in  "Thanks  be  to  God"  is  the  re- 
His  name:  who  are  born,  not  of  sponse  of  our  grateful  hearts.  We 
blood,  nor  of  the  will  of  the  flesh,  are  grateful  because  God  has  for- 
nor  of  the  will  of  man,  but  of  God.  given  our  sins,  because  He  has  sup- 
( Genuflection.)  plied  our  un worthiness,  and  be- 

And    the    Word    was    made    flesh,      cause  in  the  Mass  He  has  brought 
and  dwelt  among  us:  and  we  saw      us  not  only  His  graces  and  bless- 
His  glory,  the  glory  as  it  were  of      ings  but  has  given  us  Himself, 
the    only-begotten    of   the    Father, 
full  of  grace  and  truth. 

Server:  Thanks  be  to  God. 

Summary.  This  last  part  of  the  Mass  is  the  completion  of  the  Sacri- 
fice. We  offered  our  gifts  to  God,  Christ  Himself  changed  pur  gifts  of 
bread  and  wine  into  His  Body  and  Blood,  and  now  the  Sacrifice  is  com- 
pleted by  our  reception  of  Holy  Communion.  We  began  our  preparation 
for  Communion  with  the  Our  Father;  we  begged  God  to  keep  us  from 
evil,  to  grant  us  His  peace;  humbled  by  the  thought  of  our  sins  we  grew 
confident  at  the  thought  of  God's  goodness  and  approached  His  Holy 
Table  to  become  one  with  Him;  we  asked  Him  to  take  full  possession 
of  our  souls  and  bodies,  to  help  us  through  every  moment  of  our  lives; 
we  received  the  blessing  of  the  Most  Holy  Trinity  from  God's  minister; 
and  so,  we  go  confidently  to  our  daily  tasks  because  God  is  with  us.  "If 
God  be  for  us,  who  is  against  us?"  (Romans  viii,  31). 

ON  THE  USE  OF  THE  MISSAL 

(Adapted  from  a  pamphlet  entitled  "To  Find  the  Place  In  a  Missal,"  with 
permission  of  the  author,  Rev.  Paul  Bussard^) 

Mass  of  the    Catechumens 

5.  Collect  6.  Epistle 

4.  Gloria  7.  Gradual 

3.  Kyrie  8.  Gospel 

2.  Introit  9.  Serman 

1.  Prayer  at  the  foot  of  the  altar.  10.  Creed 

The  parts  of  the  Mass  in  ordinary  type  are  called  "Ordinary  prayers," 
and  they  are  the  same  for  every  Mass  throughout  the  year;  those  in 
italics  are  also  "Ordinary  prayers,"  but  they  are  sometimes  omitted. 
The  parts  in  heavy  type  are  called  "Proper  prayers,"  and  they  vary 
with  each  Mass  that  is  said. 

All  that  is  necessary  is  to  fit  the  Proper  prayers  into  their  place  in  the 
Ordinary  prayers.  Take  the  Mass  for  the  first  Sunday  of  Advent  (usually 
in  the  beginning  of  the  Missal)  and  the  Ordinary  of  the  Mass  (usually 
in  the  center).  First  come  the  prayers  at  the  foot  of  the  altar  (Ordinary) ; 
then  the  Introit  (turn  to  the  Proper);  then  the  Kyrie  (back  to  the 
Ordinary);  then  the  Gloria  (Ordinary);  then  the  Collect  (turn  back  to 
the  Proper);  then  the  Epistle,  Gradual,  and  Gospel  (all  in  the  Proper); 
finally  the  Creed  (back  to  the  Ordinary). 

Mass  of  the   Faithful 

8.  Doxology 

7.  3  Commemorations  9.  Our  Father 

6.  Offering  Prayers  10.  Breaking  of  Bread 

5.  3  Commemorations  11.  Holy  Communion 

4.  Preface  12.  Communion   Chant 

3.  Secret  13.  Postcomrnunion 

2.  Offering  of  bread  and  wine  14.  Blessing 

1.  Offertory  Chant  15.  Last  Gospel 

200 


Again  the  Ordinary  prayers  are  in  ordinary  type;  me  proper  pray  era 
in  heavy  type.  The  Prefaces  are  together  in  one  place  and  in  some 
Missals  the  prayers  after  the  Preface  (Canon)  follow  the  Preface  in  the 
Missal;  in  others  they  follow  the  Ordinary  prayers  of  the  Mass  of  the 
Catechumens. 

There  are  only  four  Proper  prayers  in  this  last  part  of  the  Mass.  The 
Communion  and  Postcommunion  are  said  after  the  book  has  been  moved 
back  to  the  Epistle  side  of  the  altar.  The  Offertory  Chant  is  said  im- 
mediately after  the  Creed.  The  Secret  is  said  after  the  priest  turns  to 
the  congregation  and  says,  "Orate  fratres." 

The  Proper  of  the  Saints 

Saints'  days  come  on  a  certain  fixed  date  of  the  month.  St.  Valentine's 
day  is  on  February  14,  the  Assumption  on  August  15,  St.  Therese  on 
Oct.  3,  and  so  on.  Accordingly  there  is  another  part  of  the  Missal  called 
the  Proper  of  the  Saints.  It  contains  the  Proper  parts  of  the  Mass  for 
the  feasts  of  saints  just  as  the  Sunday  Proper  does  for  Sunday  Masses. 
The  Common  of  the  Saints 

If  all  the  Proper  parts  of  a  Saint's  Mass  are  not  found  in  the  Mass  of 
that  day,  reference  is  made  to  the  Common  of  the  Saints  (the  Masses 
that  Saints  have  in  common,  e.g.,  Martyrs,  Confessors,  etc.). 

The  Ordo 

Every  priest  has  a  little  book  called  an  Ordo.  It  contains  specific 
directions  about  the  Mass  which  is  to  be  said  on  a  particular  day.  This 
Ordo  is  now  translated  for  the  laity.  It  can  be  had  in  pamphlet  form, 
and  is  printed  each  week  in  many  of  the  diocesan  papers. 

RUBRICS   FOR   THE    LAITY 
How  the   Faithful   Should   Conduct  Themselves  during   Church  Services 


Low  Mass 

According  to  the  rubrics  of  the 
missal,  all  who  assist  at  low  Mass 
should  kneel  during  the  whole 
Mass  except  at  the  Gospel,  when 
they  stand.  Custom,  however,  has 
modified  this  as  follows: 

When  the  celebrant  enters  the 
sanctuary  to  begin  Mass,  the  con- 
gregation either  kneels  at  once  or 
stands  up,  according  to  the  custom 
in  that  particular  church.  When 
the  priest  descends  from  the  altar 
after  opening  the  missal,  however, 
all  shall  kneel. 

They  remain  kneeling  until  the 
priest,  having  finished  the  prayer 
at  the  center  of  the  altar,  goes  over 
to  read  the  Gospel.  All  stand  until 
the  Gospel  is  finished. 

If  the  priest  makes  any  announce- 
ments, or  preaches  to  the  congre- 
tion,  they  should  be  seated.  When 
he  begins  the  Gospel  in  English, 
they  should  stand  and  listen  rever- 
ently to  the  word  of  God. 

Should  the  Credo  be  recited,  the 
people  remain  standing,  and  genu- 
flect with  the  priest  during  it.  When 


he  turns  to  them  after  the  Credo 
is  finished,  and  says  "Dominus  vo- 
biscum,"  they  may  sit  down. 

At  the  Sanctus,  when  the  altar 
boy  rings  the  bell  three  times,  all 
shall  kneel.  Thus  they  remain  un- 
til after  the  priest's  Communion, 
and  also  during  the  Communion  of 
the  faithful,  should  there  be  any 
receiving  at  that  Mass. 

After  Communion,  when  the  priest 
has  closed  the  tabernacle  door,  the 
congregation  may  sit  down  while 
the  celebrant  purifies  and  covers 
the  chalice. 

They  should  kneel  again,  how- 
ever, as  soon  as  the  priest  goes 
to  the  missal. 

After  the  blessing,  all  rise  and 
stand  during  the  reading  of  the 
last  Gospel,  genuflecting  with  the 
priest  during  it. 

When  the  priest  descends  from 
the  altar  and  kneels,  they  shall 
kneel  with  him  and  say  the  prayers 
in  a  loud,  clear  voice. 

No  one  should  leave  his  place  in 
the  church  until  the  priest  has  re- 
entered  the  sacristy. 


201 


High  Mass:   Missa  Cantata 

(The  following  rubrics  are  pre- 
ceptive for  the  laity  in  the  Diocese 
of  Fargo,  N.  D.,  and  may  be  con- 
sidered as  directive  in  other  dio- 
ceses. They  are  the  only  rubrics 
preceptive  for  the  laity  in  any  dio- 
cese in  the  United  States.) 

In  general  those  present  at  a 
sung  Mass  follow,  as  far  as  pos- 
sible, the  ceremonies  observed  by 
the  clergy  who  may  be  present  in 
choir  at  the  Mass.  Accordingly: 

They  stand  when  the  procession 
to  the  altar  makes  it  appearance 
from  the  sacristy,  and  remain 
standing  until  the  Mass  is  begun, 
even  though  the  Asperges  takes 
place.  Each  person  bows  and 
makes  the  sign  of  the  cross  when 
sprinkled  at  the  Asperges. 

All  kneel  for  the  prayers  of  prep- 
aration (up  to  the  "Or emus")  and 
stand  when  the  celebrant  ascends 
the  altar  steps. 

All  remain  standing  for  the  In- 
troit,  Kyrie,  and  the  Gloria,  while 
they  are  recited  by  the  celebrant. 
When  the  celebrant  has  sat  down 
for  the  singing  of  the  Gloria,  all  sit 
They  rise  when  the  celebrant  rises 
towards  the  end  of  this  chant. 

All  stand  for  the  singing  of  the 
prayers  (except  at  a  Requiem 
Mass)  and  •  sit  for  the  chanting 
of  the  Epistle  and  what  follows. 

When  "Dominus  vobiscum"  is 
sung  before  the  chanting  of  the 
Gospel  all  stand.  They  remain 
standing  during  the  recitation  of 
the  Creed,  genuflecting  with  the 
celebrant  at  the  words  "et  incarna- 
tus,"  etc.  All  sit  when  the  cele- 
brant has  sat  down  for  the  singing 
of  the  Creed.  While  the  words  "et 
incarnatus,"  etc.,  are  sung  all  bow. 
(Only  those  who  are  standing  at 
the  time  when  these  words  are 
begun  then  kneel.)  They  rise  when 
the  celebrant  rises  towards  the  end 
of  the  Creed,  remain  standing  while 
he  sings  "Dominus  vobiscum"  and 
"Oremus,"  and  then  sit. 

When  the  celebrant  begins  to 
sing  "Per  omnia  saecula  saeculo- 
rum"  before  the  Preface,  all  rise 
and  remain  standing  until  the 
Sanctus  has  been  recited  (or  sung, 
if  the  people  sing  it).  Then  all 


kneel.  All  bow  down  during  the 
Consecration  but  look  up  for  a 
moment  at  the  Sacred  Host  (say- 
ing "My  Lord  and  My  God")  and 
at  the  chalice,  when  they  are  ele- 
vated. After  the  Elevation  all  stand 
until  the  celebrant  has  drunk  the 
Precious  Blood.  (They  bow  while 
the  celebrant  consumes  the  Sacred 
Host  and  drinks  the  contents  of 
the  chalice.)  Then  all  sit. 

Note:  If  Holy  Communion  is 
given,  those  who  are  about  to  com- 
municate kneel  for  the  Confiteor 
and  other  prayers  that  precede 
Communion,  and  kneel  when  they 
return  to  their  places  after  having 
received  the  Eucharist.  All  others 
remain  standing  for  the  prayers, 
but  kneel  for  the  distribution  of 
Communion  and  remain  kneeling 
until  the  Blessed  Sacrament  has 
been  returned  to  the  tabernacle. 

All  stand  for  the  singing  of  "Do- 
minus  vobiscum"  before  the  Post- 
communion  prayers,  and  remain 
standing  during  these  prayers  (ex- 
cept at  a  Requiem  Mass,  when  they 
kneel). 

All  kneel  for  the  Blessing  and 
make  the  sign  of  the  cross. 

All  stand  for  the  last  Gospel 
(genuflecting  if  the  celebrant  genu- 
flects during  its  recitation)  and  re- 
main standing  until  the  procession 
has  returned  to  the  sacristy. 
Solemn  High  Mass 

The  rubrics  are  the  same  as  for 
a  high  Mass.  Note,  however,  that 
the  congregation  does  not  stand 
while  the  celebrant  reads  the  Gos- 
pel, but  only  when  the  deacon  com- 
mences it,  with  "Dominus  vobis- 
cum." And  when  the  altar  boy  in- 
censes the  people  at  the  Offertory 
they  should  all  stand. 

Masses  for  the  Dead 

At  low  Masses  for  the  dead,  the 
same  rubrics  are  to  be  observed  as 
at  other  low  Masses. 

At  high  Masses,  either  with  or 
in  the  church,  the  faithful  kneel 
without  the  presence  of  the  corpse 
from  the  beginning  of  the  Mass  un- 
til the  Epistle,  during  which  they 
should  sit  down. 

They  stand  during  the  singing  of 
the  Gospel. 


202 


They  sit  down  during  the  Offer- 
tory, until  the  priest  begins  the 
Preface,  when  they  stand,  and  re- 
main standing  until  the  Sanctus. 

Then  they  kneel  until  after  the 
priest's  Communion.  They  may  sit 
after  Communion,  whilst  the  priest 
purifies  and  covers  the  chalice. 

Should  the  priest  or  clergy  sit 
down  at  any  time  during  the  Mass, 
as  is  done  sometimes  during  the 
singing  of  the  "Dies  Irae"  after  the 
Epistle,  the  faithful  should  also  sit. 

If  the  Libera  (the  absolution  of 
the  body)  is  performed  after  the 
Mass,  the  people  should  rise  as  the 
priest  approaches  the  catafalque 
and  stand  during  the  ceremony. 
Vespers 

All  should  kneel  when  the  cele- 
brant kneels  at  the  foot  of  the  al- 
tar and  says  the  first  prayer.  They 
rise  when  he  rises,  and  remain 
standing  until  he  sits  down  after 
the  intoning  of  the  first  psalm  by 
the  chanters.  At  the  Gloria  Patri, 
at  the  end  of  each  psalm,  all 
should  bow  the  head. 

During  the  singing  of  the  chap- 
ter, when  the  five  psalms  are  fin- 
ished, all  should  stand  up.  If  the 


celebrant  kneeis  aurmg  uie  tom5jm& 
of  a  hymn  the  people  should  kneel. 

During  the  singing  of  the  "Mag- 
nificat," whilst  the  altar  is  incensed 
by  the  celebrant,  the  people  stand. 

When  the  celebrant  kneels  at  the 
foot  of  the  altar,  before  the  exposi- 
tion of  the  Blessed  Sacrament,  all 
kneel  and  remain  kneeling  until 
Benediction  is  finished  and  the  tab- 
ernacle door  is  closed,  when  they 
rise  and  remain  standing  until  the 
priest  has  left  the  sanctuary. 
Rubrics  for  all  Occasions 

In  church  all  should  center  their 
attention  on  the  altar  and  think 
only  of  God  Who  dwells  there  for 
them.  They  should  avoid  all  man- 
ner of  noise,  or  any  distraction  to 
others.  They  should  be  clean  in 
their  person  and  dress,  and  avoid 
the  slightest  appearance  of  indis- 
cretion. 

If  they  do  not  feel  inclined  to 
mental  prayer,  they  should  read 
their  prayer-books  or  say  the  rosary. 

Going  to  and  from  the  confession- 
al, or  the  Communion  rail,  the  eyes 
should  be  cast  down,  the  hands 
held  in  a  respectful  manner,  and 
the  whole  person  should  reflect  the 
utmost  recollection  and  modesty. 


SICK   CALLS 

When  the  priest  is  called  to  administer  the  Sacraments  in  our  homes 
to  the  sick,  the  following  preparations  should  be  made: 

1.  The  room  should  be  clean  and  suitably  ornamented. 

2.  A  small  table  should  be  conveniently  placed,  covered  with  a  white 
cloth. 

3.  A  crucifix  placed  in  the  center  of  the  table. 

4.  Two  blessed  candles  placed  in  candlesticks  on  the  table.  These  should 
be  lighted  when  the  priest  is  expected. 

5.  A  vessel  containing  holy  water  should  be  provided,  and  a  sprinkler 
if  possible. 

6.  A  glass  of  fresh  water  placed  on  the  table,  a  teaspoon  and  a  plate 
with  small  crumbs  of  bread  for  cleansing  the  oil  from  the  hands  of 
the  priest. 

7.  A  white  cloth  or  towel  placed  ready  to  be  used  by  the  sick  person 
while  receiving  Holy  Communion. 

8.  Some  cotton  wool  provided  to  wipe  away  the  anointing. 

When  the  priest  is  known  to  be  carrying  the  Blessed  Sacrament,  it  Is 
a  very  laudable  custom  for  one  of  the  family  to  meet  him  at  the  street 
door  with  a  lighted  candle  and  escort  him  to  the  sick  room.  All  those 
present  in  the  room  should  kneel  when  the  priest  enters  with  the 
Blessed  Sacrament. 

During  the  administration  of  Communion  and  Extreme  Unction  the 
members  of  the  family  should  assemble  in  the  sick  room  and  pray  for 
the  patient, 

203 


RITES 

Liturgy  and  rite  are  not  the  same  thing.  Liturgy  is  the  broader  term. 
It  denotes  the  public  act  of  worship;  rite  is  the  manner  in  which  the  act 
of  worship  is  performed.  Specifically  the  liturgy  is  the  Church's  public 
and  lawful  act  of  worship  performed  and  conducted  by  the  officials  whom 
the  Church  has  designated  for  the  post  —  her  priests.  The  whole  collec- 
tion of  services  used  in  public  worship  in  a  certain  church  or  group  of 
churches  comprises  a  rite.  But  while  the  indiscriminate  use  of  the  two 
terms  is  thus  not  exact,  common  usage  as  expressed  by  many  authorities 
on  the  liturgical  question  permits  the  practice. 

The  early  history  of  rites  is  obscure.  At  the  Last  Supper  the  Apostles 
saw  Christ  institute  the  Holy  Sacrifice.  Later  in  their  apostolic  journeys 
it  was  natural  to  embellish  the  essentials  of  the  Mass  and  the  sacraments 
which  they  had  learned  from  Christ  with  additions  of  their  own  choosing. 
The  additions  were  the  outgrowth  of  reverence,  custom  and  necessity. 
According  to  their  own  temperament  and  the  needs  of  their  people 
in  various  parts  of  the  world  the  Apostles  and  their  successors  devised 
appropriate  ceremonies  to  accompany  the  Holy  Sacrifice  and  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  sacraments.  During  the  period  of  persecution  rites  were 
numerous  and  diverse.  After  the  peace  of  Constantine  when  the  Church 
became  better  organized,  local  practices  were  combined  and  the  rites 
became  more  uniform  throughout  ecclesiastical  provinces.  The  patriarchs 
imposed  some  uniformity  of  rite  within  the  regions  of  their  jurisdiction, 
and  in  this  way  the  old  Patriarchates  of  Rome,  Alexandria  and  Antioch 
are  responsible  for  the  foundations  of  all  the  rites  used  in  the  Church 
today.  Although  all  Europe  practically  belonged  to  the  Roman  Patri- 
archate, still  Gaul  and  Northwest  Europe  had  special  rites  till  the  seventh 
and  eighth  centuries. 

The  Rites  of  the  Western  Church 

Roman  Rite  —  For  all  practical  purposes  this  is  the  one  universal  rite 
used  in  the  Western  Church.  With  an  isolated  exception  here  and  there, 
Latin  is  the  only  language  used. 

Galilean  Rite  —  This  rite,  as  a  separate  thing,  has  disappeared,  but  it 
has  not  departed  without  having  left  traces  of  its  influence  on  the  Roman 
Rite.  Its  name  is  derived  from  the  country  where  it  was  principally  used, 
that  is,  Gaul.  There  are,  however,  two  extant  remnants  of  this  rite: 

Ambrosian  Rite,  also  called  Milanese,  which  is  in  use  in  the  Archdiocese 
of  Milan. 

Mozarabic  Rite,  which  is  used  in  the  Cathedral  of  Toledo. 

The  Rites  of  the  Eastern  Church 
(See  also  Uniate  Eastern  Churches) 

There  are  five  principal  rites  which  are  used  in  their  entirety  or  in 
modified  form  by  the  various  Churches  of  the  East.  They  are  the  Byzan- 
tine, Alexandrian,  Antiochean,  Armenian  and  Chaldean. 

Byzantine  Rite  —  This  was  originally  proper  to  the  Church  of  Con- 
stantinople. It  is  based  on  the  Rite  of  St.  James  of  Jerusalem  and  that 
of  the  churches  of  Antioch,  and  reached  Constantinople  through  Caesarea. 
The  rite  was  reformed  by  St.  Basil  and  later  by  St.  John  Chrysostom. 
It  is  now  used  by  the  whole  Orthodox  Eastern  Church,  by  many  Uniates 
and  is  the  most  widely  spread  rite  after  the  Roman. 

The  Liturgy  of  St  John  Chrysostom  is  the  ordinary  one.  The  Liturgy 
of  St.  Basil  is  used  for  the  Sundays  of  Lent  (except  Palm  Sunday), 
Maundy  Thursday,  Holy  Saturday,  the  Vigils  of  Christmas,  Epiphany  and 
the  feast  of  St.  Basil. 

204 


Alexandrian  Rite  —  There  are  no  extant  records  of  this  rite,  called  also 
the  Liturgy  of  St.  Mark;  but  existing  manuscripts  of  the  old  rite,  after  it 
was  somewhat  modified  by  the  Copts  and  Melkites,  reveal  the  general 
outlines  of  the  ancient  liturgy. 

The  Coptic  Church  uses  an  adaptation  of  the  Byzantine  Rite  of  St.  Basil 
for  ordinary  days  and  Sundays;  that  of  St.  Mark  and  that  of  St.  Cyril 
are  used  on  their  respective  feast  days;  and  the  Liturgy  of  St.  Gregory 
Nazianzen  is  used  on  the  great  feast  days. 

The  Ethiopian  Church  uses  an  expanded  version  of  St.  Mark's  Liturgy. 
The  liturgy  is  substantially  that  of  the  Coptic  Church. 

Antiochean  Rite  —  This  rite  is  the  source  of  more  derived  rites  than 
any  of  the  other  parent  rites.  Its  origin  may  be  traced  to  the  Eighth 
Book  of  the  Apostolic  Constitutions  and  to  the  Liturgy  of  St.  James  of 
Jerusalem,  the  ''brother  of  the  Lord."  This  latter  ultimately  spread  to 
the  whole  patriarchate,  displacing  the  older  form  of  the  Apostolic 
Constitutions. 

Armenian  Rite  —  This  liturgy  is  essentially  the  Greek  Liturgy  of  St. 
Basil,  and  is  considered  to  be  an  old  form  of  the  Byzantine  Rite.  It  is 
used  exclusively  by  all  Armenians. 

Chaldean  Rite  —  By  some  writers  this  is  classed  under  the  Antiochean 
Rite.  Though  there  is  historical  evidence  for  such  a  derivation,  in  the  list 
according  to  the  Sacred  Congregation  for  the  Oriental  Church  it  is  sepa- 
rate and  considered  a  distinct  rite.  There  are  two  broad  divisions:  the 
Chaldean  properly  so  called,  used  by  the  Chaldee  TJniates,  and  the  Mala- 
barese,  employed  by  the  Malabar  Uniates. 

Liturgical    Practices  Common  to  All    Eastern    Rites 

Eucharistic  Liturgy  —  Among  the  Orientals,  leavened  bread  is  used  by 
all,  with  the  exception  of  the  Maronites  and  the  Armenians  who  use  un- 
leavened bread,  and  the  Ethiopians  who  may  use  either  one  or  the  other. 
All  have  Communion  under  both  species  except  the  Maronites.  Com- 
munion under  one  species  is  usual  among  the  Chaldeans  and  it  is  per- 
mitted among  the  Ethiopians.  On  the  Vigils  of  Christmas  and  Easter  the 
liturgy  is  celebrated  in  the  evening  by  the*  Syrians  (Western)  and  the 
Chaldeans.  This  latter  body  also  celebrates  it  in  the  evening  on  the 
Vigil  of  Holy  Thursday. 

Sacramental  Liturgy — Baptism  by  immersion  is  the  common  practice  in 
the  East,  except  among  the  Maronites  and  the  Malabarese.  And  among  all 
rites,  except  the  Malabarese,  it  is  immediately  followed  by  Confirmation 
administered  by  a  priest  The  Malabar  Christians  separate  it  from  Con- 
firmation, the  administration  of  the  latter  being  entrusted  to  a  bishop. 

Penance  is  administered  in  the  East  with  the  deprecative  form,  i.  e., 
"May  God  absolve  you,"  etc.  The  Armenians  are  an  exception  here  for 
they  use  the  indicative  form  common  to  the  Roman  Rite,  i.  e.,  "I  absolve 
you,"  etc. 

Holy  Eucharist  is  explained  above. 

Extreme  Unction  in  the  East  requires  seven  priests,  but  ordinarily  for 
all  practical  purposes  one  suffices. 

Holy  Orders  throughout  the  East  has  only  two  minor  orders,  lector 
and  subdeacon,  in  addition  to  deaconship  and  the  priesthood.  The  Ar- 
menians are  to  be  excepted,  for  they  have  the  same  four  minor  orders 
and  the  three  major  orders  as  in  the  Western  rites. 

Matrimony  usually  consists  of  two  parts  in  the  East:  first  a  "blessing" 
of  the  bride  and  groom;  and  then  a  "crowning."  The  expression  of  the 
matrimonial  consent  is  implicit  in  the  Eastern  Churches.  The  Armenian 
Church  is  the  only  one  in  which  the  consent  is  expressly  declared. 

205 


THE   UNIATE   EASTERN   CHURCHES 


The  division  of  the  Catholic 
Church  into  two  parts,  the  West- 
ern or  Latin  Church  and  the  East- 
ern Church,  is  the  result  of  political 
accidents:  the  division  of  the  Ro- 
man Empire  by  Diocletian  (284- 
305),  again  by  the  sons  of  Theodo- 
sius  I  (Arcadius  in  the  East,  395- 
408;  Honorius  in  the  West,  395- 
423);  and  finally,  the  breach  was 
strengthened  by  the  establishment 
of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire  by 
Charles  the  Great  (Charlemagne) 
in  800,  The  Western  Church  is  that 
subject  to  the  Bishop  of  Rome  as 
Patriarch  of  the  West;  the  Eastern 
Church  is  that  within  the  bounda- 
ries of  the  Eastern  Empire  whose 
capital  was  Constantinople  (Byzan- 
tium). 

When  we  speak  of  the  Eastern 
Church  we  must  not  imagine  that 
it  is  one  integral  body  as  is  the 
Church  subject  to  the  Patriarch  of 
the  West.  Not  since  before  the 
Council  of  Nicea  (325)  has  there 
been  a  unified  Eastern  Church.  At 
that  Council  three  patriarchs  were 
recognized,  those  of  Rome,  Alex- 
andria and  Antioch;  by  451  two 
more  were  added:  Jerusalem  and 
Constantinople.  Thus  four  patri- 
archates constitute  the  Eastern 
Church,  as  opposed  to  the  one  West- 
ern patriarchate. 

Any  Catholic  who  is  not  subject 
to  the  Bishop  of  Rome  as.  his  patri- 
arch but  who  does  recognize  him 
as  the  Supreme  Pontiff  of  the  Cath- 
olic Church  is  a  Uniate.  A  Uniate 
Eastern  Church  is  any  Eastern 
Church  in  communion  with  Rome. 
It  is  a  matter  of  little  concern 
where  the  Uniate  lives;  he  may  be 
in  North  America  or  Syria;  he  still 
belongs  to  the  Uniate  Church  of 
his  patriarch.  It  is  not  possible 
to  assign  definite  geographical  lim- 
its to  a  Uniate  Church  and  say 
that  in  such  a  place  is  found  this 
Church  exclusively.  Since  the  Uni- 
ate may  move  about,  the  Uniate 
Church  is  found  wherever  Uniate 
Catholics  dwell. 

There  are  some  fundamental  dis- 
tinctions which  when  they  are  clar- 
ified help  to  dispel  much  of  the 


confusion  concerning  the  Eastern 
Churches.  They  have  to  do  with 
the  terms,  religion,  patriarchate, 
rite,  language  and  place. 

The  Catholic  religion,  founded  by 
Jesus  Christ,  comprises  those 
truths,  precepts  and  means  of  sal- 
vation by  which  those  who  profess 
it  are  united  with  God  and,  in  vir- 
tue of  this  union,  with  one  another. 
It  is  therefore  one  religion,  not  a 
plurality  of  religions.  Hence  one  is 
a  Catholic  or  not  depending  upon 
his  adherence  to  or  rejection  of 
the  tenets  of  the  Catholic  Church. 

The  five  Bishops  of  Rome,  Alex- 
andria, Antioch,  Jerusalem  and  Con- 
stantinople are  all  patriarchs  by 
equal  right.  The  patriarchate  or 
geographical  territory  over  whose 
inhabitants  each  rules  comprises 
many  dioceses  whose  bishops  are 
subject  to  the  respective  patriarch 
(see  Patriarchs). 

A  rite  may  be  defined  as  the  man- 
ner of  performing  all  services  for 
the  public  worship  of  God  and  the 
sanctification  of  men  (see  Rites). 

Language  naturally  is  concerned 
with  rite  but  is  its  least  important 
note.  In  theory  any  rite  may  be 
celebrated  in  any  language  without 
ceasing  to  be  the  same  rite,  e.  g., 
the  Mass  could  be  said  in  English 
and  still  remain  the  Mass  said  ac- 
cording to  the  Roman  Rite. 

Lastly,  place  is  of  little  moment 
in  the  Eastern  Churches.  At  one 
time  this  was  otherwise.  When 
there  were  clear-cut  geographical 
divisions  of  patriarchates,  a  Uniate 
was  born  within  the  limits  of  a 
particular  patriarchate.  Now  a  man 
belongs  to  his  rite  wherever  he 
may  dwell  and  his  children  inherit 
this  quality  from  him  wheresoever 
they  may  travel. 

When  these  distinctions  are  clear 
it  can  be  seen  that  it  is  not  neces- 
sary to  hear  Mass  in  the  Latin  lan- 
guage or  to  receive  the  sacraments 
according  to  the  Roman  Ritual  in 
order  to  be  a  member  of  the  Cath- 
olic Church.  Unity  of  religion  is 
not  the  same  thing  as  uniformity 
of  rite.  The  profession  of  the  Cath- 


206 


olic  Faith  is  not  the  same  as  the 
manner  in  which  it  is  professed. 

Though  a  discussion  of  the  schis- 
matic Eastern  Churches  is  beyond 
the  scope  of  this  article,  yet  some 
consideration  of  them  must  "be  made 
when  the  Uniate  Churches  are  clas- 
sified. The  greater  part  of  the  Uni- 
ate Churches  are  reunited  portions 
of  the  schismatic  Churches.  The 
Maronite  Church,  never  having 
been  in  schism,  is  an  exception  to 
this  rule.  The  Eastern  Catholics 
who  are  in  union  with  the  Bishop 
of  Rome  as  head  of  the  Church  are : 
Uniate  Copts,  Ethiopian  Uniates, 
Syrian  Uniates,  Chaldee  Uniates, 
Uniate  Armenians,  Malabar  Unia- 
tes, Byzantine  Uniates,  and  the 
Maronite  Church. 

Uniate  Copts  are  under  the  Patri- 
arch of  Alexandria  who  lives  at 
Cairo.  They  use  old  Coptic  in  their 
liturgy  which  is  Alexandrian  in 
origin.  Arabic,  the  present-day  ver- 
nacular, is  becoming  more  promi- 
nent for  liturgical  functions, 

Ethiopian  Uniates  were  converted 
from  the  Ethiopian  National  Church 
which  went  into  schism  with  the 
Copts.  Their  rite  is  substantially 
Coptic  (Alexandrian),  with  Geez, 
the  classical  language.  Since  the 
conquest  of  Ethiopia  by  Italy  full 
freedom  is  assured  Catholic  mis- 
sionaries. 

Syrian  Uniates  were  converted 
from  the  Jacobites  in  1781.  Their 
patriarch  lives  at  Beirut.  A  deriva- 
tion of  the  Antiochean  Rite  is  used 
in  a  Syrian  dialect. 

Chaldee  Uniates  were  converted 
from  Nestorianism.  They  use  an 
adaptation  of  the  Antiochean  Rite 
with  the  Syriac  language.  Their 
immediate  superior  lives  at  Mosul 
as  minor  Patriarch  of  Babylon. 

Uniate  Armenians  were  converted 
from  the  Armenian  National 
Church.  The  head  of  this  group 
is  the  Uniate  Armenian  minor  Pa- 
triarch of  Cilicia.  They  are  found 
principally  in  the  Levant,  Italy  and 
Austria.  Their  liturgy  is  a  deriva- 
tive from  the  Byzantine  Rite  but 
the  Armenian  tongue  is  used. 

Malabar  Uniates  were  converted 


from  the  Malabar  Christians  in  In- 
dia in  1599.  They  lack  a  patriarch, 
having  instead  three  vicars  apos- 
tolic. Their  liturgy  is  fundamentally 
Antiochean  but  has  been  so  altered 
that  it  may  be  called  a  separate 
rite.  Syriac  is  the  principal  lan- 
guage with  an  occasional  use  of 
Arabic. 

Byzantine  Uniates  are  the  Cath- 
olic counterpart  of  the  extensive 
Orthodox  Church  (see  Orthodoxy). 
These  Uniates  have  no  common  au- 
thority other  than  that  of  the  Su- 
preme Pontiff.  They  represent 
groups  which  have  never  been  in 
schism  and  others  which  have  been 
reunited  to  Rome  in  different  coun- 
tries and  at  various  times.  Their 
common  bond,  besides  union  with 
the  Supreme  Pontiff  and  all  it  im- 
plies, is  the  use  of  the  Byzantine 
Rite  (that  used  by  the  Greek  Ortho- 
dox, i.e.,  the  schismatic,  Church 
in  Constantinople)  at  least  in  its 
fundamental  notes,  even  though 
this  rite  is  used  in  various  lan- 
guages. Within  this  group  there  are 
several  divisions:  (1)  Melkites  in 
Syria  and  Egypt  using  Arabic  litur- 
gically  and  subject  to  the  Patriarch 
of  Antioch;  (2)  Greek  Uniates  in 
Greece  and  Turkey  using  Greek  li- 
turgically;  (3)  Ruthenians  in  Aus- 
tria and  Hungary,  using  old  Sla- 
vonic; (4)  Bulgarian  Uniates  also 
using  Old  Slavonic;  (5)  Rumanian 
Uniates  using  their  own  language 
liturgically;  (6)  Italo-Greeks  in 
Italy,  Sicily  and  Paris  using  Greek 
liturgically  but  with  many  Latin 
modifications  in  their  rite;  (7)  Rus- 
sian Uniates  using  Paleoslavic  in 
their  liturgy.  Since  the  Revolution 
in  1917  this  Church  has  been  prac- 
tically extinct  in  Russia  but  the 
Church  has  been  spread  throughout 
Europe  and  the  United  States. 
Rome  is  keeping  this  Church  alive 
by  instituting  colleges  for  Russian 
priests  (even  from  other  nations 
and  rites)  in  various  countries  of 
the  Latin  Rite. 

The  Maronite  Church  is  a  group 
with  no  counterpart;  there  is  no  such 
thing  as  a  schismatical  Maronite. 
They  are  found  in  Lebanon,  Egypt, 
Cyprus  and  the  United  States.  Their. 


207 


liturgy  is  basically  Antiochean  with 
modifications  including  the  use  of 
the  Syriac  tongue. 

This  completes  the  list  of  the 
Eastern  Churches.  In  addition  to 
these  Uniate  Eastern  Churches, 
there  are  seven  schismatical  East- 
ern Churches:  the  great  Orthodox 
Church,  one  formed  by  the  Nesto- 
rian  heresy  and  five  arising  from 
Monophysitism  (Copts,  Ethiopians, 
Jacobites,  Malabar  Christians  and 
Armenians). 

The  attitude  of  Roman  Catholics 
towards  the  Uniates  varies  con- 
siderably with  the  extent  of  their 
knowledge.  Many  do  not  know  that 
there  can  be  and  are  Catholics  who 
do  not  pray  before  statues  of  the 
Blessed  Mother  of  Christ  and  St. 
Joseph,  who  have  never  been  to 
Benediction  of  the  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment, who  do  not  genuflect  in  pass- 
ing before  the  Blessed  Sacrament 
Those  who  have  heard  only  super- 
ficially about  the  Eastern  Churches 
are  inclined  to  consider  them  a 
cross  between  Catholicism  and 
Protestantism,  and  this  attitude  un- 
fortunately has  been  fostered  quite 
strenuously  by  Anglicanism.  Uni- 
ates are  Catholics  and  have  as 
much  right  to  be  so  treated  as 
Latins,  Regarding  faith  and  morals 


they  must  be  numbered  with  the 
Romans.  Schism  and  heresy  to  the 
Uniate  are  as  abhorrent  ad  to  the 
Roman  Catholic. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 
century  Christendom  presented  a 
picture  of  unity  in  regard  to  faith, 
morals  and  obedience  to  the  Bishop 
of  Rome  as  the  visible  head  of  the 
Church.  Uniformity  of  rite  was  not 
then  and  is  not  now  the  ideal  of 
the  Holy  See.  No  Catholic  can  be 
more  Catholic  than  the  Holy  See, 
and  Benedict  XIV  in  speaking  ot 
the  schismatics  and  Uniates  in  the 
East  has  aptly  expressed  the  atti- 
tude of  the  Church :  "Eastern  Chris- 
tians should  be  Catholics;  they 
have  no  need  to  become  Latins." 

Indeed  the  Uniate  Eastern 
Churches  are  the  living  proof  of 
the  Church's  universality.  Eastern 
schisms  have  been  largely  the  out- 
come of  political  quarrels.  The  Uni- 
ates in  remaining  loyal  to  the  Holy 
See  and  preserving  the  bond  of 
faith  have  cast  aside  their  political, 
social  and  economic  aspirations  and 
come  not  as  Greeks  and  Slavs  and 
Russians  and  Armenians  and  Syri- 
ans but  as  Catholics  to  rally  around 
the  Holy  Father  uniting  their  ef- 
forts with  his  to  "restore  all  things 
in  Christ" 


PROMISES  OF  OUR   LORD  TO  ST.   MARGARET   MARY 
IN  FAVOR  OF  THOSE  DEVOTED  TO  THE  SACRED  HEART 

1.  I  will  give  them  all  the  graces  necessary  for  their  state  of  life. 

2.  I  will  establish  peace  in  their  families. 

3.  I  will  console  them  in  all  their  difficulties. 

4.  I  will  be  their  assured  refuge  in  life  and  more  especially  at  death. 

5.  I  will  pour  out  abundant  benedictions  on  all  their  undertakings, 

6.  Sinners  will  find  in  My  Heart  a  source  and  infinite  ocean  of  mercy. 

7.  Tepid  souls  shall  become  fervent. 

8.  Fervent  souls  shall  advance  rapidly  to  great  perfection. 

9.  I  will  bless  the  houses  in  which  the  image  of  My  Sacred  Heart 
shall  be  exposed  and  honored. 

10.  I  will  give  to  priests  the  power  of  moving  the  most  hardened  hearts. 

11.  Persons  who  propagate  this  devotion  shall  have  their  names  in- 
scribed in  My  Heart  and  they  shall  never  be  effaced  from  It. 

12.  I  promise  thee  in  the  excess  of  the  mercy  of  My  Heart  that  Its 
all-powerful  love  will  grant  to  all  those  who  receive  Communion  on  the 
First  Friday  of  every  month  for  9  consecutive  months  the  grace  of  final 
perseverance  and  that  they  shall  not  die  under  my  displeasure  nor  with- 
out receiving  the  Sacraments  and  My  Heart  shall  be  their  secure  refuge 
at  that  last  hour. 

208 


ECCLESIASTICAL    CHANT 


Definition 

Ecclesiastical  chant  is  the  music 
proper  to  tlae  liturgy  of  the  Catho- 
lic Church.  Its  melodies  are  uni- 
sonous, diatonic,  simple  or  florid, 
moving  with  free  rhythm  in  one  or 
more  of  the  eight  modes.  They  are 
an  interpretation  of  and  a  com- 
mentary on  the  sacred  text.  They 
are  prayer  sung. 

Names 

Plain  and  Gregorian  chant  are 
the  more  common  names  given  to 
this  same  type  of  music.  It  is 
called  plain  chant  because  of  its 
free  rhythm,  which  definitely  dis- 
tinguishes it  from  all  measured 
music.  The  designation  Gregorian 
is  a  tribute  to  the  organizing  genius 
of  Pope  St.  Gregory  the  Great. 

Elements 

Chant  is  made  up  of  two  ele- 
ments—  the  text  and  the  melody. 
Of  these,  the  text  is  the  more  im- 
portant, for  without  it  there  would 
be  no  liturgical  chant.  The  texts 
are  taken  from  Sacred  Scripture 
either  directly  or  indirectly. 

The  present  repertoire  of  litur- 
gical melodies  which  is  the  fruit  of 
great  musical  genius  was  created 
under  the  inspiration  of  the  sacred 
text.  These  melodies  are,  in  every 
sense,  the  property  and  achieve- 
ment of  the  Catholic  Church.  The 
musical  structure  was  influenced 
mainly  by  three  civilizations,  the 
Jewish,  Greek  and  Roman.  What 
does  ecclesiastical  chant  owe  to 
each  of  these  three? 

Jewish  Influence  —  Ecclesiastical 
chant  is  less  indebted  to  the  Tem- 
ple than  to  the  synagogue.  The 
sole  type  of  singing  which  comes 
from  the  Temple  is  responsorial 
psalmody.  To  the  synagogue  we 
owe  such  musical  forms  as  the 
jubttus  (the  custom  of  singing  a 
number  of  notes  to  the  final  "a*'  of 
Alleluia)  and  the  recitative  formulas 
(such  as  the  Gospel  and  Oration 
tones). 

Greek  Influence  —  The  Greeks 
used  three  tonalities:  the  diatonic, 
chromatic  and  enharmonic.  The 


Church  chose  the  diatonic  —  its 
firmness  and  dignity  being  best 
suited  for  the  House  of  God.  Hand 
in  hand  with  diatonic  tonality, 
came  the  modal  system  of  the  same 
art.  The  eight  modes  now  in  use 
are  basically  the  ancient  Greek  dia- 
tonic modes.  However,  they  were 
adopted  with  some  changes.  As  an 
aid  in  the  transmission  of  melodies, 
the  Greeks  contributed  a  system 
of  alphabetic  notation.  Some  main- 
tain that  plain  chant  contains  a  few 
pagan  Greek  melodies.  One  ex- 
ample cited  is  that  of  the  "Hosan- 
na  Pilio  David"  of  Palm  Sunday.  A 
comparison  of  these  plain  chant 
and  Greek  pagan  melodies  reveals 
only  similarity,  never  identity. 

Roman  Influence  —  Mention  has 
already  been  made  that  had  there 
been  no  sacred  text  there  would  be 
no  ecclesiastical  chant.  Greek  was 
the  liturgical  language  of  Rome  un- 
til about  the  middle  of  the  third 
century.  The  change  from  Greek 
to  Latin  was  a  gradual  process. 
From  the  end  of  the  third  century 
to  that  of  the  sixth  a  popular  Latin 
speech  arose.  The  popular  mind 
did  not  retain  the  Greek  and  classi- 
cal Latin  conception  of  quantity 
and  meter.  The  language  of  the 
people  became  a  rhythmical  prose. 
The  two  distinguishing  features  of 
this  rhythmic  speech  were  the  tonic 
accent  and  the  cursus.  Liturgical 
chant,  still  in  its  infancy  at  this 
time,  could  not  remain  unaffected. 
Dom  Mocquereau  asserts  that  plain 
chant  was  patterned  after  the  prose 
of  the  period. 

History 

Consecration  —  The  use  of  chant 
in  the  Catholic  liturgy  was  in- 
augurated by  Christ  Himself.  The 
setting  was  the  Last  Supper,  the 
first  Mass.  St.  Matthew  expressly 
says :  "And  a  hymn  being  said,  they 
went  out  unto  mount  Olivet"  (Matt., 
xxvi,  30).  This  hymn  consisted  of 
psalms.  Following  the  custom  of 
the  Jews,  Christ  chanted  the  verses 
and  the  Apostles  added  "Alleluia" 
either  after  each  verse  or  after 
several  verses.  Here  we  have  the 


209 


consecration  of  chant.  Hence  it 
has  been  rightly  stated  that  the 
first  Mass  had  its  first  liturgical 
chant  and  that  Christ  is  the  first 
Chanter  in  the  New  Dispensation. 

Apostolic  Era  —  Following  the 
example  of  Christ,  the  Church  has 
always  used  plain-song  in  her  lit- 
urgy. The  very  first  converts  were 
Jews.  For  a  time  they  continued 
"daily  with  one  accord  in  the 
Temple"  (Acts,  ii,  46).  This  ac- 
counts for  the  influence  of  the  Jew- 
ish Temple  already  mentioned. 
The  influence  of  the  synagogue  is 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  the 
other  Christians  outside  of  Jeru- 
salem attended  services  held  there. 
Wherefore  it  is  but  natural  that 
these  first  Christians  should  have 
retained  some  of  the  melodies  long 
associated  with  the  sacred  text. 
Later  on,  St.  Paul  exhorted  his 
converts  to  continue  their  former 
practice.  "Let  the  word  of  Christ 
dwell  in  you  abundantly:  in  all  wis- 
dom, teaching  and  admonishing 
one  another  in  psalms,  hymns,  and 
spiritual  canticles,  singing  in  grace 
in  your  hearts  to  God"  (CoL,  iii, 
16).  "But  be  ye  filled  with  the 
Holy  Spirit,  speaking  to  yourselves 
in  psalms,  and  hymns,  and  spiritual 
canticles,  singing  and  making  melo- 
dy in  your  hearts  to  the  Lord" 
(Bph.,  v,  18-19). 

Period  of  Growth  —  The  period 
of  persecution  and  the  restriction 
of  the  liturgy  of  the  early  Church 
to  private  homes  and  to  the  cata- 
combs gave  little  opportunity  for 
the  development  of  chant.  With  the 
victory  over  paganism  (313),  litur- 
gy and  chant  were  free  to  develop 
within  the  large  basilicas.  A  new 
style  of  singing,  that  of  antiphonal 
psalmody,  which  originated  in 
Syria,  was  introduced  into  Rome 
by  Pope  St.  Damasus  I  (366-84)  and 
into  Milan  by  St.  Ambrose.  Al- 
though the  use  of  hymns  dates 
back  to  apostolic  times,  hymns,  in 
the  modern  sense,  were  introduced 
into  the  West  by  St.  Hilary  of 
Poitiers  (d.  366).  The  liturgical 
hymn  was  popularized  by  St.  Am- 
brose as  a  result  of  the  Arian  per- 
secution in  Milan  during  the  years 


385  and  386.  The  external  develop- 
ment of  the  liturgy  gave  rise  to 
three  additional  chants,  the  In- 
troit,  Offertory  and  Communion. 
The  Introit  was  sung  while  the 
Pope  and  his  retinue  proceeded 
from  the  sacristy  to  the  altar.  As 
the  faithful  approached  the  altar 
to  offer  their  gifts,  they  sang  the 
Offertory  prayer.  The  Communion 
was  sung  as  the  faithful  returned 
to  the  altar  to  receive  the  Body 
and  Blood  of  Christ.  The  Introit  is 
mentioned  as  early  as  432;  the  Of- 
fertory and  Communion  are  both 
mentioned  by  St.  Augustine  (d. 
430). 

Period  of  Perfection — The  blend- 
ing of  the  various  characteristics 
which  the  Church  took  over  from 
the  three  aforementioned  civiliza- 
tions reached  its  climax  with  the 
dawn  of  the  seventh  century.  The 
unifying  genius  was  Pope  St.  Greg- 
ory the  Great  (590-604).  Two  great 
contributions  toward  the  organiza- 
tion of  Church  music  were  his  An- 
tiphonary  of  the  Mass  and  the 
foundation  of  two  new  "Scholae 
Canto  rum"  at  Rome.  The  Anti- 
phonary,  containing  about  645  melo- 
dies for  the  choir,  was  a  compila- 
tion of  the  chants  then  in  use.  It 
appears  that  the  Antiphonary  as- 
signed to  each  chant  its  place  in 
the  liturgical  year. 

Although  originally  intended  for 
Rome  alone,  the  influence  of  the 
"Scholae"  was  far-reaching.  Dis- 
ciples were  sent  into  other  lands. 
There  similar  schools  were  organ- 
ized. Thus  there  came  about  the 
dissemination  of  the  Gregorian  An- 
tiphonary and  a  better  rendition  of 
the  chants  based  on  the  Gregorian 
tradition.  Such  schools  were  set 
up  in  England  after  the  arrival  of 
St.  Augustine  and  his  associates  in 
596.  Two  other  famous  schools 
were  begun  under  Charlemagne, 
namely  that  of  Metz  and  of  St. 
Gall, 

Post-Gregorian  Composition  (60&- 
1250)  — A  further  development  of 
the  liturgy  called  for  additional 
chants.  The  need  was  supplied  in 
one  of  three  ways.  In  some  in- 
stances new  melodies  were  com- 


210 


posed.  The  more  common  practice 
was  either  to  choose  a  text  with 
its  accompanying  melody  from  the 
Gregorian  collection  and  assign 
it  a  new  role,  or  to  take  the 
melody  from  the  same  collection 
and  adapt  it,  with  necessary 
changes,  to  a  different  text.  For 
the  consecration  of  the  Pan- 
theon to  the  Blessed  Virgin  and 
the  Holy  Martyrs  (609)  new  chants 
were  composed  for  the  proper  parts 
of  the  Mass  for  the  dedication  of 
a  church.  An  example  of  the  second 
method  is  the  well-known  Introit, 
"Gaudeamus."  Although  formerly 
used  for  the  feast  of  St.  Agatha 
alone,  it  now  occurs  in  several 
Masses,  e.  g.,  that  of  All  Saints,  the 
Assumption,  etc.  Two  examples  of 
adaptation  are  the  Mass  for  the 
feast  of  the  Most  Holy  Trinity  com- 
posed hy  Alcuin  and  the  Mass  for 
the  feast  of  the  Most  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment composed  in  1246. 

During  the  tenth  century,  two 
new  types  of  compositions  made 
their  appearance.  They  are  the  se- 
quence and  the  tropes. 

Decadence — This  period  extended 
from  about  the  middle  of  the  thir- 
teenth century  to  the  middle  of  the 
nineteenth.  Several  factors  con- 
tributed to  the  decline  of  chant.  At 
this  time  we  have  the  development 
of  polyphony  and  the  rise  of  meas- 
ured music.  The  tendency,  although 
not  a  general  one,  was  to  treat 
chant  and  measured  music  in  the 
same  manner.  Moreover,  copyists 
unhappily  abbreviated  the  chant 
melodies.  The  Medecian  Gradual 
(1614-15)  was  a  reproduction  of 
such  mutilated  melodies.  It  appeared 
again  in  1848  as  the  Mechlin  Grad- 
ual and  again  in  1873  with  official 
approbation,  not,  however,  without 
certain  changes  and  additions. 

Restoration  —  The  underlying 
scientific  principle  of  this  epoch, 
which  is  still  going  on,  is  a  return 
to  the  traditional  melodies  by  a 
close  examination  of  the  ancient 
manuscripts.  The  first  imperfect 
attempt  based  on  this  principle  was 
the  Reims-Cambrai  Gradual  (1851). 
Although  failing  to  reproduce  the 


manuscripts  purely,  it  surpassed  its 
predecessors. 

The  most  scholarly  and  scientific 
studies  based  on  this  same  princi- 
ple have  been  achieved,  for  the 
most  part,  by  the  Benedictines  of 
Solesmes.  Dom  Gueranger  (d.  1875), 
Dom  Pothier  (d.  1923)  and  Dom 
Mocquereau  (d.  1930)  are  out- 
standing. 

Mention  must  be  made  of  Popes 
Pius  X,  to  whom  the  movement 
chiefly  owes  its  success,  and  Pius 
XI.  Through  the  "Motu  Proprio" 
of  Pope  Pius  X  (Nov.  22,  1903), 
the  reform  was  given  authoritative 
approval  and  chant  is  again  regain- 
ing its  former  high  dignity  in  the 
liturgy.  The  Apostolic  constitution, 
"Divini  Cultus,"  of  Pope  Pius  XI 
(Dec.  20,  1928)  is  a  more  detailed 
statement  of  the  procedure  to  be 
followed  for  the  accomplishment  of 
the  reform  inaugurated  by  Pope 
Pius  X. 

Summary  of  "Motu  Proprio" 

The  whole  spirit  and  purpose  of 
the  "Motu  Proprio"  is  not  music  in 
itself,  but  music  in  its  relation  to 
liturgy.  It  is  a  "reproof  and  con- 
demnation of  all  that  is  out  of  har- 
mony" with  the  decorum  and  sanc- 
tity of  the  House  of  God.  It  is  "a 
juridical  code  of  sacred  music"  to 
which  the  "force  of  law"  is  given. 
Its  "scrupulous  observance"  is  im- 
posed upon  all. 

The  sole  purpose  of  sacred  mu- 
sic is  to  clothe  the  text  with  suit- 
able melody.  A  suitable  melody 
possesses  holiness  both  in  itself 
and  in  its  presentation,  "goodness 
of  form"  to  insure  its  purpose,  and 
"universality"  in  the  sense  that 
native  music  is  subordinate  to  the 
"characteristics"  of  sacred  music. 

Gregorian  chant  pre-eminently 
possesses  these  qualities.  It  Is  the 
"supreme  model"  upon  which  other 
sacred  music  is  judged.  Congrega- 
tional singing  is  to  be  fostered. 
Classic  polyphony,  especially  that 
of  the  Roman  School,  also  posses- 
ses these  same  qualities  and  is  to 
be  restored.  Modern  music,  while 
admissible,  must  be  divested  of 
everything  profane,  particularly  of 
the  theatrical  style. 

Latin  must  be  used  in  all  the 


211 


"solemn  liturgical  functions"  and 
in  the  "variable  or  common  parts 
of  the  Mass  or  Office."  The  word 
order  of  the  texts  must  not  be  con- 
fused and  the  prescribed  texts 
must  be  sung. 

Solos,  •which  are  "melodic  pro- 
jections," are  moderately  permitted. 
Women  in  choirs  are  expressly  for- 
bidden. 

Organ  accompaniment,  subject  to 
the  rules  of  sacred  music,  is  per- 
mitted to  sustain  the  singing.  Ex- 
pressly forbidden  are  the  piano  and 


noisy  instruments,  such  as  bells, 
drums  and  cymbals.  Other  instru- 
ments require  the  special  permis- 
sion of  the  Ordinary.  Orchestra- 
tion must  be  dignified  and  un- 
obtrusive. 

Sacred  music  is  the  "humble 
handmaid"  of  the  liturgy. 

A  Commission  is  to  be  estab- 
lished in  each  diocese  to  provide 
suitable  music  and  to  oversee  its 
correct  execution.  Music  schools 
are  to  be  formed,  especially  in  ec- 
clesiastical seminaries. 


THE  LITURGICAL  MOVEMENT 


Purpose 

"A  need  of  our  times,"  said  the 
late  Pope  Pius  XI,  "is  social, 
or  communal  prayer,  to  be  voiced 
under  the  guidance  of  the  pastors 
in  enacting  the  functions  of  the 
liturgy.  This  alternating  of  prayers 
will  be  of  the  greatest  assistance 
in  banishing  the  numberless  evils 
which  disturb  the  minds  of  the 
faithful  in  our  age,  and  especially 
in  overcoming  the  snares  and 
dangers  which  threaten  to  under- 
mine the  sincerity  of  the  faith." 

The  basic  object  of  the  liturgical 
movement  is  the  fulfilment  of  this 
need:  to  put  the  liturgy  into  the 
life  of  modern  man,  to  make  the 
liturgy  the  motivating  cause  of  his 
actions,  both  as  an  individual  and 
as  a  social  being,  to  teach  man  how 
he  can  participate  most  fully  in  the 
corporate  worship  of  the  Church. 

The  essence  of  corporate  or 
liturgical  worship  is  the  offering 
of  the  prayers  of  a  body  of  people 
through  the  hands  of  a  mediator. 
Since  Christ  is  the  Mediator  be- 
tween God  and  man,  it  follows  that 
the  Mass,  His  Sacrifice,  is  the  cen- 
ter of  all  liturgical  worship.  In  the 
Mass  every  man  has  an  active  role 
to  play.  That  role  is  one  of  co- 
offering  to  God  the  Sacrifice  with 
Christ's  representative,  the  priest. 
Only  when  he  has  thus  offered  the 
Mass  can  man  hope  to  partake  fully 
of  the  benefits  which  Christ  in- 
tended he  should  derive  from  it. 

This  communal  prayer  or  activi- 
ty on  the  part  of  priest  and  people 
in  the  liturgy  does  not  merely  mean 
the  external  performance  of  the 
liturgical  functions.  Rather  it  sig- 


nifies the  interior  devotion  of  mind 
and  heart  and  the  inner  acknowl- 
edgement of  God's  complete  do- 
minion. As  it  has  been  expressed 
by  Cardinal  Pizzardo,  former  Papal 
President  of  Catholic  Action:  "  'Ac- 
tive participation,'  in  short,  means 
a  sincere,  inward  acknowledgment 
of  God  (the  interior  sacrifice)  ex- 
pressed by  participation  in  the 
words,  rites,  chant,  etc.  of  the  ex- 
ternal sacrifice.  Properly  under- 
stood, therefore,  the  liturgy  is  both 
the  internal  homage  of  the  soul  and 
its  outward  bodily  expression  by 
means  of  words,  chants,  ceremo- 
nies, etc.  in  the  forms  ordained  by 
the  Church  for  her  solemn  public 
worship." 

The  Mass  is  the  heart  of  the 
liturgical  movement.  The  whole 
of  dogmatic  theology  centers 
around  the  Mass  as  the  Sacrifice  of 
the  New  Law  and  the  Blessed  Sac- 
rament as  the  bond  cementing  the 
minds  and  hearts  of  Christ's  peo- 
ple. Around  the  Mass  and  the 
Blessed  Sacrament  are  centered 
the  sacraments,  the  sacramentals 
and  the  Divine  Office,  Once  the 
Mass  has  become  the  center  of 
life,  those  other  phases  of  the 
liturgy  will  follow  almost  auto- 
matically. The  Liturgical  Year  be- 
comes the  re-living  by  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Mystical  Body  of  Christ 
of  the  visible  earthly  life  of  Christ. 
The  sacraments  and  sacramentals 
are  appreciated  as  the  channels 
through  which  grace  flows  freely  to 
men.  Finally,  the  Divine  Office  be- 
comes earth's  counterpart  of  heav- 
en's ceaseless  "Holy,  Holy,  Holy." 
Men  become  fully  aware  of  their 


212 


mystical  union  with  one  another 
through  Him  who  is  their  Head. 

The  liturgical  movement  is  noth- 
ing new.  It  is  rather  a  conscious 
effort  to  revitalize  Catholicism.  It 
is  an  attempt  to  bring  home  to  men 
a  more  vivid  realization  of  their 
status  as  members  of  the  Mystical 
Body  of  Christ.  The  corporate  wor- 
ship of  God  through  Christ  harks 
back  to  those  words  of  Christ's 
first  vicar  on  earth:  "Be  you  your- 
selves as  living  stones,  built  there- 
on into  a  spiritual  house,  a  holy 
priesthood,  to  offer  spiritual  sacri- 
fices acceptable  to  God  through 

Jesus  Christ You  are  a  chosen 

race,  a  royal  priesthood"  (I  Peter, 
2,  5-9). 

Some  of  the  means  employed  to 
make  men  "liturgy-conscious"  are 
the  popularization  of  Gregorian 
Chant,  the  use  of  the  missal  and 
the  dialogue  Mass  and  the  further- 
ing of  true  liturgical  art.  But  these 
are  merely  secondary  considera- 
tions. The  main  thing  is  the  inner 
appreciation  and  application  of  the 
meaning  of  the  Mystical  Body  of 
Christ,  the  carrying  out  of  this 
doctrine  in  daily  life. 

History 

The  works  of  Dom  Prosper  Guer- 
anger,  Abbot  of  Solesmes,  begun  in 
1840,  are  considered  generally  as 
the  beginning  of  the  modern  move- 
ment back  to  a  better  appreciation 
of  the  liturgy.  Franz  Stauden- 
maier  of  Germany  was  also  one  of 
the  pioneers  in  the  field.  Official 
approval  of  the  movement  was  giv- 
en in  1903  by  the  "Motu  Proprio" 
of  Pope  Pius  X.  Since  that  time 
organized  efforts  have  replaced  the 
individual  labors  of  men  interested 
in  the  liturgy. 

The  Benedictine  monks  of  Bel- 
gium were  the  first  to  begin  or- 
ganized efforts  in  this  direction, 
several  years  after  the  publication 
of  the  "Motu  Proprio."  Their  first 
national  council  was  held  in  1920. 

Holland  followed  closely  after 
Belgium,  principally  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  secular  clergy.  Hol- 
land's liturgical  work  is  of  an  es- 
sentially practical  nature.  It  has  a 
well-organized  central  confedera- 
tion headed  by  two  members  from 
each  of  the  diocesan  councils. 


Germany's  liturgical  revival  dates 
back  to  1915.  The  heart  of  liturgi- 
cal activity  in  Germany  is  the  Ab- 
bey of  Maria-Laach,  well  known  for 
its  scholarly  work.  Dr.  Franz 
Xavier  Muench,  the  first  secretary 
general  of  the  Association  of  Catho- 
lic University  Graduates,  died  on 
October  19,  1940.  Through  his  ef- 
forts the  liturgical  movement  grew 
in  German  universities.  Through 
him  Karl  Adam,  Guardini,  Jacques 
Maritain  and  Christopher  Dawson 
were  introduced  to  the  German 
Catholic  students.  His  death  in 
political  exile  in  Florence,  Italy, 
"is  symbolic  of  one  of  the  greatest 
efforts  of  German  Catholicism  and 
of  its  final  apparent  failure." 

Austria's  liturgical  movement  is 
ably  represented  by  Dr.  Pius 
Parsch,  canon  regular  of  Kloster- 
neuburg.  His  liturgical  publica- 
tions, "Study  the  Mass"  and  "The 
Liturgy  of  the  Mass,"  are  daily  be- 
coming more  popular. 

Italy's  cardinal-archbishops  and 
bishops  have  continually  fostered 
the  liturgical  movement  by  pastoral 
letters,  while  Abbot  Caronti  and 
Cardinal-Archbishop  Schuster  have 
done  much  to  further  the  move- 
ment. "The  liturgical  movement 
has  helped  to  reawaken  the  dulled 
religious  sense,  and  to  recall  to 
the  individual  his  intimate  union 
with  the  Mystical  Body  of  Christ. 
The  movement  was  undoubtedly 
aided  by  the  anti-individualistic 
tendencies  so  energetically  fos- 
tered in  the  political  sphere  by 
Italian  Fascism.  It  has  endeavored 
above  all  to  deepen  the  religious 
life,  to  nourish  it  out  of  the  fonts 
of  liturgical  prayer,  and  to  consoli- 
date it  by  means  of  an  intense  par- 
ticipation in  the  sacramental  life." 

England's  liturgical  movement 
may  not  be  as  centralized  as  that 
of  many  other  countries.  But  repre- 
sentatives like  Donald  Attwater  and 
Fr.  C.  C.  Martindale,  S.  X,  are 
fostering  the  liturgical  spirit  con- 
tinually by  their  writings.  The  Eng- 
lish Benedictines  began  in  1940  the 
publication  of  a  new  liturgical  re- 
view, "The  Church  and  the  People." 

The  Co-operative  Movement  in 
Nova  Scotia  has  also  its  liturgical 
angle.  The  use  of  the  missal  in 


213 


the  form  of  the  Leaflet  Missal  and 
the  evening  services  during  the 
week,  consisting  of  Vespers  sung 
by  the  congregation,  rosary,  sermon 
on  some  aspect  of  Catholic  worship 
and  Benediction,  are  having  a  well- 
deserved  effect  in  vitalizing  the 
Church's  efforts  to  reconstruct  the 
social  order  in  that  province. 

The  United  States  has  had  a  well- 
organized  liturgical  movement 
since  1925.  The  "Orate  Fratres," 
published  by  the  monks  of  St. 
John's  Abbey,  Collegeville,  Minn., 
is  the  official  organ  of  the  move- 
ment in  this  country.  The  First  Na- 
tional Liturgical  Day  in  the  United 
States  was  held  at  Collegeville  on 
July  25,  1929.  Since  then  the  Litur- 
gical Day  has  become  an  annual 
event  in  more  and  more  dioceses. 

Under  the  patronage  of  the  Most 
Rev.  Samuel  A.  Stritch,  Archbishop 
of  Chicago,  the  First  National  Li- 
turgical Week  was  sponsored  by 
the  Benedictine  Liturgical  Confer- 
ence, October  21-25,  1940.  The  cen- 
tral theme  was:  "The  Living  Par- 
ish: the  Active  and  Intelligent  Par- 
ticipation of  the  Laity  in  the  Lit- 
urgy." The  proceedings  of  this  Li- 
turgical Week  have  been  published 
by  the  Benedictine  Liturgical  Con- 
ference, 528  High  Street,  Newark, 
N.  J.,  and  a  copy  may  be  purchased 
there.  Commenting  on  this  initial 
step  the  "Orate  Fratres'*  said:  "No 
drab  assembly  of  liturgical  gray- 
beards,  not  even  a  convention  for 
experts  and  specialists  alone,  the 
Liturgical  Week  at  Chicago  was  a 
lively  get-together  of  old-timers  and 
newcomers,  of  those  who  had  some- 
thing to  teach  and  those  who 
wanted  to  learn,  out  of  whose  ani- 
mated discussions  and  stimulating 
exchange  of  ideas  grew  resolves 
and  resolutions  that  probably  justi- 
fy one  speaker's  opinion  that  the 
First  National  Liturgical  Week 
marks  a  period  in  the  Church's  life 
in  our  country." 

At  the  invitation  of  the  Most  Rev. 
John  Murray,  Archbishop  of  St. 
Paul,  the  Second  Liturgical  Week 
was  held  in  that  city,  Oct.  6-10, 
1941.  The  theme  of  the  Chicago 
Week  was  continued  with  one  sub- 
topic:  "The  Living  Parish:  One  in 
Worship,  Charity  and  Action," 


Approval 

The  liturgical  movement  has  had 
the  approbation  of  all  the  Popes 
since  the  time  of  Pius  X.  A  short 
quotation  from  each  Pope  will  show 
their  concern  for  the  movement. 

Pope  Pius  X  — "The  primary 
and  indispensable  source  of  the 
true  Christian  spirit  is  the  active 
participation  in  the  most  holy  mys- 
teries and  in  the  solemn  and  public 
prayer  of  the  Church." 

Pope  Benedict  XV  —  "For  spread- 
ing amongst  the  faithful  an  exact 
acquaintance  with  the  liturgy,  to 
inspire  in  their  hearts  a  holy  de- 
light in  the  prayers,  rites  and 
chant,  by  means  of  which  in  union 
with  their  common  Mother,  they 
pay  their  worship  to  God,  to  at- 
tract them  to  take  an  active  part 
in  the  sacred  mysteries  and  in  the 
ecclesiastical  festivals — all  this  can- 
not but  serve  admirably  to  bring 
the  faithful  into  closer  union  with 
the  priest,  to  lead  them  back  to 
the  Church,  to  nourish  their  piety, 
to  give  renewed  vigor  to  their  faith, 
to  better  their  lives." 

Pope  Pius  XI  — "People  make  a 
great  deal  of  the  liturgy  in  our 
day  but  not  always  as  they  ought 
and  as  we  would  wish.  Frequently 
too  much  importance  is  attached 
to  its  external  aspect,  to  material 
things,  whereas  it  is  the  spirit  that 
is  important:  to  pray  with  the  spir- 
it of  the  praying  Church." 

Pope  Pius  XII —  Since  becoming 
Pope,  Cardinal  Pacelli  has  not 
made  an  official  pronouncement  on 
the  liturgical  movement.  Yet  his 
mind  on  this  matter  is  easily  un- 
derstood from  the  following  quota- 
tion of  a  letter  addressed  by  him 
in  1938  as  Secretary  of  State  to 
the  Mexican  hierarchy:  "It  is  pre- 
cisely through  liturgical  prayer  and 
through  visible  cult  that  the  soul 
easily  rises  to  God  and  disposes 
itself  to  receive  the  consolation  of 
faith,  the  vital  impulse  of  grace, 
and  the  ever  greater  ardor  of 
charity.  It  is  in  the  holy  worship  of 
the  Church  that  the  faithful,  for- 
getting their  tribulations  and  afflic- 
tions, truly  feel  themselves  one 
heart  and  one  soul,  and  acquire 
greater  strength  for  the  daily  prac- 
tice of  the  virtues  of  Christian  life." 


214 


THE  LEAGUE  OF  THE  DIVINE  OFFICE 


During  the  Middle  Age  the  Di- 
vine Office  was  recited  not  only  by 
the  clergy  but  by  the  laity  as  well. 
The  participation  of  the  laity  in 
the  official  prayer  of  the  Church 
was  a  universal  practice:  knights, 
members  of  guilds  and  confraterni- 
ties said  office  in  choir.  The  liturgy 
of  the  laity  decayed  when  they  no 
longer  went  to  choir  to  say  their 
prayer.  The  reunion  of  the  clergy 
and  the  laity  in  the  performance  of 
the  liturgy  is  the  foremost  purpose 
of  the  whole  liturgical  movement 
and  the  revival  of  the  layman's  rec- 
itation of  the  Divine  Office  has  been 
the  cause  for  the  foundation  of  the 
League  of  the  Divine  Office. 

The  Benedictine  Fathers  of  St. 
John's  Abbey,  Collegeville,  Minn., 
established  this  organization  in 
1936.  The  instruction  of  the  laity 
in  the  use  of  the  breviary  has 
become  a  full-time  task  in  educat- 
ing the  laity  in  the  actual  nature 
of  the  Divine  Office  and  their  right 
to  participate  in  it. 

Before  the  League  of  the  Divine 
Office  was  started  the  Approved 
Workmen  of  Brooklyn,  New  York, 
already  had  a  society  called  the 
Breviary  Association  of  the  Laity. 
When  the  Benedictine  Fathers  es- 
tablished the  League  of  the  Divine 
Office,  the  Approved  Workmen  with- 
drew the  title  of  their  society  and 
joined  the  League  of  the  Divine 
Office  in  order  that  there  might  be 
harmony  in  the  liturgical  move- 
ment. 

The  League  of  the  Divine  Office 
was  established  primarily  to  en- 
courage the  laity  to  pray  with  the 
Church.  It  is  not  intended  that  the 
Divine  Office  should  supplant  pri- 
vate devotions.  Rather,  the  devo- 
tions of  individuals  should  be  a 
supplement  to  the  official  prayer 
and  not  the  total  content  of  the 
lay  Catholic's  prayer-life.  The  Di- 
vine Office  is,  as  recorded  by  many 
laymen  who  recite  it,  a  source  from 
whence  a  new  concept  of  private 
prayer  is  drawn.  Personal  devo- 


tions become  more  objective,  more 
correct  in  dogmatic  content  and 
deeper  in  their  appreciation  of  the 
majesty  of  God  and  the  beauty  of 
the  Faith. 

The  League  is  composed  of  men 
and  women  who  voluntarily  agree 
to  recite  some  part  of  the  Divine 
Office  every  day.  It  does  not  bind  in 
conscience  to  recite  the  Office  daily 
but  leaves  it  up  to  the  individual 
members  and  groups. 

Membership  in  the  League  is  di- 
vided into  chapter  members  and 
associate  members.  Usually  the 
chapter  members  form  groups  of 
seven,  and  each  member  is  as- 
signed one  of  the  seven  hours  of 
the  Office,  to  be  recited  during  the 
week.  Each  week  the  hours  are 
changed  so  that  after  seven  weeks 
each  chapter  member  will  have  re- 
cited each  of  the  hours  in  succes- 
sion. The  associate  member  is 
required  to  recite  one  of  the  day 
hours  every  day.  He  does  not  make 
any  agreement  with  any  of  the 
other  members  but  is  free  to  choose 
whatever  hours  he  pleases.  The 
Divine  Office  is  divided  into  seven 
hours  or  parts.  These  are  Matins 
with  Lauds  (forming  one  Hour), 
Prime,  Tierce,  Sext,  None,  Vespers 
and  Compline. 

To  aid  those  interested  in  the 
Divine  Office,  the  Liturgical  Press 
of  St.  John's  Abbey  has  prepared 
English  translations  of  the  Hours 
of  the  Divine  Office,  as  well  as 
many  other  interesting  books  and 
pamphlets  on  the  liturgical  move- 
ment. The  Press  also  publishes  the 
"Orate  Fratres"  magazine  which  is 
doing  much  to  help  spread  the  li- 
turgical movement  throughout  the 
country. 

Fr.  Osmund  Jacobs,  O.  S.  B.,  St. 
John's  Abbey,  Collegeville,  Minn., 
is  the  director  of  the  League  of  the 
Divine  Office.  For  full  information 
concerning  the  League  inquiries 
may  be  sent  to  the  above  address. 


215 


LITURGICAL  ART 


The  creation  of  religious  art  must 
be  traced  back  to  the  origins  of  reli- 
gion. Art  and  religion  have  always 
been  companions.  The  advent  of  the 
Christian  religion  saw  the  rise  of  an 
allied  art.  Throughout  the  history 
of  the  Church,  art  may  be  found 
testifying  to  the  rise  and  recession 
of  the  Church's  spiritual  activity. 

Art  in  the  Christian  sense  has 
two  fields,  or  better,  one  field  with 
two  divisions.  The  first  division  is 
religious  art  as  such.  This  art  at- 
tempts to  portray  the  beauty  of 
supernatural  things  revealed  to  us 
by  Faith.  It  is  concerned  with  Ca- 
tholicism in  its  social  and  cultural 
elements.  Thus  religious  art  re- 
veals religion  living  among  men 
and  vivifying  all  their  actions.  The 
second  division  of  Christian  art 
may  be  called  ecclesiastical  or 
liturgical.  This  is  Christian  art  in 
the  service  of  the  sanctuary. 

Art  in  general  may  be  defined  as 
the  expression  of  the  ideal  through 
the  medium  of  physical  realities. 
Then  it  is  limited  in  its  means  of 
expression  to  material  elements  as 
stone,  glass,  metals,  color  and 
paper.  Obviously  art  is  more  than 
a  caricature.  It  attempts  not  a  mere 
representation  of  material  objects  but 
the  presentation  of  spiritual  realities 
through  the  physical  medium. 

Liturgical  art  follows  the  general 
principles  of  all  art;  yet  it  finds 
itself  circumscribed  by  exceptional 
limitations.  It  is  bound  by  the  de- 
crees of  the  Sacred  Congregation 
of  Rites;  it  must  confine  itself  to 
the  paraphernalia  of  the  church, 
much  of  which  is  destined  for  a 
practical  use  (hence,  the  artistical- 
ly beautiful  must  be  expressed  in 
a  form  which  is  practically  useful) ; 
the  individuality  of  the  liturgical 
artist  must  be  subservient  to  the 
collective  personality  of  the  wor- 
shipers, although  here  the  artist 
may  legitimately  undertake  the  of- 
fice of  educator  and  direct  the  col- 
lectivity into  the  realm  of  experi- 
ence out  of  which  he  has  developed 
his  work  of  art. 

Liturgical  art  expresses  the  dog- 


matic and  moral  elements  of  the 
liturgy.  Hence  art  to  be  liturgical 
must  present  the  mysteries  of  faith 
as  revealed  and  elucidated  by  the 
Scriptures  and  tradition.  It  must 
show  the  beauty  which  is  God,  the 
mercy  which  is  Christ  and  the  love 
which  is  the  Holy  Spirit.  It  may 
depict  by  painting  or  by  stained 
glass  the  miracles  of  Christ  or  the 
guaranties  of  salvation.  His  Mother 
and  the  whole  array  of  triumphant 
heaven  are  legitimate  subjects. 

All  liturgical  art  must  find  its 
centre  in  the  altar  which  is  Christ. 
The  focal  point  cannot  be  ego-cen- 
tric or  individual;  indeed  it  cannot 
even  be  the  Christian  community 
as  such.  The  community  of  Chris- 
tians in  its  relations  with  God  per- 
forms its  services  as  a  unit;  there 
are  men,  women  and  children  in 
the  Church  but  they  come  as  one 
to  the  Father  through  Christ  with 
whom  they  are  one.  Hence  the 
church  in  which  they  gather  is 
properly  adorned  only  when  it  is 
adorned  for  Christ.  This  is  the 
meaning  of  the  Christo-centric  art 
of  the  liturgy.  The  church  to  which 
men  flock  as  to  an  art  gallery  is 
not  liturgical.  The  liturgical  church 
brings  men  to  their  knees.  The  art 
reveals  the  place  as  the  dwelling 
of  the  Most  High,  shows  the  Catho- 
lic his  religion.  Here  are  Christ  and 
the  Sacramental  life  which  uplift 
spirits,  wash  away  sorrow  from 
weary  hearts,  direct  the  eyes  of 
the  body  and  of  the  soul  upwards  to 
the  altar  which  is  Christ  and  higher 
even,  to  the  throne  of  grace.  The 
art  of  the  Church  should  attract  not 
as  a  caricature  but  as  an  impelling 
force  which  through  the  natural  ex- 
pression of  the  beautiful  supernat- 
ural, lifts  souls  up  and  drives  them 
on  to  God. 

Liturgical  art  as  we  understand 
it  here  is  not  to  be  considered  as 
the  expression  of  a  particular  tra- 
dition. It  may  be  cast  according  to 
the  principles  of  the  Romanesque 
or  Gothic  or  any  other  type  of  art. 
But  if  any  type  of  art  seeks  ad- 
mittance into  the  church  it  must 
remove  its  secular  garb  and  put 
on  the  seamless  robe  of  the  Chris- 


216 


tian  liturgy.  This  has  not  always 
been  done  and  there  are  many  ex- 
amples of  the  "art  gallery"  church 
in  Europe  and  America. 

The  widespread  presence  of  this 
type  of  church  has  led  to  a  serious 
problem.  Generations  of  Catholics 
have  come  to  regard  it  as  the  tra- 
dition which  must  be  maintained. 
Hence  the  liturgical  art  movement 
progresses  but  slowly.  It  has  to  re- 
move prejudices  innocently  acquired 
before  it  can  inculcate  the  supe- 
riority of  true  liturgical  art.  Nor 
does  this  tendency  to  cling  to  tra- 
dition limit  itself  to  localities. 
There  are  national  traditions  in 
Church  art.  It  is  a  tribute  to  the 
Catholicity  of  the  Church  that  she 
has  not  attempted  to  force  the 
abandonment  of  national  traits. 
The  rubrical  requirements  can  be 
observed  without  affecting  the 
broad  principles  of  a  national  artis- 
tic expression;  in  America  there  are 
examples  of  the  liturgically  "cor- 
rect" altar  and  sanctuary  which  re- 
tain definitely  foreign  elements. 

In  the  United  States  the  liturgi- 
cal art  movement  is  comparatively 
young.  As  an  integral  part  of  the 
universal  liturgical  movement 
which  is  itself  a  phase  of  the  re- 
EUCHARISTIC 


surgent  spiritual  activity  of  Catho- 
lic Action,  the  liturgical  art  move- 
ment is  a  less  spectacular  but 
equally  important  subject. 

For  all  practical  purposes  the 
movement  has  received  its  momen- 
tum and  direction  from  the  Liturgi- 
cal Arts  Society,  This  organiza- 
tion was  founded  in  1930  "to  sup- 
ply the  Catholic  clergy  expert  ad- 
vice and  guidance  not  merely  on 
the  esthetic  and  liturgical  factors 
of  their  church  buildings  and  altar 
vessels  and  vestments,  but  also, 
even  more  important,  on  the  purely 
business  aspects  of  these  affairs." 
It  is  a  society  which  views  the 
liturgy  as  fundamental  in  Catholic 
life  and  seeks  to  provide  the  best 
possible  information  on  the  correct 
expression  of  the  liturgy  through 
art.  Its  members  are  lay  and  cleric 
alike  —  architects,  sculptors,  silver- 
smiths, painters,  wood-carvers,  pas- 
tors, bishops  and  archbishops  —  all 
these  men  of  the  Church  are  de- 
voted to  the  effort  to  realize  the 
potentialities  of  liturgical  art  as  a 
means  to  renew  all  things  in  Christ. 
The  society  publishes  a  quarterly, 
"Liturgical  Arts."  The  magazine  is 
"an  organized  medium  of  education 
in  artistic-liturgical  matters." 
CONGRESSES 


Eucharistic  Congresses  are  gatherings  of  the  clergy  and  laity  for  the 
purpose  of  glorifying  the  Holy  Eucharist  by  public  adoration  and  general 
Communions  and  for  the  discussion  of  means  to  increase  devotion  to 
Our  Lord  in  the  Blessed  Sacrament  throughout  the  world.  They  may  be 
national  or  international.  The  first  congress  owed  its  inspiration  to 
Bishop  de  Segur  of  Lille,  France.  Since  then  the  international  Eucha- 
ristic Congresses  have  been  as  tollows: 

Lille,  France    1881      Metz,  Lorraine 1907 

Avignon,  France   1882 

Liege,  Belgium   1883 

Freiburg,    Switzerland    1885 

Toulouse,  France 1886 

Paris,  France 1888 

Antwerp,  Belgium    1890 

Jerusalem,  Palestine   1893 


Reims,  France 1894 

Paray-le-Monial,  France   ....  1897 

Brussels,  Belgium 1898 

Lourdes,  France    1899 

Angers,  France  . . 1901 

Namur,  Belgium    1902 

Angouleme,  France    1904 

Rome,  Italy 1905 

Tournai,  Belgium   1906 


London,  England 1908 

Cologne,  Germany 1909 

Montreal,  Canada 1910 

Madrid,  Spain   1911 

Vienna,   Austria 1912 

Malta    1913 

Lourdes,  France    1914 

Rome,  Italy 1922 

Amsterdam,  Holland   1924 

Chicago,  United  States  . .     . .  1926 

Sydney,  Australia 1928 

Carthage,  Tunis    1930 

Dublin,  Ireland    193? 

Buenos  Aires,  Argentina  1934 

Manila,  Philippine  Islands 193? 

Budapest,  Hungary 


217 


International  Eucharistic  Congresses  are  now  held  approximately  every 
two  years.  The  35th  International  Congress  which  was  to  have  been  held 
at  Nice,  France,  in  1940,  was  indefinitely  postponed  because  of  the  war. 

National  Eucharistic  Congresses  are  held  in  many  nations  every  few 
years.  In  the  United  States,  Eucharistic  Congresses  have  been  held  in 
Washington,  D.  C.  (1895),  St.  Louis  (1901),  New  York  (1904),  Pittsburgh 
(1907),  Cincinnati  (1911),  Omaha  (1930),  Cleveland  (1935),  New  Orleans 
(1938),  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis  (1941). 

The  Ninth  National  Eucharistic  Congress  of  the  United  States  was  held 
in  the  Twin  Cities  of  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis,  June  23-26,  1941.  An 
estimated  quarter  of  a  million  Catholics  participated  in  the  great  tribute 
to  "Our  Eucharistic  King  glorified  by  Sacrifice."  That  was  the  theme  of 
the  conclave  in  which  113  archbishops  and  bishops  of  the  United  States 
took  part  and  at  which  many  members  of  the  neighboring  hierarchy  were 
present.  The  host  to  the  Congress  was  the  Most  Rev.  John  Gregory  Mur- 
ray, Archbishop  of  St.  Paul. 

His  Holiness,  Pope  Pius  XII,  was  present  in  the  person  of  his  Legate 
a  latere,  His  Eminence  Dennis  Cardinal  Dougherty,  Archbishop  of  Phila- 
delphia. In  a  direct  message  broadcast  by  radio  from  the  Vatican  to  the 
Congress  the  Holy  Father  stressed  the  importance  of  sacrifice  as  the 
sole  way  to  escape  the  "current  of  black  paganism  sweeping  our  people 
today."  On  the  completion  of  his  address  the  Pontiff  conferred  the  Apos- 
tolic Blessing  upon  the  pilgrims  and  upon  the  faithful  of  America.  Cardi- 
nal Dougherty  gave  three  memorable  addresses  to  the  congress  in  the 
capacity  of  Papal  Legate.  His  Eminence  extolled  Archbishop  Murray  and 
the  Catholics  and  citizens  of  the  Twin  Cities  for  their  hospitality,  and 
reechoed  the  Pope's  plea  for  individual  sacrifices. 

The  classical  text  of  St.  Paul  in  his  Epistle  to  the  Colossians  (1:24) 
"I  now  rejoice  in  my  sufferings  and  fill  up  those  things  that  are  wanting 
of  the  sufferings  of  Christ  in  my  flesh  for  His  Body  which  is  the  Church," 
and  the  encyclical  of  Pope  Pius  XI,  "Miserentissimus  Redemptor,"  were 
the  bases  of  discussion  in  twenty-five  sectional  meetings.  The  meetings 
were  divided  according 'to  occupations  in  life.  At  each  of  these  a  paper 
was  presented  by  a  member  of  the  hierarchy  devoted  to  a  particular  appli- 
cation of  the  life  of  sacrifice  to  the  specific  group.  The  remainder  of  the 
time  was  devoted  to  a  discussion  under  the  leadership  of  the  hierarchy, 
in  which  a  practical  application  of  sacrifice  was  attained  by  each  group. 

Seventy-five  prelates  participated  in  the  sectional  meetings  which  were 
organized  for  the  following  groups:  clergy,  seminarians,  catechists,  par- 
ents, women,  Holy  Name  men,  professional  men,  employers,  employees, 
charity  workers,  nurses,  enlisted  men,  public  servants,  college  teachers, 
secondary  school  teachers,  grade  school  teachers,  journalists,  rural  work- 
ers, senior  and  junior  youth  groups. 

At  the  Congress  four  Pontifical  High  Masses  were  offered  along  with 
hundreds  of  low  Masses,  in  the  Maronite  and  Byzantine-Slavic  rites  as 
well  as  in  the  Roman.  Eight  holy  hours  were  conducted.  On  June  24, 
a  midnight  Mass  for  men  was  celebrated  by  Most  Rev.  Amleto  Cicognani, 
Apostolic  Delegate,  at  which  100  priests  distributed  Holy  Communion  to 
75,000  men.  About  the  same  number  of  children  received  Holy  Com- 
munion at  the  Mass  of  the  following  morning.  A  day  later  100,000  adults 
of  both  sexes  received  the  Blessed  Sacrament. 

The  Congress  came  to  a  fitting  conclusion  as  80,000  faithful  accompanied 
the  Blessed  Sacrament  in  Drocession  to  the  site  of  the  final  Benediction. 
In  a  glass-enclosed  altar  Cardinal  Dougherty  gave  the  Benediction,  as  a 
torrential  downpour  of  rain  failed  to  dampen  the  ardor  of  the  thousands 
who  knelt  in  the  mud  adoring  their  "Eucharistic  Lord  glorified  by 
Sacrifice," 

218 


PRINCIPAL  FEASTS 
Arranged  In  Chronological  Order 


The  Circumcision  is  a  feast  in 
memory  of  the  day  upon  which  Our 
Lord  was  circumcised  according  to 
the  Jewish  law  and  received  the 
adorable  name  of  Jesus,  brought 
down  from  heaven  and  made 
known  to  the  Blessed  Virgin  by  the 
Angel  Gabriel.  It  is  commemorated 
on  the  eighth  day  after  Christmas, 
and  is  a  very  ancient  one.  In  the 
sixth  century  the  Church  made  it  a 
solemn  feast,  in  order  to  atone  in 
some  way  for  the  crimes  committed 
by  the  pagans  on  that  day,  which 
is  the  first  in  the  year,  and  is  con- 
sequently called  New  Year's  Day. 

The  Epiphany  is  a  feast  observed 
January  6,  in  honor  of  Christ's 
manifestation  to  the  Gentiles,  rep- 
resented by  the  Three  Kings  of  the 
East,  who  guided  by  a  miraculous 
star,  came  to  adore  Him,  It  al- 
so commemorates  the  baptism  of 
Christ  and  the  miracle  of  the  mar- 
riage feast  of  Cana.  It  is  some- 
times called  Twelfth  Night,  as  it 
comes  twelve  days  after  Christmas. 

The  Purification,  on  February  2, 
is  a  feast  in  honor  of  (1)  the  Puri- 
fication of  the  Blessed  Virgin  in 
the  Temple  of  Jerusalem,  and  (2) 
the  Presentation  of  our  Lord  on 
the  same  occasion,  according  to  the 
law  of  Moses.  This  feast  is  also 
called  Candlemas,  because  candles 
are  blessed  before  the  Mass  of  this 
day  and  carried  in  solemn  proces- 
sion by  the  faithful  while  the  choir 
sings  the  canticle  of  the  highpriest 
Simeon:  "A  light  to  the  revelation 
of  the  Gentiles,  and  the  glory  of 
His  people  Israel."  This  procession 
represents  the  entry  of  Christ  Who 
is  the  Light  of  the  World  into  the 
Temple  of  Jerusalem. 

Ash  Wednesday  is*  a  day  of  pub- 
lic penance,  and  is  so  called  from 
the  ceremony  of  blessing  ashes  on 
that  day,  with  which  the  priest 
signs  the  people  with  a  cross  on 
their  foreheads,  at  the  same  time 
saying,  "Remember,  man,  thou  art 
of  dust,  and  to  dust  thou  shalt  re- 
turn." Lent  begins  with  this  day. 


The  Annunciation,  on  March  25, 
is  a  feast  in  memory  of  the  Angel 
Gabriel  being  sent  to  the  Blessed 
Virgin,  at  Nazareth,  to  announce  to 
her  that  she  was  to  be  the  Mother 
of  God. 

Palm  Sunday  is  the  Sunday  im- 
mediately preceding  Easter  Sun- 
day, commemorating  our  Lord's 
triumphant  entry  into  Jerusalem. 
It  receives  its  name  from  the  palm 
branches  which  the  people  threw 
under  the  feet  of  Jesus,  crying  out, 
"Hosanna  to  the  Son  of  David."  On 
this  day  palms  are  blessed  and  dis- 
tributed to  the  faithful. 

Maundy  Thursday,  or  Holy  Thurs- 
day, occurs  in  Holy  Week  and 
commemorates  the  institution  of 
the  Holy  Eucharist  by  our  Lord  at 
the  Last  Supper  the  night  before 
He  died.  There  is  only  one  Mass 
in  each  church  on  this  day,*  white 
vestments  are  used  because  of  the 
joyful  commemoration,  but  at  the 
same  time  there  are  certain  signs 
of  the  mourning  proper  to  Hoty 
Week,  such  as  the  silencing  of  the 
bells.  The  celebrant  consecrates 
two  Hosts,  one  of  which  he  re- 
ceives, while  the  other  is  placed  in 
a  chalice  and  carried  in  solemn 
procession  to  an  altar  prepared  for 
Its  reception  called  the  Altar  of 
Repose  or  Repository.  Here  It  re- 
mains for  the  adoration  of  the 
faithful  until  Good  Friday  when  It 
is  taken  back  to  the  high  altar  and 
received  by  the  priest  at  the  Com- 
munion in  the  Mass  of  the  Pre- 
sanctified.  After  the  procession  of 
the  Blessed  Sacrament  on  Holy 
Thursday,  the  altars  are  stripped 
to  remind  us  of  the  way  our  Lord 
was  stripped  of  His  garments. 
Then  follows  the  washing  of  the 
feet,  known  as  the  "Mandatum" 
from  the  first  word  of  the  antiphon 
recited  during  the  ceremony; 
whence  the  name  "Maundy"  Thurs- 
day. 

Good  Friday  commemorates  the 
Passion  and  Crucifixion  of  our 
Lord.  It  has  been  a  day  of  fasting 


219 


and  penance  from  the  earliest  ages 
of  the  Church,  and  the  liturgy  is  in 
every  way  of  an  exceptional  char- 
acter, befitting  the  day  of  the  Great 
Atonement.  Black  vestments  are 
worn,  the  altar  is  covered  only  by 
a  single  linen  cloth  and  there  are 
no  lights.  The  distinctive  feature 
is  the  Mass  of  the  Presanctified 
said  on  this  day,  in  which  there  is 
no  Consecration,  the  Host  having 
been  consecrated  in  the  Mass  the 
day  before.  The  service  consists  of: 
(1)  lessons  from  Holy  Scripture 
and  prayers,  terminating  with  the 
chanting  of  the  Passion;  (2) 
solemn  supplication  for  all  condi- 
tions of  men;  (3)  veneration  of  the 
Holy  Cross;  (4)  procession  of  the 
Blessed  Sacrament  from  the  Re- 
pository and  the  priest's  Commun- 
ion, or  the  Mass  of  the  Presancti- 
fied proper. 

Holy  Saturday  is  the  day  before 
Easter.  During  the  twelfth  century 
the  custom  of  anticipating  the  vigil 
Office  was  creeping  in.  Now  the 
time  has  been  changed  but  the 
words  of  the  Office  remain  the 
same.  This  explains  the  joyous 
character  of  the  Mass,  and  the  fact 
that  the  history  of  the  Resurrec- 
tion is  sung  in  the  Gospel.  The 
ceremonies  begin  early  in  the 
morning  with  the  blessing  of  the 
new  fire  and  the  Paschal  Candle, 
which  is  followed  by  the  reading 
of  the  twelve  prophecies.  The 
priest  then  goes  in  procession  to 
bless  the  font,  and  the  water  is 
scattered  toward  the  four  quarters 
of  the  world  to  indicate  the  catho- 
olicity  of  the  Church  and  the  world- 
wide efficacy  of  her  sacraments. 
Solemn  High  Mass  is  then  sung, 
white  vestments  are  used,  flowers 
and  candles  set  upon  the  altar, 
statues  unveiled,  the  organ  is  heard 
and  the  bells,  silent  since  Holy 
Thursday,  are  joyfully  rung.  Lent 
ends  officially  at  noon  on  this  day. 

The  Resurrection  or  Easter  Sun- 
day commemorates  our  Lord's  ris- 
ing from  the  dead  by  His  own 
power  on  the  third  day  after  His 
Crucifixion,  and  occurs  on  the  first 


Sunday  after  the  first  full  moon 
after  the  vernal  equinox,  or  March 
21.  It  is  named  from  "Oriens," 
which  signifies  the  "East**  or  "Ris- 
ing," and  is  one  of  the  titles  of 
Christ:  "And  His  name  shall  be 
called  'Oriens.' " 

The  Invention  or  Finding  of  the 
Holy  Cross  is  a  feast  established 
in  memory  of  the  miraculous  cross 
which  appeared  to  Constantine  A. 
D.  312,  and  of  the  finding  of  the 
true  Cross  by  St.  Helena  A.  D.  326, 
after  it  had  been  hidden  and  buried 
by  the  infidels  for  180  years.  This 
feast  is  observed  on  May  3. 

The  Patronage  of  St.  Joseph,  on 
the  third  Wednesday  after  Easter, 
honors  St.  Joseph  as  the  patron  of 
the  Universal  Church. 

The  Ascension,  on  the  fortieth 
day  after  Easter,  commemorates 
our  Lord's  Ascension  into  heaven 
from  the  top  of  Mount  Olivet,  in 
the  presence  of  His  Blessed  Mother 
and  His  Apostles  and  disciples. 

Pentecost  is  a  solemn  feast  on  the 
fiftieth  day  after  Easter  in  honor 
of  the  descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
upon  the  apostles,  in  the  form  of 
fiery  tongues.  The  word  "Pente- 
cost" means  "fiftieth."  The  time 
from  Easter  to  Trinity  Sunday  is 
the  Paschal  time,  which  is  a  joyous 
preparation  for  this  feast.  It  is  also 
called  Whitsunday,  from  the  white 
garb  of  the  catechumens,  who  were 
admitted  to  baptism  on  the  eve  of 
this  feast. 

Trinity  Sunday  is  the  first  Sun- 
day after  Pentecost,  and  is  a  day 
on  which  the  Church  honors  in  an 
especial  manner  One  God  in  Three 
Divine  Persons. 

Corpus  Christi  is  a  feast  on  the 
Thursday  after  Trinity  Sunday,  in 
honor  of  the  -Body  and  Blood  of 
Christ,  really  present  in  the  Most 
Holy  Sacrament  of  the  Eucharist. 
The  observance  of  this  feast  was 
extended  to  the  Universal  Church 
by  Urban  IV  in  1264.  It  was  estab- 
lished in  order  to  assist  in  making 
reparation  for  the  sins  committed 
against  our  Lord  in  the  Blessed 


220 


Sacrament  and  to  reanimate  the 
devotion  of  Christians  toward  the 
adorable  Mystery. 

The  Feast  of  the  Sacred  Heart, 
on  the  Friday  after  the  Octave  of 
Corpus  Christi,  is  a  day  on  which 
we  honor  the  Heart  of  Jesus  as  a 
symbol  of  His  love  for  us  and  ren- 
der love  to  Him.  The  feast  was 
extended  to  the  Universal  Church 
in  1856  and  raised  to  the  highest 
rank  in  1929.  An  act  of  reparation 
is  recited  in  all  churches  on  that 
day. 

The  Feast  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul, 
on  June  29,  honors  the  Prince  of 
the  Apostles,  and  the  great  Apostle 
of  the  Gentiles,  who  were  both 
martyred  on  this  day  at  Rome.  St. 
Peter  was  crucified  with  his  head 
downwards,  as  he  felt  himself  un- 
worthy to  die  in  the  same  manner 
and  posture  as  his  Divine  Master. 
St.  Paul,  being  a  Roman  citizen, 
was  beheaded. 

The  Precious  B!ood  is  a  feast 
established  by  Pius  IX  and  cele- 
brated on  July  1,  in  honor  of  the 
Blood  of  our  Saviour  shed  for  the 
redemption  of  mankind. 

The  Visitation  is  celebrated  on 
July  2,  in  memory  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin's  visit  to  her  cousin  St. 
Elizabeth.  This  feast  was  estab- 
lished by  Pope  Urban  VI,  and  was 
afterwards  extended  to  the  whole 
Church,  in  the  fourteenth  century, 
by  Pope  Boniface  IX. 

The  Assumption,  on  August  15, 
commemorates  the  Blessed  Virgin's 
being  taken  up,  soul  and  body,  into 
heaven,  after  her  death. 

The  Nativity  of  the  Blessed  Vir- 
gin is  a  feast  in  honor  of  her  birth, 
and  is  kept  on  September  8.  It  is 
of  very  ancient  origin. 

The  Exaltation  of  the  Holy  Cross 
is  a  feast  established  in  the  sev- 
enth century  in  memory  of  the  ex- 
altation or  setting  up  of  the  Cross 
by  Heraclitus  the  emperor,  who  re- 
gained it  from  the  Persians.  He 
carried  it  on  his  own  shoulders  to 
Mount  Calvary.  This  feast  is  ob- 
served on  September  14. 


Michaelmas,  on  September  29,  is 
a  feast  in  honor  of  St.  Michael, 
prince  of  the  heavenly  host,  who 
remained  faithful  to  God  and  de- 
feated Lucifer  and  the  apostate  an- 
gels in  the  great  battle  fought  in 
heaven  in  defense  of  God's  honor. 

The  Feast  of  Christ  the  King, 
instituted  by  Pius  XI,  is  celebrated 
on  the  last  Sunday  in  October  to 
give  public  homage  to  Christ  the 
Ruler  of  the  World.  The  conse- 
cration of  the  world  to  the  Sacred 
Heart  is  yearly  renewed  on  this 
day. 

The  Feast  of  Ail  Saints,  on  No- 
vember 1,  was  established  at  Rome 
by  Pope  Boniface  IV.  On  this  day 
we  honor  all  the  saints,  especially 
those  who  have  no  fixed  festivals 
during  the  year. 

All  Souls'  Day,  on  November  2, 
is  a  day  set  apart  by  the  Church 
to  pray  for  all  the  faithful  departed 
in  purgatory.  The  clergy  recite  the 
Office  of  the  Dead,  and  by  a  decree 
of  Benedict  XV  all  priests  may  say 
three  Masses:  one  for  the  souls 
in  Purgatory,  one  for  the  inten- 
tion of  the  Pope,  and  one  for  the 
priests. 

The  Presentation  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  is  a  feast  commemorating 
her  presentation  in  the  Temple  of 
Jerusalem  at  the  age  of  three  by 
her  parents  St.  Joachim  and  St. 
Anne.  It  is  observed  on  Novem- 
ber 21. 

The  Immaculate  Conception  is  a 
feast  commemorating  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  Blessed  Virgin  from  the 
stain  of  original  sin  from  the  mo- 
ment of  her  conception.  It  is  the 
patronal  feast  of  the  United  States, 
observed  December  8. 

The  Nativity  is  a  solemn  feast 
observed  December  25,  commemo- 
rating the  birth  of  Christ.  It  is  also 
called  Christmas  from  the  Mass  of 
the  birth  of  Christ.  On  this  day 
priests  are  allowed  to  say  three 
Masses  in  honor  of  the  three  births 
of  our  Lord:  (1)  His  eternal  birth 
in  the  bosom  of  His  Father,  (2) 
His  temporal  birth  in  the  stable 
at  Bethlehem,  (3)  His  spiritual 
birth  in  the  hearts  of  the  just. 


221 


PRINCIPAL    DEVOTIONS 


The  Stations  of  the  Cross  is  a 
devotional  exercise  instituted  as  a 
means  of  helping  us  to  meditate 
on  and  have  sympathy  for  the  suf- 
ferings of  our  Divine  Lord.  The 
early  Christians  had  the  deepest 
love  and  veneration  for  those 
places  made  sacred  by  the  suffer- 
ings and  presence  of  Jesus  Christ. 
Devout  pilgrims  went  to  the  Holy 
Land  from  the  farthest  parts  of 
the  earth,  to  visit  Jerusalem,  the 
Garden  of  Olives  and  Mount  Cal- 
vary. To  encourage  the  piety  and 
devotion  of  her  children,  the 
Church  granted  many  and  great  in- 
dulgences to  those  who  with  true 
sorrow  visited  the  scenes  of  our 
Lord's  Passion.  Unable,  through 
various  causes,  to  share  in  this  de- 
votion, as  well  as  the  spiritual 
blessings  attached  to  it,  were  many 
who  wished  to  do  so.  Therefore,  the 
Church  sanctioned  the  establish- 
ment in  churches  of  the  Stations 
of  the  Cross,  which  represent  four- 
teen scenes  from  the  Passion  of 
our  Lord,  To  this  devotion  are 
granted:  (a)  one  plenary  indul- 
gence as  often  as  one  makes  the 
Way  of  the  Cross  in  some  church 
or  place  where  it  is  legitimately 
erected;  (b)  another  plenary  indul- 
gence if  on  the  day  when  one 
makes  the  Way  of  the  Cross  one 
receives  Holy  Communion,  or  once 
a  month  on  the  day  on  which  one 
receives  Holy  Communion,  if  one 
has  made  the  Way  of  the  Cross 
ten  times  during  the  month. 

The  Three  Hours'  Agony  is  a  de- 
votion practised  on  G-ood  Friday, 
in  memory  of  the  three  hours  our 
Lord  hung  upon  the  Cross.  It  be- 
gins at  twelve  o'clock,  the  hour 
our  Lord  was  nailed  to  the  Cross, 
includes  prayers,  hymns  and  medi- 
tations upon  His  sufferings  and 
His  seven  last  words,  and  ends  at 
three  o'clock,  the  hour  at  which 
He  died. 

The  Sacred  Heart  —  We  owe  the 

Sacred  Heart  of  our  Lord  the  same 
worship  we  owe  to  His  humanity 
for  it  is  personally  united  to  His 
divinity.  By  practising  this  devo- 


tion we  honor  the  infinite  love  of 
the  Heart  of  Jesus  for  all  man- 
kind, and  in  some  measure  repair 
the  outrages  to  which  He  is  ex- 
posed in  the  Blessed  Sacrament. 
This  devotion  was  revealed  to  St. 
Margaret-Mary  Alacoque  at  the  Visi- 
tation monastery  of  Paray-le-Monial, 
France,  in  the  seventeenth  century. 
The  feast  is  celebrated  on  the  third 
Friday  after  Pentecost.  The  Holy 
Hour  and  the  Communion  of  Repa- 
ration on  the  First  Friday  of  each 
month  are  special  manifestations  of 
this  devotion.  Our  Lord  promised 
the  "grace  of  final  perseverance"  to 
those  who  receive  Communion  on 
nine  consecutive  First  Fridays. 

The  Five  Wounds—We  honor  the 
five  Sacred  Wounds  of  our  Lord, 
and  have  devotion  to  them,  because 
they  are  the  channels  through  which 
the  Precious  Blood  flowed  for  our 
redemption.  This  feast  is  observed 
on  the  third  Friday  in  Lent. 

The  Precious  Blood  —  We  honor 
the  Precious  Blood  of  our  Lord, 
and  have  devotion  to  It,  because  It 
is  the  price  of  our  redemption,  for 
our  salvation  is  due  to  the  merits 
of  Jesus  Christ  Who  shed  His 
Blood  for  us.  This  feast  is  cele- 
brated on  the  fourth  Friday  in 
Lent  and  a  second  commemoration 
is  on  July  1. 

The  Forty  Hours'  Adoration  is  a 
most  solemn  form  of  exposition  of 
the  Blessed  Sacrament.  This  de- 
votion was  first  instituted  in  Milan 
in  1534,  and  received  the  formal 
sanction  of  Pope  Clement  VIII  in 
1592.  It  begins  and  ends  with  a 
High  Mass  and  procession  and  the 
Litany  of  the  Saints. 

Benediction  is  a  short  exposition 
of  the  Blessed  Sacrament  which 
takes  place  sometimes  after  Mass 
but  usually  after  Vespers  or  as  an 
evening  service.  At  the  close  of 
the  exposition,  following  the  sing- 
ing of  the  "Tantum  Ergo,"  the 
priest  makes  the  sign  of  the  cross 
with  the  Blessed  Sacrament  over 
the  people. 

Vespers  and  Compline  form  a 
part  of  the  Divine  Office  which  all 


222 


priests  are  obliged  to  say  every 
day,  and  which  is  divided  into  sev- 
en hours  or  portions  to  be  said  at 
certain  hours.  Of  these  the  evening 
hours  are  called  Vespers,  which 
means  "evening,"  and  Compline, 
which  means  "finishing,"  because  it 
finishes  the  Office  for  the  day. 

The  order  of  Vespers  is  as  fol- 
lows: (1)  five  psalms,  with  anti- 
phons;  (2)  the  capitulum,  or  little 
chapter;  (3)  a  hymn;  (4)  versicle 
and  response;  (5)  the  Magnificat, 
with  its  antiphon;  (6)  the  prayer; 
(7)  conclusion,  after  which  comes 
an  anthem  to  the  Blessed  Virgin. 
Of  these  anthems  there  are  four, 
which  are  taken  in  turn  according 
to  the  season. 

The  order  of  Compline  is  as  fol- 
lows: (1)  three  psalms  with  an  an- 
tiphon; (2)  a  hymn  "Te  Lucis  ante 
Terminum";  (3)  a  little  chapter, 
with  responses;  (4)  the  canticle  of 
Holy  Simeon,  the  "Nunc  Dimittis"; 
(5)  the  prayer,  "Visita,  Quaesu- 
mus";  (6)  one  of  the  four  anthems 
used  at  Vespers. 

The  Angelus  is  a  devotion  in 
honor  of  the  Incarnation  of  Jesus 
Christ.  It  consists  of  three  versi- 
cles  or  little  verses,  each  followed 
by  a  "Hail  Mary,"  and  concludes 
with  a  special  prayer.  This  devo- 
tion reminds  us  of  how  the  mystery 
of  our  Lord's  coming  into  this 
world  was  made  known  to  Mary, 
and  how,  on  her  giving  her  assent 
to  be  the  Mother  of  God,  the  In- 
carnation actually  took  place.  It 
receives  its  name  from  the  word 
with  which  it  commences. 

The  Rosary  is  a  form  of  prayer 
in  honor  of  our  Lady  made  up  of 
a  series  of  ten  "Hail  Marys"  or 
decades,  each  beginning  with  an 
"Our  Father"  and  ending  with  a 
"Glory  Be  to  the  Father."  The 
complete  rosary  is  made  up  of  fif- 
teen decades  and  each  five  decades 
is  devoted  to  meditation  on  certain 
mysteries:  joyful,  sorrowful  and 
glorious.  These  mysteries  com- 
memorate some  event  either  in  the 
life  of  our  Lord  or  in  that  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin.  This  devotion  was 
revealed  by  our  Lady  to  St.  Dom- 


inic in  the  thirteenth  century  when 
he  was  preaching  to  the  Albigenses 
in  France.  Rosary  beads  have  been 
devised  to  aid  us  in  counting  the 
prayers  without  distraction,  and 
the  usual  form  is  a  chaplet  of  five 
decades,  pendant  from  a  crucifix 
and  five  beads  on  which  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  rosary  are  said  the 
"Apostles'  Creed,"  one  "Our  Fa- 
ther," three  "Hail  Marys"  and  one 
"Glory  be  to  the  Father,"  and  con- 
nected by  a  medallion  usually  bear- 
ing the  image  of  the  Blessed  Virgin, 
on  which  at  the  completion  of  the 
rosary  a  "Hail,  Holy  Queen"  is  said. 
A  plenary  indulgence  is  granted  to 
all  who  after  confession  and  Holy 
Communion  say  five  decades  of  the 
rosary  in  a  church  or  chapel  where 
the  Blessed  Sacrament  is  reserved. 
A  feast  has  been  instituted  in 
honor  of  the  Most  Holy  Rosary,  on 
the  seventh  day  of  October,  and  the 
whole  month  is  dedicated  to  it. 

The  Scapular  consists  of  two 
square  pieces  of  woolen  stuff, 
joined  to  each  other  by  two  strings, 
so  that  one  piece  may  hang  over 
the  breast  and  the  other  over  the 
back  of  the  wearer.  It  represents 
the  habit  of  dress  of  a  religious 
order.  The  scapular  must  be 
blessed  and  put  on  each  person  in 
due  form,  by  those  who  have  the 
right  of  investiture  with  it.  If  the 
scapular  is  worn  out,  or  lost,  it  may 
be  replaced  and  worn  with  the 
same  advantages  and  privileges  as 
the  first  without  a  new  blessing. 
This  does  not  apply  to  the  scapu- 
lar of  the  Blessed  Trinity  which 
must  be  blessed  every  time  it  is 
renewed.  The  scapulars  are  each 
made  of  a  different  colored  ma- 
terial, according  to  the  color  of  the 
religious  habit  they  represent,  such 
as  the  Brown  Scapular  of  the  Car- 
melites, or  a  color  appropriate  to 
the  special  devotion,  as  the  Red 
Scapular  of  the  Passion.  There  are 
seventeen  kinds  of  scapulars  in 
popular  use.  (See  page  168.) 

By  regulation  of  the  Holy  Office, 
December  16,  1910,  it  is  permitted 
to  wear  a  medal  of  metal  in  place 
of  one  or  more  of  the  small  scapu- 
lars. The  scapular  medal  has  on 


223 


one  side  a  representation  of  the 
Sacred  Heart  and  on  the  other  an 
image  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.  These 
medals,  now  in  general  use,  must 
be  blessed  by  a  priest  who  has 
power  to  invest  with  the  scapular 
which  the  medal  represents. 

Large  scapulars  are  worn  by  re- 
ligious and  members  of  the  third 
orders  for  the  laity,  such  as  that  of 
the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

The  Miraculous  Medal  devotion 
owes  its  origin  to  apparitions  ac- 
corded in  1830  to  Blessed  Catherine 
Laboure,  a  Sister  of  the  Daughters 
of  Charity  of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul. 
When  the  Blessed  Virgin  appeared 
to  the  Sister,  she  was  standing  on 
a  globe,  and  from  her  hands  were 
emitted  rays  of  dazzling  light:  a 
"symbol  of  the  graces  I  shed  upon 
those  who  ask,  for  them."  Around 
the  figure  appeared  an  oval  frame 
bearing  in  gold  letters  the  inscrip- 
tion: "0  Mary,  conceived  without 
sin,  pray  for  us  who  have  recourse 
to  thee."  The  vision  reversed  and 
Sister  Catherine  beheld  the  letter 
M  surmounted  by  a  cross  with  a 
crossbar  beneath  it  and  under  all 
the  Sacred  Hearts  of  Jesus  and 
Mary.  A  command  was  given  to 
have  a  medal  modeled  like  the  ap- 
parition, and  great  graces  were 
promised  to  all  who  would  wear 
such  a  medal.  The  first  medal  was 


struck  in  1832,  with  ecclesiastic  ap- 
probation, and  the  devotion  spread 
rapidly.  So  extraordinary  were  the 
favors  received  that  the  medal  soon 
became  known  as  the  "Miraculous 
Medal."  The  feast  of  the  Miracu- 
lous Medal  is  celebrated  on  No- 
vember 27.  Various  indulgences 
may  be  gained  by  those  who  wear 
the  medal,  provided  it  be  blessed 
by  a  priest  having  proper  faculties ; 
other  indulgences  can  be  gained 
only  by  those  who  have  been  in- 
vested in  the  medal.  Miraculous 
Medal  devotions  are  now  held  in 
many  parish  churches  throughout 
the  United  States.  The  Central  As- 
sociation of  the  Miraculous  Medal 
is  located  at  100  E.  Price  St.,  Ger- 
mantown,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Mother  of  Sorrows  devotion  is  a 
popular  novena  devotion  to  the  Sor- 
rows of  Our  Lady,  held  in  many 
churches  every  Friday  of  the  year. 
It  consists  in  the  recitation  of  ap- 
proved prayers,  a  sermon  on  the 
Blessed  Virgin,  the  Via  Matris  and 
Benediction  of  the  Most  Blessed 
Sacrament.  The  Via  Matris,  or 
Stations  of  the  Cross  of  Our  Sor- 
rowful Mother,  represent  the  Seven 
Sorrows  of  the  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary.  Upon  application  to  the  Fa- 
ther General  of  the  Servite  Fathers 
these  Stations  may  be  canonically 
erected  in  any  church. 


THIRD 

Affiliated  with  certain  religious 
orders  and  sharing  in  their  good 
works  are  associations  of  the  laity 
called  third  orders  secular  and  com- 
munities of  religious  known  as 
third  orders  regular.  Permission 
of  the  Holy  See  to  establish  third 
orders  has  been  granted  to  the 
Augustinians,  Carmelites,  Domini- 
cans, Friars  Minor,  Marists,  Mi- 
nims, Premonstratensians,  Servites, 
and  Trinitarians.  The  members  are 
called  tertiaries. 

The  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis 
is  the  largest  of  the  eight  tertiary 
bodies  represented  in  the  United 
States.  These  are: 

1.  The  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

2.  The  Third  Order  of  St.  Dominic. 


ORDERS 

3.  The  Third  Order  of  St.  Augus- 
tine. 

4.  The  Third  Order  of  Servites. 

5.  The  Third  Order  of  Our  Lady  of 
Mount  Carmel, 

6.  The  Third  Order  of  Premonstra- 
tensians  or  Norbertines. 

7.  The  Oblates  of  St.  Benedict. 

8.  The  Pious  Union  of  Salesian  Co- 
operators. 

9.  The  Third  Order  of  the  Society 
of  Mary. 

The  Oblates  of  St.  Benedict  are 
not,  strictly  speaking,  a  third  or- 
der, for  St.  Benedict  wrote  but  one 
rule  for  all  his  children  to  follow. 
However,  they  have  a  rule  of  life 
which  resembles  those  of  the  va- 
rious tertiaries,  and  may  be  classi- 
fied with  them. 


224 


PATRON    SAINTS  AND   THEIR    FEAST   DAYS 


Actors  —  St.  Genesius,  Aug.  25. 
Alpinists  —  St.     Bernard    of    Men- 

thon,  May  28. 
Altar  Boys  —  St.  John  Berchmans, 

Aug.  13. 

Archers  —  St.  Sebastian,  Jan.  20. 
Architects  —  St.    Thomas    Apostle, 

Dec.   21;    St.   Barbara,  Dec.   4. 
Armorers  —  St.  Dunstan,  May  19. 
Art  —  St.    Catherine    of    Bologna, 

March  9. 

Artillerymen  —  St.  Barbara,  Dec.  4. 
Artists  — St.  Luke,  Oct.  18. 
Astronomers  —  St.  Dominic,  Aug.  4. 
Automobilists  —  St.    Christopher, 

July  25. 
Aviators — Our  Lady  of  Loreto,  Dec. 

10;  St.  Therese  of  Lisieux,  Oct.  3. 
Bakers  —  St.  Elizabeth  of  Hungary, 

Nov.   19;    St.  Nicholas   of  Myra, 

Dec.  6. 

Bankers  —  St.  Matthew,  Sept.  21. 
Barbers  —  SS.  Cosmas  and  Damian, 

Sept.  27. 
Barren    Women  —  St.    Anthony    of 

Padua,  June  13. 

Basket-makers  —  St.    Anthony,   Ab- 
bot, Jan.  17. 

Beggars  —  St.  Alexius,  July  17. 
Belt-makers  —  St.  Alexius,  July  17. 
Blacksmiths  —  St.  Dunstan,  May  19. 
Bookbinders  —  St.  Peter  Celestine, 

May  19. 
Booksellers  —  St.     John     of     God, 

March  8. 

Boy  Scouts  —  St.  George,  April  23. 
Brewers  —  St.  Arnuf  of  Metz,  July 

18;  St.  Augustine  of  Hippo,  Aug. 

28;   St.  Luke,  Oct.  18;   St.  Nich- 
olas of  Myra,  Dec.  6. 
Brush-makers  —  St.    Anthony,    Ab- 
bot, Jan.  17. 
Builders  —  St.    Vincent    Ferrer, 

April  5. 
Butchers  —  St.    Anthony,    Abbot, 

Jan.    17;    St.   Hadrian,   Sept.    8; 

St.   Luke,   Oct.   18. 
Cab-drivers  —  St.    Fiacre,   Aug.   30. 
Cabinet-makers — St.  Anne,  July  26. 
Canonists  —  St.  Raymond  of  Pena- 

fort,  Jan.  23. 

Carpenters  —  St.  Joseph,  March  19. 
Catechists  —  St.    Viator,    Oct.    21; 

St.    Charles    Borromeo,    Nov.    4; 

St.   Robert   Bellarmine,   May   13. 
Catholic    Action  —  St.    Francis    of 

Assisi,  Oct.  4. 


Chandlers  —  St.   Ambrose,   Dec.   7; 

St.  Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  Aug.  20. 
Charcoal   burners  —  St.   Alexander, 

Aug.   11;    St.  Maurus,  Jan.   15. 
Charitable   Societies  —  St.   Vincent 

de  Paul,  July  19. 

Clerics  —  St.  Gabriel  of  the  Sorrow- 
ful Mother,  Feb.  27. 
Cobblers  —  SS.    Crispin    and    Cris- 

pinian,  Oct.  25. 
Confessors  —  St.  John  Nepomucene, 

May  16. 

Comedians  —  St.  Vitus,  June  15. 
Cooks  —  St.  Lawrence,  Aug.  10;  St. 

Martha,   July   29. 
Coopers  —  St.    Nicholas    of    Myra, 

Dec.  6. 

Coppersmiths — St.  Maurus,  Jan.  15. 
Deaf — St.  Francis  de  Sales,  Jan.  29. 
Dentists  —  St.  Apollonia,  Feb.  9. 
Desperate  Situations  —  St.  Gregory 

of  Neocaesarea,  Nov.  17;  St.  Jude 

Thaddeus,   Oct.   28. 
Doctors  —  St.    Luke,    Oct.    18;    SS. 

Cosmas   and   Damian,   Sept.   27; 

St.   Rene   Goupil,    Sept.    26. 
Domestic    Animals  —  St.    Anthony, 

Abbot,  Jan.  17. 

Druggists  —  SS.  Cosmas  and  Dam- 
ian, Sept.  21;  St.  James  the  Less, 

May  1. 

Dyers — SS.MauriceandLydia,Aug.  3. 
Engineers — St.  Ferdinand  III,  May  30. 
Eucharistic  Associations  and  Con- 
gresses— St.  Pascal  Baylon,  May  17. 
Falsely  Accused  —  St.  Raymond 

Nonnatus,   Aug.    31. 
Farmers  —  St.    George,    April    23; 

St.    Isidore,    May    15. 
Farriers — St.  John  Baptist,  Aug.  29. 
Fire  Prevention  —  St.  Catherine  of 

Siena,  April  29. 
First    Communicants  —  St.   Imelda, 

May  12;  St.  Tarcisius,  Aug.  15. 
Fishermen  —  St.  Andrew,  Nov.  30. 
Florists  —  St.  Dorothy,  Feb.  6. 
Founders  —  St.   Barbara,  Dec.   4. 
Fullers* —  St.  Anastasius  the  Fuller, 

Sept.  7;  St.  James  the  Less,  May  11 
Funeral  Directors  —  St.   Joseph  of 

Arimathea,  March  17.  * 
Gardeners  —  St.    Dorothy,    Feb.    6; 

St.  Adalard,  Jan.  2;  St.  Tryphon, 

Nov.   10;    St.   Fiacre,  Aug.   30. 
Glass-workers  —  St.  Luke,  Oct.  18. 


225 


Goldsmiths  —  St.  Dunstan,  May  19; 

St.  Anastasius,  Sept.  7. 
Grave-diggers  and  Graveyards — St. 

Anthony,  Abbot,  Jan.  17. 
Greetings  —  St  Valentine,  Feb.  14. 
Grocers  —  St.  Michael,   Sept   29. 
Hatters  —  St.  Severus  of  Ravenna, 

Feb.  1;  St  James  the  Less,  May  1. 
Haymakers  —  SS.  Gervase  and  Pro- 

tase,  June  19. 
Hospitals  —  St  Camillas  de  Lellis, 

July  18;   St.  John  of  God,  March 

8;    St.   Jude    Thaddeus,    Oct.    28. 
Housewives  —  St  Anne,  July  26. 
Hunters  —  St  Hubert,  Nov.  3. 
Huntsmen — St.  Eustachius,  Sept.  20. 
Inn-keepers  —  St  Amand,  Feb.  6. 
Invalids  — St  Roch,  Aug.  17. 
Jewellers  —  St  Eligius,  Dec.  1. 
Journalists  —  St.  Francis  de  Sales, 

Jan.  29. 

Jurists  —  St   Catherine   of  Alexan- 
dria, Nov.  25. 

Knights  — St  Michael,   Sept.  29. 
Laborers  —  St  Isidore,  May  10;  St. 

James,  July  25. 
Lawyers  —  St.    Ivo,    May    19;     St. 

Geaesius,   Aug.    25. 
Learning  —  St.  Acca,  Nov.   27. 
Librarians  —  St.  Jerome,   Sept   30. 
Locksmiths  —  St.  Dunstan,  May  19. 
Lovers— -St  Raphael,  Oct.  24. 
Maids  — St  Margaret,  July  20;   St. 

Zita,  April  27. 
Marble-workers  —  St.     Clement     I, 

Nov.  23. 
Mariners  —  St.   Michael,    Sept.    29  ; 

St.  Nicholas  of  Tolentino,  Sept  10. 
Merchants  —  St.  Francis  of  Assisi, 

Oct.  4;  St  Nicholas  of  Myra,  Dec.  6. 
Messengers  —  St.  Gabriel,  March  24. 
Metal-workers  —  St.  Eligius,  Dec.  1. 
Midwives  —  St.  Pantaleon,  July  27; 

St  Raymond  Nonnatus,  Aug.  31. 
Millers  — St  Arnulph,  Aug.  15;  St. 

Victor,  July  21. 
Missions  —  St.  Francis  Xavier,  Dec, 

3;  St  Therese  of  Lisieux,  Oct.  3. 
Musicians  —  St  Cecilia,  Nov.  22; 

St   Dunstan,   May   19. 
Nail-makers  —  St.  Cloud,  Sept  7. 
Negro  Missions  —  St.  Peter  Claver, 

Sept  8. 
Notaries —  St    Luke,    Oct.    18;    St. 

Mark,  April  25. 
Nurses  —  St.    Agatha,    Feb.    5;    St. 

Camillus   de  Lellis,  July  18;    St 


Alexius,  July  17;  St.  John  of  God, 
March  8;  St.  Raphael,  Oct.  24. 

Old  Maids  — St  Andrew,  Nov.  30. 

Orators  —  St.  John  Chrysostom, 
Jan.  27. 

Organ  Builders —St  Cecilia,  Nov.  22. 

Orphans  —  St.  Jerome  Emiliani, 
July  20. 

Painters  —  St  Luke,  Oct.  18. 

Pawnbrokers  —  St.  Nicholas  of  My- 
ra, Dec.  6. 

Philosophers  —  St.  Catherine  of 
Alexandria,  Nov.  25. 

Physicians  —  St.  Pantaleon,  July 
27;  SS.  Cosmas  and  Damian, 
Sept  27;  St  Luke,  Oct.  18;  St. 
Raphael,  Oct.  24. 

Pilgrims  — St  Alexius,  July  17;  St. 
James,  July  25. 

Plasterers — St.  Bartholomew,  Aug. 
24. 

poets  —  st  David,  Dec.  29;  St.  Ce- 
cilia, Nov.  22. 

poor  —  <gt.  Lawrence,  Aug.  10 ;  St. 
Anthony  of  Padua,  June  13. 

Porters  —  St  Christopher,  July  25. 

Possessed  — St  Bruno,  Oct.  6. 

Postal  Employees  —  St.  Gabriel, 
March  24. 

Pregnant  Women  —  St.  Margaret, 
July  20;  St.  Raymond  Nonnatus, 
Aug.  31 ;  St.  Gerard  Majella,  Oct.  16. 

Priests  —  St.  Jean-Baptiste  Vian- 
ney,  Aug.  9. 

Printers  —  St.  John  of  God,  March 
8;  St.  Augustine  of  Hippo,  Aug. 
28;  St  Genesius,  Aug.  25. 

Prisoners  —  St  Barbara,  Dec.  4. 

Retreats — St.  Ignatius  Loyola,  July 
31. 

Saddlers  —  SS.  Crispin  and  Crispin- 
ian,  Oct.  25. 

Sailors  — St  Cuthbert,  March  20; 
St.  Brendan,  May  16;  St.  Bulalia, 
Feb.  12;  St.  Nicholas  of  Tolen- 
tino, Sept  10;  St.  Peter  Gonzales, 
April  15;  St.  Erasmus,  June  2. 

Scholars  —  St.  Brigid,  Feb.  1. 

Schools  —  St.  Thomas  Aquinas, 
March  7. 

Sculptors  —  St.  Claude,  Nov.  8. 

Servants  — St  Martha,  July  29;  St. 
Zita,  April  27. 

Shoemakers  —  SS.  Crispin  and 
Crispinian,  Oct.  25. 

Sick  — St  Michael,  Sept.  29;  St 
John  of  God,  March  8;  St.  Ca- 
millus de  Lellis,  July  18. 


226 


Silversmiths  —  St.  Andronicus,  Oct. 
11. 

Singers  —  St.  Gregory,  March  12; 
St.  Cecilia,  Nov.  22. 

Soldiers  —  St.  Hadrian,  Sept  8;  St. 
George,  April  23;  St.  Ignatius, 
July  31;  St.  Sebastian,  Jan.  20. 

Stenographers  —  St.  Genesius,  Aug. 
25. 

Stone-cutters — St.  Clement  I,  Nov.  23. 

Stone-masons  —  St.  Stephen,  Dec. 
26;  St.  Barbara,  Dec.  4. 

Students  —  St.  Thomas  Aquinas, 
March  7;  St.  Catherine  of  Alex- 
andria, Nov.  25. 

Surgeons  —  SS.  Cosmas  and  Dami- 
an,  Sept.  27. 

Swordsmiths — St.  Maurice,  Sept.  22. 

Tailors  —  St.  Homobonus,  Nov.  13. 

Tanners  —  SS.  Crispin  and  Crispin- 
ian,  Oct.  25;  St.  Simon,  May  10. 

Tax-gatherers — St.  Matthew,  Sept.  21. 

Teachers  —  St.  Gregory  the  Great, 
March  12;  St.  Catherine  of  Alex- 
andria, Nov.  25. 

Tertiaries  —  St.  Louis  of  France, 
Aug.  24;  St.  Elizabeth  of  Hun- 
gary, Nov.  19. 


Theologians — St.  Augustine,  Aug.  28. 
Travelers  —  St.  Anthony  of  Padua, 

June  13;    St.  Nicholas  of  Myra, 

Dec.  6;  St.  Christopher,  July  25; 

St.  Raphael,  Oct.  24. 
Universal     Church  —  St.     Joseph, 

March  19. 
Universities  —  St.  Thomas  Aquinas, 

March  7. 
Watchmen— St.  Peter  of  Alcantara, 

Oct.  19. 
Weavers  —  St.   Paul  the  Hermit, 

Jan.  15;   St.  Anastasius  the  Ful- 
ler, Sept.  7;  St.  Anastasia,  Dec.  25. 
Wine-growers — St.  Vincent,  Jan.  22. 
Wine-merchants — St.  Amand,  Feb.  6. 
Wheelwrights  —  St.   Catherine  of 

Alexandria,  Nov.  25. 
Women  in  labor — St.  Anne,  July  26. 
Women  who  wish  to  have  children 

—  St.  Felicitas,  Nov.  23. 
Workingmen — St.  Joseph,  March  19. 
Writers  —  St.    Francis    de    Sales, 

Jan.  29;  St.  Lucy,  Dec.  13. 
Yachtsmen  —  St,,  Adjutor,  Sept.  1. 
Youth — St.  Aloysius  Gonzaga,  June 

21;  St.  John  Berchmans,  Aug.  13; 

St.  Gabriel  Possenti,  Feb.  27. 


PATRONS  OF  COUNTRIES 


Argentina  —  Our  Lady  Immaculate 
of  Lujan, 

Armenia  —  St.  Gregory  the  Illumi- 
nator. 

Asia  Minor  —  St.  John,  Evangelist. 

Belgium  —  St.  Joseph. 

Bohemia — St.  John  Nepomucene; 
St.  Ludmilla. 

Borneo  —  St.  Francis  Xavier. 

Brazil  —  Apparition  of  the  Immacu- 
late Virgin  Mary  ("Land  of  the 
Holy  Cross1*). 

Canada  —  St.  Anne. 

Chile  —  St.  James. 

Congo  —  Our  Lady. 

Corsica  —  Immaculate  Conception. 

England  —  St.  George. 

East  Indies  —  St.  Thomas,  Apostle. 

Ecuador  —  Sacred  Heart. 

Finland  —  St.  Henry. 

France  —  Our  Lady  of  the  Assump- 
tion; St.  Joan  of  Arc. 

Germany  —  St.  Boniface;  St.  Mich- 
ael. 

Greece  —  St.  Nicholas  of  Myra. 

Holland  —  St.  Willibrord. 

Hungary  —  St.  Stephen. 

Ireland  —  SS.  Patrick,  Brigid  and 
Columba. 


Italy  —  St.  Francis  of  Assisi;  St. 
Catherine  of  Siena. 

Japan  —  St.  Peter  Baptist. 

Lithuania  —  St.  Cunegunda. 

Mexico  —  Our  Lady  of  Guadalupe. 

Norway  —  St.  Olaf . 

Paraguay  —  Our  Lady  Immaculate 
of  Lujan. 

Philippines  —  Our  Lady  of  Guada- 
lupe. 

Poland  —  St.  Casimir;  St.  Cune- 
gunda. 

Portugal  —  St.  Francis  Borgia;  St. 
Anthony  of  Padua, 

Russia  —  St.  Andrew;  St.  Nicholas 
of  Myra. 

Santo  Domingo  —  St.  Dominic. 

Scotland — St.  Andrew;  St.  Columba. 

Silesia  —  St.  Hedwig. 

Slovakia  —  Our  Lady  of  Sorrows. 

South  America  —  St.  Rose  of  Lima. 

Spain  —  St.  James ;  St.  Teresa. 

Sweden  —  St.  Brigit. 

United  States  —  Immaculate  Con- 
ception. 

Uruguay — Our  Lady  Immaculate  of 
Lujan. 

Wales  —  St.  David. 

West  Indies  —  St.  Gertrude. 


227 


APOSTLES  OF  NATIONS,  PEOPLES  AND  PLACES 


Agaus  (Africa)  — Louis  de  Azevedo. 

Alps  —  St.  Bernard  of  Menthon. 

Andalusia  (Spain)  —  Blessed  John 
of  Avila. 

Antioch — St.  Barnabas. 

Ardennes  (France)  —  St.  Hubert. 

Armenia  —  St.  Gregory  the  Illumi- 
nator; St.  Bartholomew. 

Artois  (France)  —  St.  Vedast. 

Austria  —  St.  Severine. 

Auvergne  (France)  —  St.  Austre- 
monius. 

Bassein  (India)  —Antonio  de  Porto. 

Bavaria  —  St.  Killian. 

Brabant  (France)  —  St.  Willibrord. 

Brazil  —  Jose  Anthieta. 

Brittany  (France)  —  St.  Paul  de 
Leon. 

Burgundy  (France)  —  St.  Benignus. 

Carinthia   (Jugoslavia)  —  St.  Vigil. 

Chablais  (France)  —  St.  Francis  de 
Sales. 

Corsica  —  St.  Alexander  Sauli. 

Crete  —  St.  Titus. 

Cyprus  —  St.  Barnabas. 

Denmark — St.  Anschar. 

East  Anglia  —  St.  Felix. 

England  —  St.  Augustine  of  Canter- 
bury. 

Ethiopia  —  St.  Frumentius. 

Finland  — St.  Henry. 

Flanders  —  SS.  Livinus,  Willibrord 
and  Amand. 

Florence  —  St.  Andrew  Corsini. 

France  —  St.  Martin  of  Tours ;  St. 
Denis. 

Friesland  (Germany)— St.  Suitbert; 
St.  Willibrord. 

<3auls  —  st.  Irenaeus. 

Gentiles— St.  Paul. 

Georgia  (Russia)  —  St.  Nino. 

Germany  —  St.  Boniface. 

Gothland  (Sweden)— St.  Sigfrid. 

Guelderland  (Holland)  —  St  Plech- 
eln. 

Highlanders  (Scotland)  —  St.  Co- 
lumba. 

Holland — St.  Willibrord. 


Indies  —  St.  Francis  Xavier. 
Ireland  —  St.  Patrick. 
Iroquois  —  Francois  Picguit 
Italy  —  St.  Bernardine  of  Siena. 
Livonia  _  Bishop  Albert  of  Riga. 
Magyars    (Hungarians) — Anastasi- 

us  Astericus. 

Maryland  —  Andrew  White,  S.  J. 
Mechlin  (Belgium)  —  St.  Rumold. 
Mecklenburg     (Wends)   —  Bishop 

Werno. 

Mercia  (England)  —  St.  Ceadda. 
Mexico  —  The  Twelve  Apostles  of 

Mexico  (Franciscans),  headed  by 

Fra.  Martin  de  Valencia. 
Negro  Slaves  —  St.  Peter  Claver. 
North  (Scandinavia)  —St.  Anschar. 
North  Britain  (Picts)  —  St.  Ninian. 
Northumbria      (Britain)    —   Pope 

Adrian  IV. 
Norway— St  Olaf. 
Ohio  —  Edward  Fenwick,  O.  P. 
Ottowas   (Indians)  —  Claude  Allou- 

ez,  S.  J. 

Persia  —  St.  Maruthas. 
Philadelphia  —  Felix  Barbelin,  S.  J. 
Pomerania  —  St.  Otto. 
Portugal  —  St.  Christian. 
Provence  (France)  —  SS.  Lazarus 

and  Martha. 
Prussia  (Slavs)  —  St  Adalbert;  St 

Bruno  of  Querfurt 
Rome  — St  Philip  Neri. 
Rouergue  (South  France)  —  St.  An- 
toninus. 

Ruthenia  —  St.  Bruno. 
Sardinia  —  St.  Ephesus. 
Saxony  — St  Willihad. 
Scotland  —  St.  Palladius. 
glavs  __  ss.  Cyril  and  Methodius. 
Spain  —  SS.  Euphrasius  and  Felix. 
Sussex  (England)  —  St  Wilfrid. 
Sweden  —  St.  Anschar. 
Switzerland  —  St.  Andeol. 
Tournai   (Belgium)— St.  Eloi;   St, 

Piat 

Tyrol  — St.  Valentine. 
Wessex  (England)  —  St.  Birinus. 
Westphalia  — St  Ludger. 


228 


SAINTS   INVOKED 
FOR  SPECIAL  FAVORS  AND  AGAINST  PARTICULAR   EVILS 

St.  Adalard Against  Typlms  and  fevers 

St.  Agapitus   "  Colic 

St.  Aloysius    '  Sore  eyes  and  pestilence 

St.  Amalberga   '  Bruises  and  fever 

St.  Anastasius   '  Headaches 

St.  Andrew  *  Gout  and  sore  throat 

St.  Anthony  Avellino    '  Apoplexy  and  sudden  death 

St.  Anthony  of  Padua For  Lost  things ;   against  shipwreck 

St.  Apollonia    Against  Toothache 

St.  Arnolph    For  Recovery  of  lost  things 

St.  Augustine    Against  Sore  eyes 

St.  Barbara     "  Lightning,    thunderstorms,    fire, 

impenitence,  sudden  death 

St.  Benedict  Nursia "  Poisoning 

St.  Blaise    "  Throat  troubles 

St.  Cadoc "  Scrofula,  deafness 

St.  Casimir  "  Plague 

St.  Catherine  of  Alexandria...       "  Diseases  of  the  tongue 

St.  Christopher   "  Storms,  sudden  death 

St.  Clare    "  Sore  eyes 

St.  Colomban   "  Inundations 

St.  Denis "  Headache 

St.  Dympna    "  Insanity 

St.  Elizabeth  of  Portugal For  Peace 

St.  Erasmus  Against  Intestinal  trouble 

St.  Eulalia    "  Drought 

St.  Francis  Borgia  "  Earthquakes 

St.  Genesius  of  Aries "  Chilblaines  and  scurf 

St.  George "  Fever 

SS.  Gervase  and  Protase For  Discovery  of  thieves 

St.  Giles    Against  Epilepsy,  insanity,  sterility 

St.  Gregory  of  Neocaesarea ...       "  Inundations 

St.  Hadrian    "  Pestilence 

St.  Hermenegild    "  Storms,  drought,  inundations 

St.  Hilary  "  Snakes 

St.  Hubert    "  Hydrophobia 

St.  James    "  Rheumatism 

St.  John "  Lightning,  rain,  hail,  pestilence 

St.  Lawrence   "  Fire,  lumbago 

St.  Liberius    "  Gravel,  gall-stones 

St.  Lucy "  Sore  eyes,   sore  throat,  hemor- 
rhages, epidemics 

St.  Mark    "  Lightning,  hail 

St.  Maurice "  Gout,  cramps 

St.  Maurus    "  Gout,  hoarseness 

St.  Pantaleon "  Consumption 

St.  Paul   "  Poisonous  snakes,  storms 

St.  Peregrinus   "  Cancer 

St.  Servelus    "  Paralysis 

St.  Stanislaus  Kostka *'  Dying  without  the  last  sacraments 

St.  Teresa  of  Avila  "  Headaches 

St.  Timothy "  Stomach  trouble 

St.  Tryphon    ; "  Insects 

St.  Victor  of  Marseilles "  Foot  diseases 

St.  Vitus    "  Epilepsy,  nervousness 

229 


EMBLEMS  OF  THE  SAINTS 


Saints  are  represented  in  art  with  emblems  indicative  of  something 
specific  in  their  lives  or  the  instrument  of  their  martyrdom.  The  emblems 
of  the  Evangelists  refer  to  their  sacred  writings.  Thus  a  man  is  repre- 
sentative of  St,  Matthew  because  he  begins  his  gospel  with  the  human 
ancestry  of  Christ.  The  lion  of  the  desert  is  emblematic  of  St.  Mark 
because  he  opens  his  narrative  with  the  mission  of  St.  John,  "the  voice 
of  one  crying  in  the  wilderness/*  The  sacrificial  ox  is  the  emblem  of 
St.  Luke  whose  G-ospel  begins  with  the  Highpriest  Zachary.  The  eagle 
soaring  heavenward  is  emblematic  of  St.  John  who  with  the  opening 
words  of  his  Gospel  carries  us  to  heaven  itself.  Emblems  of  various 
saints  are  as  follows: 


St.  Agatha  —  Tongs,  veil. 

St.  Agnes  —  Lamb. 

St.  Ambrose  —  Bees,  dove,  ox,  pen. 

St.  Andrew  —  Transverse  cross. 

St.  Augustine   of   Hippo  —  Dove, 

child,  shell,  pen. 

St.  Angela  Merici  —  Ladder,  cloak. 
St.  Anne,  Mother  of  the  Blessed 

Virgin  —  A  door. 
St.    Anthony   of   Padua   —   Infant 

Jesus,  bread,  book,  lily. 
St.  Barbara  —  Tower,  palm,  chalice, 

cannon. 

St.  Barnabas  —  Stones,  ax,  lance. 
St.  Bartholomew  —  Knife,   flayed 

and  holding  his  skin. 

St.  Benedict  —  Broken  cup,  raven, 
bell,  crozier,  bush. 

St.  Bernardine  of  Siena  —  Chrism. 

St.  Bernard  of  Clairvaux  —  Pen, 
bees,  instruments  of  Passion. 

St.  Blaise  —  Wax  taper,  iron  comb. 
St.  Boniface  —  Oak,  ax,  book,  fox, 

scourge,  fountain,  raven,  sword. 
St.  Bonaventure  —  Communion,  ci- 

borium,  cardinal's  hat. 

St.  Catherine  of  Ricci  —  Ring, 
crown,  crucifix. 

St.  Catherine  of  Alexandria  — 
Wheel,  lamb,  sword. 

St.  Catherine  of  Siena  —  Stigmata, 
cross,  ring,  lily. 

St.  Catherine  of  Sweden  —  Hind, 
lily,  pilgrim's  costume,  cross, 
church  in  hand. 

St.  Charles  Borromeo  —  Commun- 
ion, coat  of  arms  bearing  word 
"Humilitas." 


St.    Christopher  —  Giant,    torrent, 

tree,  Child  Jesus  on  his  shoulders. 
St.  Clare  of  Assisi  —  Monstrance. 
St.  Collette  —  Lamb,  birds. 
SS.  Cosmas  and  Damian  —  A  phial. 
St.  Cyril  of  Alexandria  —  Blessed 

Virgin  holding  in  her  arms  the 

Child  Jesus,  pen. 
St.    Cyril    of    Jerusalem  —  Purse, 

book. 

St.  Dominic  —  Rosary. 
St.  Dorothy  —  Flowers,  fruit. 
St.  Edmund  the  Martyr  —  Arrow, 

sword. 
St.  Elizabeth  of  Hungary  —  Alms, 

flowers,  bread,  the  poor,  a  pitcher. 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi  —  Deer,  wolf, 

birds,  fish,  the  Stigmata. 
St.  Francis  Xavier  —  Crucifix,  bell, 

vessel,  Negro. 
St.  Genevieve  —  Bread,  keys,  herd, 

candle. 

St.  Gertrude  —  Crown,  taper,  lily. 
SS.     Gervasius    and    Protasius  — 

Scourge,  club,  sword. 
St.  Giles — Crozier,  hind,  hermitage. 
St.  Hilary  —  Stick,  pen. 

St.  Ignatius  Loyola  —  Communion, 
chasuble,  book,  apparition  of  Our 
Lord. 

St.  Isidore  —  Bees,  pen. 

St.  James  the  Greater  —  Pilgrim's 
staff,  shell,  key,  sword. 

St.  James  the  Lesser — Square  rule, 
halberd,  club. 

St.  Jerome  —  Lion. 

St.  John  Berchmans  —  Rule  of  St. 
Ignatius,  cross,  rosary. 


230 


St.  Jolm  Chrysostom —  Bees,  dove, 

pan. 

St.  John  Climacus  —  A  ladder. 
St.  John  of  God  —  Alms,  a  heart, 

crown  of  thorns. 
St.  John  the  Baptist  —  Lamb,  head 

cut  off  on  platter,  skin  of  an  ani- 
mal. 
St.  John  the  Evangelist  —  Eagle, 

chalice,  kettle,  armor. 
St.  Josaphat  Kuncevyc  —  Chalice, 

crown,  winged  deacon. 
St.  Joseph,  Spouse  of  the  Blessed 

Virgin  —  Infant  Jesus,  lily,  rod, 

plane. 

St.  Jude — Sword,  square  rule,  club. 
St.  Justin  Martyr  —  Ax,  sword. 
St.  Lawrence  —  Cross,  book  of  the 

Gospels,  gridiron. 
St.  Leander  of  Seville  —  A  pen. 
St.  Liborius  —  Pebbles,  peacock. 
St.  Longinus  —  In  arms  at  foot  of 

the  cross. 
St.  Louis  IX  of  France  —  Crown  of 

thorns,  nails. 
St.  Lucy  —  Cord,  eyes. 
St.  Luke  —  Ox,  book,  brush,  palette. 
St.  Mark  —  Lion,  book. 
St.  Martha  —  Holy  water  sprinkler, 

dragon. 

St.  Mathias  —  Lance. 
St.  Matilda  —  Purse,  alms. 
St.  Matthew  —  Winged  man,  purse, 

lance. 

St.  Maurus  —  Scales,  spade,  crutch. 
St.  Meinrad  —  Two  ravens. 


St.  Michael — Scales,  banner,  sword, 

dragon. 

St.  Monica  —  Girdle,  tears. 
St.  Oswald  —  Dove,  demon,  church, 

stone,  ship. 
St.  Patrick  —  Cross,  harp,  serpent, 

baptismal    font,    demons,    sham- 
rock, purgatory. 
St.  Paul  —  Sword. 
St.  Peter  —  Keys,  boat,  cock. 
St.  Philip,  Apostle  —  Column. 
St.   Philip   Neri  —  Altar,   chasuble, 

vial. 

St.  Roch —  Angel,  dog,  bread. 
St.  Rose  of  Lima — Crown  of  thorns, 

anchor,  city. 

St.  Sebastian  —  Arrows,  crown. 
SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus — Military 

garb,  palm. 

St.  Simon  —  Saw,  cross. 
St.  Simon  Stock — Scapular. 
St.  Teresa  of  Avila  —  Heart,  arrow, 

book. 
St.  Therese  of  Lisieux  —  Roses, 

crucifix. 

St.  Thomas,  Apostle  —  Lance,  ax. 
St.     Thomas     Aquinas  —  Chalice, 

monstrance,     dove,    ox,    person 

trampeled  under  foot. 
St.  Ursula  and  Companions  —  Ship, 

clock,  arrow. 

St.  Vincent  de  Paul  —  Children. 
St.  Vincent  Ferrer  —  Pulpit,  cardi- 
nal's hat,  trumpet,  captives. 
St.  Vincent,  Deacon  of  Saragossa — 

Gridiron,  boat,  pruning  knife. 


FAMOUS  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

Standard   Reference  works   giving  information  on   the  lives   of  the 
saints  include: 


265-340  —  Ecclesiastical  History  of 

Eusebius 

404  —  Poems  of  Prudentius 
900  —  Compiled  Byzantine  Menolo- 

gies 

1298  —  Golden  Legends  of  Jacopo 
1681  —  Acts  of  the  First  Martyrs  by 

Ruinart 
1617— Acts   of  the   Saints  —  Bol- 

landists 

1770  —  Lives  of  the  Saints  —  Butler 
1924  —  Biographical    Dictionary    of 

the  Saints  —  F.  G.  Holweck 
1934  —  The  Book  of  Saints  —  Mac- 

millan 


1926-39  —  Butler's     Lives     of     the 

Saints,  edited  by  Thurston 

(12  vols.) 
1516  —  Saints     of     England  —  Cap- 

grase 

1615  —  Saints  of  Germany — Rader 
1613  —  Saints  of  Italy — Ferrari 
1662  —  Saints  of  Spain  —  de  Sala- 

zar 

1828  —  Scottish  Saints  —  Dempster 
1875  —  Irish  Saints  —  O'Hanlon 
1885  —  Lives    of    the    Saints    and 

Blessed  of  the  Three  Orders 

of  St.  Francis  —  Leon 
1938  —  The  Golden  Book  of  Eastern 

Saints  —  D.  Attwater 


231 


AMERICAN   MARTYROLOGY 

This  list  includes  the  names  of  those  within  the  confines  of  the  present 
United  States,  who  died  a  martyr's  death  or  in  the  odor  of  sanctity,  hav- 
ing sacrificed  all  in  God's  cause.  (Subject  to  the  decision  of  the  Holy  See 
and  the  decree  of  Pope  Urban  VIII.) 


St.  Isaac  Jogues  and  Companions, 
eight  Jesuit  martyrs  of  North  Amer- 
ica, beatified  by  Pope  Pius  XI,  June 
21,  1925,  and  canonized  by  the  same 
Pontiff,  June  29,  1930.  Feast  cele- 
brated on  Sept.  26.  They  are:  Fr. 
Isaac  Jogues,  martyred  at  instiga- 
tion of  Mohawk  medicine  men,  at 
Auriesville,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  18,  1646; 
Bro.  John  Lalande,  martyred  a  day 
a'fter  Fr.  Jogues,  Oct.  19,  1646,  at 
Auriesville;  Bro.  Rene  Goupil,  mar- 
tyred at  Auriesville,  Sept.  29,  1642; 
and  the  following  five  who  shed 
their  blood  for  Christ  when  pagan 
Hurons  made  surprise  attacks  on 
15  villages  of  Christian  Hurons,  Fr. 
Anthony  Daniel,  July  4,  1648,  Fr. 
Gabriel  Lalemant,  March  17,  1649, 
Fr.  John  de  Brebeuf,  March  16, 1649, 
Fr.  Charles  Gamier,  Dec.  7,  1649, 
and  Fr.  Noel  Chabanel,  Dec.  7,  1649. 

Felix  de  Andreis,  C.  M.  (1778- 
1820),  first  Superior  of  the  Vincen- 
tians  in  the  U.  S.  and  Vicar  General 
of  Upper  Louisiana.  A  beautiful 
star  appeared  over  the  spot  where 
his  body  lay  after  death  and  disap- 
peared after  the  funeral  services. 
Many  miracles  were  attributed  to 
his  intercession.  His  cause  was  in- 
troduced in  1918. 

Frederic  Baraga  (1797-1868),  first 
Bishop  of  Marauette,  suffered  un- 
told hardship  to  bring  the  G-ospel 
to  the  Redmen  during  a  37-year 
apostolate  to  the  Indians  of  Michi- 
gan and  Wisconsin.  Preliminary 
process  of  beatification  begun  in 
Yugoslavia,  his  birthplace,  and 
Michigan  in  1933, 

Mother  Mary  Magdalen  Bentivo- 
glio  (1834-1905),  foundress  of  the 
Poor  Clares  in  the  U.  S.,  despite 
great  discouragement.  Finally  the 
strict  enclosure  was  established  in 
Omaha  in  1882.  Her  beatification 
cause  is  before  the  Roman  Tribunal. 

Simon  Gabriel  Brute,  S.  S.  (1779- 
1839),  first  Bishop  of  Vincennes, 
after  refusing  two  bishoprics.  His 
zeal  knew  no  bounds,  though  his 
health  was  feeble.  He  died,  worn 
out  by  his  labors. 


Bl.  Frances  Xaxier  Cabrini, 
M.  S.  C.  (1850-1917,  foundress  of 
the  Missionary  Sisters  of  the  Sa- 
cred Heart,  in  Italy.  She  established 
them  in  the  United  States,  becom- 
ing a  citizen  in  1909.  Her  order 
had  a  remarkable  growth,  and  her 
work  remains  as  her  monument. 
Beatified  by  Pope  Pius  XI,  Nov.  13, 
1938.  Process  of  canonization  un- 
der way. 

Luis  Cancer,  O.  P.  (c.  1500-49), 
labored  as  a  missionary  in  Haiti, 
Puerto  Rico,  Nicaragua,  Guatemala 
and  finally  Florida,  where  he  was 
martyred  near  Tampa  Bay,  June  26, 
1549. 

Magin  Catala,  O.F.M.  (1761-1830), 
"The  Holy  Man  of  Santa  Clara." 
He  labored  in  the  Santa  Clara  Mis- 
sion for  36  years  with  heroic  sacri- 
fice, and  lived  an  austere  priestly 
life  of  prayer,  fasting  and  discipline. 
The  examination  of  his  writings 
has  been  completed  and  the  formal 
introduction  of  his  cause  is  being 
prepared. 

Bi.  Rose  Philippine  Duchesne, 
R.  S.  C.J.  (1769-1852),  foundress  of 
the  Religious  of  the  Sacred  Heart 
in  the  U.  S.  Through  her  heroic 
zeal  she  made  the  first  foundation 
at  St.  Charles,  Mo.,  and  helped  es- 
tablish many  others,  becoming  a 
spiritual  power  house  during  the 
solitude  of  her  last  decade.  De- 
clared Venerable  by  Pope  Pius  XI 
and  beatified  by  Pope  Pius  XII,  May 
12,  1940. 

Benedict  Joseph  Flaget,  S.  S, 
(1763-1850),  first  Bishop  sent  to  the 
West,  Bishop  of  Bardstown  (Louis- 
ville), lived  to  see  within  his  ter- 
ritory the  erection  of  11  dioceses, 
2  to  archiepiscopal  rank.  He  work- 
ed perseveringly  and  wrote  volum- 
inously. 

Demetrius  Gallitzin  (1770-1840), 
Prince-Priest,  Apostle  of  the  Alle- 
ghenies.  Scion  of  a  Russian  prince- 
ly family  and  reared  in  the  Greek 
Orthodox  Church,  he  became  a 
Catholic  at  17  and  when  22  came 
to  the  U.  S.  Attracted  to  the  priest- 


232 


hood,  he  was  ordained  in  1795  and 
after  four  years'  labor  in  Maryland, 
Pennsylvania  and  Virginia,  obtain- 
ed permission  to  establish  a  Cath- 
olic colony  in  western  Pennsyl- 
vania. There  he  labored  for  41 
years,  expending  some  $200,000  of 
his  princely  fortune  in  his  priestly 
work,  and  suffering  poverty.  He 
lived  a  life  of  heroic  holiness. 

Mother  Theodore  Guerin  (1798- 
1856),  foundress  of  the  Sisters  of 
Providence  of  Indiana.  She  came 
from  France  to  establish  her  order 
in  the  U.  S.  and  founded  a  com- 
munity in  a  then  wild  and  isolated 
section  of  the  New  World,  at  St. 
Mary-of-the-Woods,  Indiana,  in  1840. 
Tribulation,  poverty  and  persecu- 
tion were  endured.  Her  writings 
were  favorably  considered  by  the 
Sacred  Congregation  of  Rites,  in 
1940,  with  a  view  to  beatification. 

Leo  Heinrichs,  O.  F.  M.  (1867- 
1908),  "Martyr  of  the  Eucharist." 
In  1907  he  was  appointed  pastor  of 
St.  Elizabeth's,  Denver,  Colo.,  and 
while  distributing  Communion  there 
on  Feb.  23,  1908,  he  was  assassi- 
nated by  an  anarchist,  who  after  re- 
ceiving the  Sacred  Host  spat  It  out 
and  emptied  his  revolver  into  the 
heart  of  the  priest.  The  process 
of  investigation  for  beatification 
was  begun  in  1926  and  the  reports 
forwarded  to  Rome  in  1933. 

Luis  Jayme,  O.  F.  M.  (d.  1775), 
Franciscan  protomartyr  of  Califor- 
nia. Came  from  Franciscan  Prov- 
ince of  Majorca  to  Upper  California 
in  1770.  Labored  at  San  Diego  un- 
til Indians  fired  the  Mission,  Nov. 
4,  1775,  and  clubbed  Fr.  Luis  Jayme 
to  death.  The  saintly  Serra  ex- 
claimed, "Thanks  be  to  God,  the 
land  is  now  watered,"  and  there- 
after the  San  Diego  Mission,  water- 
ed by  this  martyr's  blood,  surpassed 
all  others  in  neophytes. 

Eusebio  Francisco  Kino,  S.  J. 
(1645-1705),  the  "Padre  on  Horse- 
back," cartographer  and  organizer, 
established  19  missions  in  the  land 
of  the  Pimas,  in  Mexico,  California 
and  Arizona. 

Mathias  Loras  (1792-1858),  first 
Bishop  of  Dubuque,  traversed  prair- 
ies, rivers  and  mountains  of  his 


diocese  on  horseback,  foot,  steam- 
boat and  stage,  to  minister  to  some 
300,000  Indians  and  the  white  set- 
tlers. The  "saintly  Loras"  died, 
worn  out  with  his  labors.  In  1937 
the  Archbishop  of  Dubuque  institu- 
ted the  process  of  his  beatification. 

Pamphiius  de  Magliano,  O.  F.  M. 
(1824-76),  founder  and  first  presi- 
dent of  St.  Bonaventure's  College 
and  Seminary,  New  York.  Also 
founded  the  Sisters  of  St.  Francis 
of  Allegany,  N.  Y.,  and  the  Sisters 
of  St.  Francis  and  Mary  Immaculate 
of  Joliet,  111. 

Pedro  Martinez,  S.  J.  (1533-66), 
Jesuit  protomartyr  of  New  World, 
was  betrayed  and  killed  by  Indians 
on  St.  George  Island,  Fla.,  Oct.  6, 
1566. 

Samuel  Charles  Mazzuchelli,  O,  P. 
(1806-64),  "Builder  of  the  West,"  a 
saintly  Friar.  Through  Ohio,  Wis- 
consin, Illinois  and  Iowa  he  rode  or 
walked,  ministering  to  the  faithful, 
converting,  organizing,  building. 
Founded  the  Dominican  Sisters  of 
the  Most  Holy  Rosary. 

Richard  Miles,  O.  P.  (1791-1860), 
"Father  of  the  Church  in  Tennes- 
see," first  Bishop  of  Nashville.  A 
native  American,  he  tirelessly  work- 
ed and  built  for  the  Church  in  this 
country. 

John  Nepomucene  Neumann, 
C.  Ss.  R.  (1811-60),  fourth  Bishop  of 
Philadelphia,  called  the  "Mission- 
ary Bishop."  For  his  work  in  the 
confessional  he  mastered  12  lan- 
guages, founded  parochial  school 
system  and  prescribed  Forty  Hours 
Devotion  in  his  diocese.  Pronoun- 
ced Venerable  by  Pope  Leo  XIII, 
and  with  a  view  to  beatification 
Pope  Benedict  XV  declared  he  prac- 
ticed virtue  to  a  heroic  degree. 

Francisco  de  Porras,  O.  F.  M. 
(d.  1633),  Franciscan  martyr  of 
Arizona.  A  Spaniard,  he  joined  the 
Franciscans  in  Mexico,  and  was  as- 
signed to  New  Mexico  in  1628. 
Traveled  to  Hopi  territory  and 
there  cured  a  deaf-mute.  Jealous 
medicine  men  poisoned  his  food. 

Joseph  Rosati,  C.  M.  (1789-1843), 
first  Bishop  of  St.  Louis,  when  the 
diocese  embraced  Missouri,  Arkan- 


233 


sas  and  two-thirds  of  Illinois.  Wrote 
many  important  documents  for  first 
four  Provincial  Councils  of  Balti- 
more. Noted  for  zeal,  sanctity  and 
untiring  labors. 

Francis  Xavier  Seelos,  C.  Ss.  R. 
(1819-67),  missionary  in  Pittsburgh, 
and  finally  in  New  Orleans  where 
he  was  stricken  with  yellow  fever. 
Of  extraordinary  holiness,  he  was 
chosen  to  important  offices,  and 
won  many  souls.  In  1912  informa- 
tion was  presented  to  the  Sacred 
Congregation  of  Rites  with  a  view 
to  having  his  cause  introduced. 

Junipero  Serra,  0.  F,  M.  (1713-84), 
Apostle  of  California.  Labored  in 
Mexico  City  from  1750  to  1769,  and 
from  then  until  his  death  in  Cali- 
fornia where  his  labors  were  prodi- 
gious and  he  founded  numerous  mis- 
sions. He  was  father  to  all,  and  his 
love  for  the  Indians  was  limitless. 
He  lived  and  died  in  great  sanctity. 
The  cause  for  his  beatification  is 
expected  to  be  introduced  shortly. 

Elizabeth  Ann  Bayley  Seton  (1774- 
1821),  foundress  of  the  Sisters  of 
Charity  in  the  U.  S.  Mother  of  five 
children,  widowed  at  an  early  age, 
a  convert  to  the  Church  in  1805, 
she  opened  a  school  for  girls  in 
Baltimore  and  the  work  prospered. 
She  longed  to  embrace  religious 
life,  and  thus  with  the  aid  of  Fr. 
Dubourg  were  founded  the  Daugh- 
ters of  Charity  in  the  U.  S.  Her 
cause  was  formally  introduced  in 
1940. 

Kateri  Tefcakwitha  (d.  1680), 
"The  Lily  of  the  Mohawks."  An 
Indian  maid,  treated  as  a  slave  and 
accused  of  immorality  because  of 
her  desire  for  virginity,  she  was 
secretly  baptized  by  Fr.  de  Lamber- 
ville  and  her  virtues  led  great  num- 
bers to  the  Faith.  She  was  the 
first  of  her  race  to  vow  virginity 
and  after  her  death  appeard  to  sev- 
eral persons,  protected  her  village 
from  storms  and  warfare,  and  crea- 
ted great  fervor  among  her  people. 
Her  home  at  Caughnawaga,  Canada, 
has  been  a  place  of  pilgrimage  for 
almost  three  centuries.  Her  cause 
was  introduced  in  1926  and  speedy 
completion  is  hoped  for. 


One  hundred  and  eleven  Ameri- 
can martyrs  for  whom  joint  beatifi- 
cation and  canonization  is  being 
sought,  are  named  below,  with  date 
and  place  of  martyrdom,  in  chron- 
ological order.  The  list  was  com- 
piled under  the  direction  of  Bishop 
John  Mark  Gannon  of  Erie  and  was 
sent  to  the  Sacred  Congregation  of 
Rites  by  Cardinal  Archbishop 
Dougherty,  of  Philadelphia: 

Fr.  Juan  de  Padilla,  Franciscan 
(Protomartyr  of  the  United  States), 
probably  1542,  in  Central  Kansas, 
at  or  near  Lyons. 

Fr.  Juan  de  la  Cruz  and  Bro.  Luis 
Descalona  de  Ubeda,  Franciscans 
(companions  of  Fr.  Juan  de  Padilla, 
protomartyr),  probably  in  fall  of 
1542.  Fr.  de  la  Cruz  at  Puaray,  N. 
Mex.;  Bro.  Luis  at  Pecos,  N.  Mex. 

Fr.  Luis  Cancer  de  Barbastro  and 
companions,  Fr.  Diego  de  Penalosa 
and  Bro.  Fuentes,  Dominicans.  Fr. 
Cancer,  June  26,  1549;  the  other 
two,  sometime  before  this  date; 
near  Tampa  Bay,  Fla. 

Fr.  Diego  de  la  Cruz,  Fr.  Hernan- 
do  Mendez,  Fr.  Juan  Ferrer  and 
Bro.  Juan  de  Mena,  Dominicans, 
1553,  probably  in  what  is  now  the 
Diocese  of  Corpus  Christi,  Tex. 

Fr.  Pedro  Martinez,  Jesuit  (U.  S. 
Protomartyr  of  the  Society  of 
Jesus),  Oct.  6,  1566,  Mount  Cornelia, 
Fla. 

Fr.  Luis  de  Quiros  and  novice 
companions,  Gabriel  de  Solis  and 
Baptista  Mendez,  Jesuits,  Feb.  5, 
1571,  near  St.  Mary's  Mission,  Va. 

Fr.  Juan  Baptista  de  Segura  and 
companions:  Cristobal  Redondo,  a 
novice;  Bros.  Pedro  Linares,  Gab- 
riel Gomez  and  Sancho  Zeballos, 
Jesuits;  Feb.  9,  1571;  near  St. 
Mary's  Mission,  Va. 

Fr.  Francisco  Lopez  and  compan- 
ions, Fr.  Juan  de  Santa  Maria  and 
Bro.  Augustin  Rodriguez,  Francis- 
cans. Fr.  Juan  de  Santa  Maria, 
Sept.  10,  1581,  at  Chilili,  N.  Mex.; 
the  others  in  the  spring  of  1582: 
Fr.  Lopez  at  Puaray  (Tiguex),  N, 
Mex.,  and  Bro.  Rodriguez  at  Pueblo 
Santiago,  N.  Mex. 

Fr.  Pedro  de  Corpa  and  compan- 
ions, Frs.  Bias  Rodriguez,  Miguel  de 


234 


Aunon  and  Francisco  de  Verascola 
and  Bro.  Antonio  de  Badajoz,  Fran- 
ciscans, Fr.  Rodriguez,  Sept,  13, 
1597,  at  Tolomato,  Ga.;  Fr.  de  Aim- 
on,  Sept.  16,  at  Tupique;  Bro.  Bada- 
joz, Sept.  17,  on  Guale  (probably 
St.  Catherine's  Island;  and  Fr.  Ver- 
ascola, soon  after  Sept.  17,  on  Asao 
(probably  St.  Simon's)  Island. 

Fr.  Pedro  de  Miranda,  Francis- 
can, Dec.  28,  1631,  pueblo  of  Taos, 
N.  Hex. 

Fr.  Francisco  Letrado  and  Fr. 
Martin  de  Arvide,  Franciscans.  Fr. 
Letrado,  Feb.  22,  1632,  at  Hawikuk, 
near  Zuni,  N.  Mex.;  Fr.  de  Arvide, 
Feb.  27,  in  Northern  Arizona. 

Fr.  Francisco  de  Porras,  Francis- 
can, June  28,  1633,  San  Bernardo 
de  Awatobi  Mission,  Ariz. 

Three  unnamed  Franciscans, 
1647,  in  vicinity  of  Tallahassee,  Fla. 

Fr.  Pedro  de  Avila  y  Ayala  and 
Fr.  Alonso  Gil  de  Avila,  Francis- 
cans. Fr.  Pedro,  Oct.  7,  1672,  at 
Hawikuk,  N.  Mex.;  Fr.  Alonso,  Jan. 
23,  1675,  at  Senecu,  N.  Mex. 

The  21  Franciscan  martyrs  and 
one  Indian  martyr  of  the  great 
Pueblo  revolt  in  New  Mexico  and 
Arizona,  Aug.  10,  1680:  Fr.  Juan 
Bernal  and  companions,  Frs.  Do- 
mingo de  Vera,  Fernando  de  Velas- 
co  and  Manuel  Tinoco,  Galisteo,  N. 
Mex.;  Fr.  Juan  Bautista  Pio,  near 
pueblo  of  Tesuque,  N.  Mex.;  Fr.  To- 
mas  de  Torres,  Nambe,  N.  Mex.; 
Fr.  Antonio  de  Mora  and  compan- 
ion, Bro.  Juan  de  la  Pedrosa,  Taos, 
N.  Mex.;  Fr.  Matias  Rendon,  Pi- 
curis,  N.  Mex.;  Fr.  Luis  de  Morales 
and  companion,  Bro.  Antonio  San- 
chez de  Pro,  San  Ildefonso,  N.  Mex.; 
Fr.  Francisco  Antonio  de  Loren- 
zana  and  companions,  Frs.  Juan  de 
Talaban  and  Jose  de  Montesdoca, 
Santo  Domingo,  N.  Mex.;  Fr.  Juan 
de  Jesus,  San  Diego  de  Jemez,  N. 
Mex.;  Fr.  Lucas  Maldonado,  pueblo 
of  Acoma,  N.  Mex.;  Fr.  Juan  del 
Val,  Halona  (now  Zuni),  N.  Mex.; 
Fr.  Jose  de  Espeleta  and  compan- 
ions, Frs.  Augustin  de  Santa  Maria, 
Jose  de  Figueroa  and  Jose  de  Tru- 
jillo,  probably  Aug.  11,  a  day  later 
than  the  rest,  Northern  Arizona; 
Bartolome  Naranjo,  Indian,  Aug.  9, 
pueblo  of  San  Felipe,  N.  Mex. 


Fr.  Gabriel  de  la  Ribourde,  Fran- 
ciscan, Sept.  16,  1680,  Seneca,  N. 
Mex. 

Fr.  Zenobe  Membre  and  Fr.  Max- 
im le  Clerq,  Franciscans,  and  Fr. 
Chefdeville,  Sulpician,  about  Jan. 
15,  1689,  Fort  St.  Louis,  Tex. 

Stephen  Tegananoka,  Frances  Go- 
nannhatenha  and  Margaret  Garan- 
gouas,  Indians.  The  first  in  1690; 
the  others  about  1692  at  Onondaga 
(near  Auriesville),  N.  Y. 

Fr.  Francisco  de  Jesus  Maria  Ca- 
sanas  (New  World  protomartyr  of 
the  Sacred  Congregation  of  the 
Propagation  of  the  Faith)  and  com- 
panions, Frs.  Jose  de  Arbizu,  An- 
tonio de  Carbonel,  Francisco  Cor- 
vera  and  Antonio  Moreno,  all  Fran- 
ciscans, on  June  4,  1696.  Fr.  Casa- 
nas  near  Jemez,  N.  Mex.;  Frs.  de 
Arbizu  and  de  Carbonel  at  San  Cris- 
tobal; Frs.  Corvera  and  Moreno  at 
San  Ildefonso. 

Fr.  Luis  Sanchez,  Franciscan,  Oc- 
tober, 1696,  Mayaca,  Fla. 

Fr.  Christopher  Plunkett,  Capu- 
chin, 1697,  probably  on  island  in 
Chesapeake  Bay,  Md. 

Fr.  Nicholas  Foucault,  diocesan 
priest,  July,  1702,  near  Fort  Adams 
Miss. 

Fr.  Juan  Parga  Arraiyo  and  com- 
panions, Frs.  Manuel  de  Mendoza, 
Domingo  Criado,  Tiburcio  de  Osorio 
and  Augustin  Ponze  de  Leon,  Fran- 
ciscans, and  Antonio  Enixa  and 
Amador  Cuipa  Feliciano,  Indians. 
Fr.  Arraiyo  and  the  two  Indians  on 
Jan.  25,  1704;  the  others  about  the 
same  time.  Fr.  Arraiyo  and  the  In- 
dians near  Mission  La  Concepcion 
de  Ayubale,  Fla.;  Fr.  de  Mendoza  at 
Mission  San  Pedro  y  San  Pablo  de 
Patali,  Fla.;  and  the  other  three  in 
the  Apalache  missions  near  Talla- 
hassee, Fla. 

Fr.  Constantin  Delhalle,  Francis- 
can, June,  1706,  Detroit,  Mich. 

Fr.  John  Francis  Bus  son  de  St. 
Cosme,  diocesan  priest,  December, 
1706,  near  Donaldsonville,  La. 

Fr.  James  Gravier,  Jesuit,  April 
23,  1708,  on  LTsle  Massacre  (Dau- 
phin Island),  near  Mobile,  Ala. 

Bro.  Luis  de  Montesdoca,  Francis- 


235 


can,  1719,  Eastern  Texas  or  Robel- 
ine,  La. 

Fr,  Juan  Minquez,  Franciscan, 
Aug.  12,  1720,  probably  near  Col- 
umbus, Neb. 

Bro.  Jose  Pita,  Franciscan,  1721, 
Carnizeria,  Tex. 

Fr.  Sebastien  Rale,  Jesuit,  Aug. 
23,  1724,  Madison,  Me. 

Fr.  Paul  du  Poisson,  Jesuit,  Nov. 
28,  1729,  Natchez,  Miss. 

Fr.  John  Souel,  Jesuit,  Dec.  18, 
1729,  near  Vicksburg,  Miss. 

Fr.  Gaston,  diocesan  priest,  1730, 
Cahokia  Mission,  111. 

Fr.  Anthony  Senat,  Jesuit,  March 
25,  1736,  Pontotoc  (near  Fulton), 
Miss. 

Seven  French  officers,  Comman- 
der Pierre  D'Artiquette,  Capt.  Fran- 
cois Marie  Bissot  de  Vincennes, 
Capt.  Louis  Dailebout  de  Boulonge, 
Capt.  Louis  Charles  du  Tisne,  Capt. 
Francois  Mariauchau  D'Esgly,  Capt. 
Pierre  Antoine  de  Tonty,  Capt 
Louis  Groston  de  St.  Ange,  Jr.,  and 
13  soldiers  were  burned  at  the  stake 
at  the  same  time  as  Fr.  Anthony 
Senat,  S.  J.,  by  the  Chickasaw  In- 
dians, March  25,  1736,  Pontotoc 
(near  Fulton),  Miss. 

Fr.  Francisco  Xavier  Silva,  Fran- 
ciscan, July  5,  1749,  near  Presidio 
del  Rio  Grande,  Tex. 

Fr.  Jose  Francisco  Ganzabal, 
Franciscan,  May  11,  1752,  Mission 
Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Candelaria, 
Tex. 

Fr.  Alonso  Firaldo  de  Terreros 
and  Fr.  Jose  Santiesteban,  Francis- 


cans, March  16,  1758,  Mission  San 
Saba,  Tex. 

Fr.  Luis  Jayme,  Franciscan,  Nov. 
4,  1775,  Mission  San  Diego,  Calif. 

Fr.  Francisco  Hermenegildo  Gar- 
ces  and  companions,  Frs.  Juan  An- 
tonio Barreneche,  Juan  Marcello 
Dias  and  Jose  Matias  Moreno,  Fran- 
ciscans. Frs.  Garces  and  Barrene- 
che, July  19,  1781,  at  Mission  La 
Purisima  Concepcion,  Calif.;  Frs. 
Dias  and  Moreno,  July  17,  1781,  at 
Mission  San  Pedro  y  San  Pablo 
de  Bicuner,  Calif. 

Fr.  Andres  Quintana,  Franciscan, 
Oct.  12,  1812,  near  Mission  Santa 
Cruz,  Calif, 

Fr.  Antonio  Diaz  de  Lion,  Francis- 
can, about  Nov.  4,  1834,  near  St. 
Augustine,  Tex. 

Archbishop  Charles  John  Seghers 
(martyr-apostle  of  Alaska),  Nov.  28, 
1886,  on  Yukon  River  near  Nulato, 
Alaska. 

Ff.  James  Edwin  Coyle,  Mobile 
diocesan  priest,  Aug.  19,  1921,  Birm- 
ingham, Ala. 

Other  cases,  for  which  satisfac- 
tory historical  evidence  has  not  yet 
been  found,  are  as  follows: 

Fr.  Pedro  de  Ortega,  Franciscan, 
1631,  New  Mexico  or  Texas. 

Fr.  Rene  Menard,  Jesuit,  about 
Aug.  15,  1661,  Northeastern  Wiscon- 
sin. 

Bro.  Marcos  Delgado,  Franciscan, 
1704,  Ayubale,  Fla. 

Fr.  Leonard  Vatier,  Franciscan, 
1715,  Wisconsin. 

Fr.  Domingo  de  Saraoz,  Francis- 
can, 1731,  Santa  Ana,  N.  Mex. 


THE    EIGHT    BEATITUDES 


1.  Blessed  are  the  poor  in  spirit, 
for    theirs    is    the    Kingdom    of 
Heaven. 

2.  Blessed    are    the    meek,    for 
they  shall  possess  the  land. 

3.  Blessed  are  they  that  mourn, 
for  they  shall  be  comforted. 

4.  Blessed  are  they  that  hunger 
and  thirst  after  justice,  for  they 
shall  have  their  fill. 


5.  Blessed  are  the  merciful,  for 
they  shall  obtain  mercy. 

6.  Blessed  are  the  clean  of  heart, 
for  they  shall  see  God. 

7.  Blessed  are  the  peacemakers, 
for  they  shall  be  called  the  children 
of  God. 

8.  Blessed   are  they  that  suffer 
persecution  for  justice's   sake  for 
theirs  is  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven. 


236 


THE   THREE  THEOLOGICAL  VIRTUES 
Faith  —  Hope  —  Charity 

THE    FOUR    CARDINAL   VIRTUES 
Prudence  —  Justice  —  Fortitude  —  Temperance 

FRUITS  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST 


1.  Charity,  which  enables  us  to 
love  God  above  all  things,  and  our 
neighbors   as   ourselves,   for   God's 
sake. 

2.  Joy,  which  helps  us  to  serve 
God  with  cheerful  hearts. 

3.  Peace,    which    keeps    us    un- 
moved in  our  minds,  and  helps  us 
to  enjoy  a  perpetual  calmness  of 
conscience,    in    the    midst    of    the 
storms  and  tempests  of  the  world. 

4.  Patience,  which  enables  us  to 
suffer  willingly  and  with  resigna- 
tion all  the  trials  of  this  life  for  the 
love  of  God. 

5.  Longanimity,  by  which  we  per- 
severe steadfastly  in  our  duty;  and 
never  stop  or  grow  weary,  what- 
ever trials  we  may  have  to  endure. 

6.  Goodness,  by  which  we  avoid 
injuring    others,    and    are    always 
ready  to  be  of  service  to  others. 

7.  Benignity,  which  causes  us  to 
conduct    ourselves    toward    others 


with  kindness  and  sweetness  of 
temper,  both  in  our  manners  and 
conversation. 

8.  Mildness,  which  keeps  back  all 
emotions  of  passion  and  anger,  and 
makes  a  person  really  amiable,  and 
beloved  both  by  God  and  man. 

9.  Fidelity,  which  enables  us  to 
keep  to  our  engagements  and  ful- 
fill our  promises. 

10.  Modesty,  which  enables  us  to 
observe    a    becoming    deportment 
and  reservation  in  all  our  outward 
actions,  and  avoid  bestowing  an  un- 
due  amount   of   praise   upon   our- 
selves. 

11.  Continence,  which  enables  us 
to   restrain   and    resist   carnal   in- 
clinations, and  become  abstemious 
both  in  our  meat  and  drink. 

12.  Chastity,  by  which  we  are  en- 
abled to  keep  a  pure  soul  in  a  pure 
body,  and  have  a  great  love  and 
esteem  for  angelic  purity. 


GIFTS   OF   THE    HOLY   GHOST 


1.  Wisdom,  which  teaches  us  to 
direct  our  whole  lives  and  actions 
to  the  honor  of  God  and  the  salva- 
tion of  our  souls. 

2.  Understanding,  which  enables 
us  to  comprehend  more  perfectly 
the  great  mysteries  of  our  faith. 

3.  Counsel,    which    leads    us    to 
make  a  right  choice  in  things  re- 
lating to  our  salvation,  and  to  avoid 
the  deceits  of  the  devil. 

4.  Fortitude,  whereby  we  are  en- 
abled to  undergo  and   despise  all 
dangers  for  God's  sake,  and  to  be 


firm  and  constant  in  the  perform- 
ance of  our  Christian  duties. 

5.  Knowledge,  by  which  we  know 
and   understand   the   will   of   God, 
learn  the  duties  of  religion,  and  dis- 
tinguish good  from  evil. 

6.  Piety,  which  makes  us  devout 
and  zealous  in  the  service  of  God, 
and  faithful  to  Him  in  all  things, 
and  practise  the  duties  of  our  re- 
ligion. 

7.  Fear  of  the  Lord,  which  checks 
our  rashness,  keeps  us  from  sin, 
and  makes  us  obedient  to  the  law  of 
God  and  dread  ever  offending  Him. 


THREE   EMINENT  GOOD  WORKS 
Prayer  —  Fasting  —  Almsgiving 

THE  EVANGELICAL  COUNSELS 

JPoverty  —  Chastity  —  Obedience 
237 


Apologetics; 

an  (Explanation  of  tfje  Catfjoltt  jf attf) 

(//  is  proposed  to  give  a  unified  explanation  of  the  Faith  of  the  Catholic  Church 
in  a  three-year  cycle.  This  is  to  be  a  more  detailed  treatment  than  that  contained  in 
the  section  "The  Doctrines  of  the  Church/'  and  is  meant  to  integrate  and  co-ordinate 
(he  truths  taught  there.  This  is  the  second  of  three  installments.) 

PART  IV 
THE  TESTIMONY  OF  JESUS 

Once  it  is  proven  that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  Son  of  God  (see  1941 
Almanac),  it  follows  that  what  He  taught  has  the  value  of  divine  truth. 
Christ  taught  implicitly  the  important  doctrines  held  by  the  Jews  which 
He  did  not  repudiate  outright.  His  position  was  so  important  in  the 
history  of  God's  relation  with  man,  that  He  had  an  obligation  to  correct 
any  notions  that  were  seriously  liable  to  lead  men  astray.  Christ's  ex- 
plicit teachings  are  to  be  found  principally  in  the  books  of  the  New 
Testament.  It  must  be  admitted,  however,  that  everything  which  He 
taught  during  His  public  life  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  Gospels  (see 
John  21  25).  The  other  books  of  the  New  Testament,  being  both  inspired 
and  the'  writings  of  those  who  were  His  intimate  followers,  must  be  con- 
sidered to  be  authentic  interpretations  of  His  doctrine.  In  a  similar  way, 
the  deposit  of  tradition,  and  the  formal  teaching  of  the  Church  which 
He  established  to  continued  His  work,  are  means  of  arriving  at  a 
knowledge  of  the  truths  which  He  revealed.  Even  though  the  Saviour 
Himself  as  far  as  the  written  records  show,  never  touched  on  certain 
truths,  if  the  Church,  guided  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  interprets  His  explicit 
words  and  the  books  of  Scripture  in  a  certain  way,  she  is  expressing  the 
mind  of  Christ. 

What  Christ  Affirmed  the  sinner  (Luke  15,  11-32;  15,  4-7). 

Yet  God  is  also  a  just  Father  Who 

A-  God  demands  an  account  of  our  steward- 

The    compatriots   of  Jesus  were  ship  and  of  our  talents   (Luke  16, 

stern  monotheists.  Hence  there  was  1-9;  Matt.  25,  14-30). 

no  need  for  Him  to  teach  them  the  our  Saviour  also  re-emphasized 

unity  of  God.    Jesus  did,  however,  the  fact  that  God  is  a  Pure  Spirit, 

reaffirm   this    first    article    of   the  To  the  Samaritan  woman  He  said: 

law,  "Hear,  O  Israel,  the  Lord  our  «Q.0a  jg  a  spirit,  and  they  who  wor- 

God  is  one  Lord"  (Deut  6,4),  with  skjp   Him  must   worship  in   spirit 

these   words    which    He    spoke   to  and  in  truth"  (John  4, 24). 

Satan:    "The  Lord  thy  God  shalt  Thiat    QO(J    jg     all-knowing,     al- 

thou  worship  and  Him  only  shalt  mighty  and  endowed  with  all  the 

thou  serve"   (Matt  4,11).  attributes  of  an  all-perfect  Being, 

The  goodness  of  God  was  an  ever  we   kave   aiready   seen   when   we 

recurrent  theme  in  the  Old  Testa-  read   ^941  Almanac)  of  the  exist- 

ment   Christ  expanded  it  by  teach-  ence    an<j   nature    of    God.     These 

ing  the  Fatherhood  of  God.  In  His  truths,  completely  accepted  by  the 

parables  and  again  in  His  direct  as-  jews>   Our  Divine  Saviour  presup- 

sertions,  Our  Lord  taught  that  God  poses  or  explicitly  confirms, 

is  our  Father.    He  depicted  for  us  r^a+i™ 

a   kind  Father  doing  good  to   all,  B-  Creation 

even   to   the   ungrateful    (Matt   5,  1.  Creation  by  God.    God  created 

45);   a  merciful  and  forgiving  Fa-  the  world.    This  is  the  first  truth 

ther  Who  welcomes   the   prodigal  in  the  book  of  Genesis.    The  Jews 

and  rejoices  at  the  conversion  of  accepted  it,   and  it  is   from  their 

238 


traditional  explanation  of  this  ac- 
count that  the  doctrine  of  the 
Church  is  largely  derived. 

They  held  that  God  produced  it 
from  nothing,  not  by  the  arrange- 
ment of  pre-existing  matter,  nor  by 
an  emanation  from  the  divine  sub- 
stance. The  origin  of  pre-existing 
could  not  be  explained.  By  His  na- 
ture God  alone  is  causeless;  there- 
fore He  must  be  the  cause  of  every- 
thing that  exists.  Creation  through 
an  emanation  of  the  divine  sub- 
stance would  involve  the  contra- 
diction of  a  simple  substance  di- 
viding itself  and  a  perfect  sub- 
stance becoming  what  it  had  not 
previously  been. 

Christ  implicitly  taught  that 
everything  that  exists  has  been 
created  by  God.  It  is  the  basic  as- 
sumption of  all  His  doctrine  that 
God  has  rights  over  the  world  — 
which  He  has  by  reason  of  having 
created  all  beings.  Of  man  in  par- 
ticular He  said:  "Have  you  not 
read  that  the  Creator,  from  the  be- 
ginning made  them  male  and  fe- 
male?" (Matt  19,4). 

The  Fourth  Lateran  Council 
(held  by  Innocent  III  in  1215)  de- 
clared that  there  is  One  Principle 
of  all,  Creator  of  all  things  visible 
and  invisible,  spiritual  and  mate- 
rial; Who,  by  His  omnipotent 
power  from  the  beginning  of  time, 
formed  of  nothing  two  kinds  of 
creatures,  spiritual  and  material, 
the  angels  and  the  world,  and  then 
man,  who  shares  in  both  kinds,  be- 
ing made  of  spirit  and  matter. 

God  did  not  create  the  world 
from  constraint  or  necessity,  but 
of  His  own  free  Will.  The  Vatican 
Council  of  1870  teaches  that  God 
acted  "from  His  own  goodness  and 
by  His  omnipotent  power,  not  to 
increase  nor  to  acquire  happiness, 
but  to  manifest  His  perfection  by 
the  good  things  that  He  imparts  to 
His  creatures,  and  according  to  His 
absolutely  free  decree." 

2.  Meaning  of  Creation.  By  crea- 
tion we  mean  the  production  out 
of  nothing.  The  words  "out  of 
nothing"  must  be  understood  nega- 
tively and  not  positively.  They  do 


not  mean  that  God  took  "nothing" 
and  made  the  world  out  of  it,  but 
that  He  made  the  world  without 
taking  anything.  Occasionally  we 
hear  the  objection  that  creation  is 
impossible  because  nothing  can  be 
made  out  of  nothing.  Creation  con- 
sidered as  the  appearance  of  some- 
thing where  before  there  was  ab- 
solutely nothing  is  certainly  ab- 
surd. But  Creation  as  we  use  the 
term  supposes  an  Almighty  God 
Who  called  all  things  into  being 
by  an  act  of  His  omnipotent  Will. 
This  fact  forms  the  background 
of  all  revelation,  and  again  and 
again  the  sacred  authors  refer  to 
it.  In  the  Psalms  we  read:  "By 
the  word  of  the  Lord  the  heavens 
were  established;  and  all  the  power 
of  them  by  the  spirit  of  His  mouth . . . 
for  He  spoke  and  they  were  made: 
He  commanded  and  they  were  cre- 
ated" (Ps.  32,  6,  9).  The  mother  of 
the  Machabees  voiced  the  belief  of 
all  the  Jews  when  she  spoke  thus 
to  her  son:  "I  beseech  thee,  my 
son,  look  upon  heaven  and  earth, 
and  all  that  is  in  them;  and  con- 
sider that  God  made  them  out  of 
nothing,  and  mankind  also"  (2 
Mach.  7,  28). 

This  tradition  of  the  Jews,  ap- 
proved at  least  implicitly  by  Christ, 
passed  intact  into  the  tradition  of 
the  Church  of  Christ.  The  Fathers 
of  the  Church  taught  the  doctrine 
of  creation  of  the  world  from 
nothing.  Tatian  and  Origen  state 
this  truth  explicitly,  while  Tertul- 
lian  wrote  a  book  against  Hermo- 
genes  who  held  the  independent  ex- 
istence of  matter.  Tertullian  says 
that  there  is  one  God  alone,  no 
other  than  the  Creator  of  the 
world,  Who  by  His  word  produced 
all  things  from  nothing. 

3.  The  Time  of  the  World's  Crea- 
tion. The  world  was  not  created 
from  eternity  but  in  time,  or  rather 
with  time.  This  has  been  defined 
by  the  Fourth  Lateran  Council  and 
the  Vatican  Council.  Before  crea- 
tion there  was  no  time.  This  is 
the  measure  of  movement  or 
change,  and  it  implies  succession. 
Before  the  instant  of  creation  there, 


239 


was  only  the  Creator,  and  no  chang- 
ing creature;  therefore  there  was 
no  actual  time,  but  only  the  possi- 
bility of  time. 

In  Holy  Scripture  eternity  is  de- 
scribed as  an  attribute  of  God 
alone:  "I  the  Lord  am  the  first  and 
the  last"  (Isaias  41,4).  St.  John 
expresses  it  in  this  manner:  "I  am 
the  Alpha  and  the  Omega,  the  be- 
ginning and  the  end,  says  the  Lord 
God,  Who  is  and  Who  was  and  Who 
is  coming,  the  Almighty"  (Apoc. 
1,8).  In  the  Psalms  we  read:  "Be- 
fore the  mountains  were  made,  or 
the  earth  and  the  world  was 
formed;  from  eternity  and  to  eter- 
nity thou  art  God"  (Ps.  89, 2).  These 
passages  from  the  inspired  text 
rule  out  the  idea  that  the  world 
could  have  existed  from  eternity 
even  in  its  rude  and  formless  state. 

4.  The    Cause   of   Creation.     God 

alone  is  the  immediate  efficient 
Cause  of  Creation,  and  no  creature 
was  used  as  an  intermediary  in  the 
act  of  creating.  Scripture  tells  us 
that  all  things  were  made  at  the 
bidding  of  God.  "He  spoke  and  they 
were  made:  He  commanded  and 
they  were  created"  (Ps.  32,  9). 
"Thou  Thyself,  0  Lord  alone,  Thou 
hast  made  heaven,  and  the  heaven 
of  heavens  and  all  the  host  there- 
of" (2  Esdras  9,  6).  "I  am  the  Lord, 
that  make  all  things,  that  alone 
stretch  out  the  heavens,  that  estab- 
lish the  earth,  and  there  is  none 
with  Me"  (Isaias  44,  24).  These 
passages  exclude  the  notion  of  any 
instrumental  cause. 

The  Fathers  of  the  Church  often 
state  that  the  making  of  the  world 
was  not  done  by  angels  or  by  any 
other  creature,  but  by  God  the  Fa- 
ther through  the  Son.  For  instance, 
St.  Irenaeus  says :  "Needing  no  one, 
by  the  Word  He  founded  and  made 
all  things,  neither  did  He  need  the 
angels  as  helpers  for  those  things 
that  were  made.  .  .  .  For  this  is 
proper  to  the  supremacy  of  God 
that  He  need  no  other  agents  for 
establishing  those  things  which  are 
made.  His  own  Word  is  both  suit- 
able and  sufficient  for  the  making 
of  all  things." 


5.  Creation  Is  Good.  All  creatures 
made  by  God   are  good.    Evil  en- 
tered the  world  only  because  of  the 
abuse  of  their  free  will  by  certain 
creatures.    This  is  clear  from  the 
frequently  repeated  words  of  Gene- 
sis:   "And    God    saw   that   it   was 

good God   saw   all   things   that 

He  had  made,  and  they  were  ex- 
ceedingly good."    The   doctrine   of 
Zoroaster  and  the  Manicheans,  who 
held  that  certain  creatures  are  evil 
and  were  created  evil  from  the  be- 
ginning, is  therefore  wrong.    God. 
being    the    Highest    Good,    cannot 
will  or  create  evil. 

Yet  the  world  as  created  by  God 
is  not  the  most  perfect  of  all  pos- 
sible worlds.  For  since  the  Good- 
ness and  Power  of  God  are  infinite, 
they  cannot  be  exhausted  by  a  fin- 
ite work.  However  it  can  be  said 
that  the  world  is  relatively  the  best, 
inasmuch  as  God  chose  the  best 
means  for  attaining  the  end  which 
He  proposed  to  Himself  in  creating. 

6.  God  the   Exemplary   Cause  of 
Creation.  God,  and  He  alone,  is  the 
Efficient  Cause  of  all  creatures;  He 
also    is   the    Exemplary    Cause    of 
creatures   because   He   created  all 
things  according  to  the  eternal  idea 
that  He  had.   "Thou  hast  made  all 
things    in    wisdom"     (Ps.  103, 24). 
God    first    conceives,    and    by    an 
eternal  idea,   what   He   wishes   to 
make.    The  idea  thus  conceived  is 
the    example    according    to    which 
things  are  created  in  time. 

7.  The    Primary    and    Secondary 
Ends  of  Creation.  The  first  purpose 
for   creation   is   the   manifestation 
and   glorification   of  the   Goodness 
of  God.    Since  He  enjoys  the  full- 
ness of  being,  God  is  sufficient  unto 
Himself  and  must  find  perfect  hap- 
piness in  the  contemplation  of  Him- 
self and  the  possession  of  His  per- 
fections.   He  does  not  and  cannot 
need    any   being   outside   Himself. 
When  therefore  He  creates,  it  is 
not  to   add   anything   to   Himself, 
but  only  to  manifest  His  fullness 
of  being  by  sharing  His  perfections 
with  creatures.    This  results  in  an 
added,  though  not  needed,  recogni- 
tion of  His  perfections  on  the  part 


.,240 


of  creatures.  The  recognition  of 
God's  goodness  is  His  glory.  Hence 
in  creation  God's  first  purpose  is 
the  increase  of  His  own  glory.  This, 
however,  is  external  glory  of  God, 
that  which  others  give  Him  by  rec- 
ognizing His  perfections;  His  in- 
ternal glory,  which  is  the  knowl- 
edge that  He  has  of  His  own  in- 
finite perfections,  cannot  be  in- 
creased. 

Irrational  creatures  objectively 
promote  the  external  glory  of  God 
inasmuch  as  they  manifest  some 
perfection  which  He  has  given 
them.  Intellectual  creatures,  how- 
ever, formally  or  consciously  glori- 
fy the  Creator,  by  knowing,  prais- 
ing, loving  and  adoring  Him  for 
His  own  sake  and  His  gifts  to 
them. 

The  second  reason  for  creation 
is  the  good  of  the  creatures.  By 
willing  to  communicate  His  own 
perfections  to  creatures  at  the 
same  time  God  wills  their  good. 
The  creatures,  in  turn,  by  glori- 
fying God  promote  their  own  per- 
fection and  happiness.  God  is  the 
highest  Good  and  the  closer  created 
good  comes  to  God,  the  more  it 
shares  in  this  supreme  Good  which 
is  the  end  and  happiness  of  all 
things. 

8.  The  Account  of  Creation  by 
Moses.  The  account  of  creation  "in 
the  first  three  chapters  of  Genesis 
is  historical,  i.  e.,  the  events  it  nar- 
rates really  happened.  The  unani- 
mous tradition  of  the  Jewish  peo- 
ple and  the  Church  of  Christ  leave 
no  doubt.  The  very  nature  of  the 
book  of  Genesis  proclaims  its  his- 
torical character:  everything  in  it 
is  referred  to  as  a  fact  and  not  a 
fable.  In  addition,  there  is  a  mar- 
velous connection  among  the  first 
three  chapters  themselves,  and  be- 
tween them  and  the  rest  of  the 
book,  showing  that  just  as  in  the 
following  chapters  there  is  nar- 
rated the  origin  of  the  Jewish  peo- 
ple, so  in  the  first  chapters  there 
is  narrated  the  origin  of  the  whole 
human  race  and  the  world  itself. 

The  Mosaic  narration  is  popular 


and  not  scientific.  Moses  did  not 
intend  to  write  a  scientific  treatise; 
he  did  not  intend  to  teach  astrono- 
my, biology,  geology  or  any  other 
physical  science;  what  he  did  in- 
tend to  teach  was  the  divine  origin 
of  the  universe  and  everything  in 
it.  He  did  not  describe  scientifical- 
ly the  nature  of  light,  nor  the  geo- 
logical strata;  he  rather  described 
things  as  they  appeared  to  the  peo- 
ple and  conformed  to  their  thought 
and  language.  Nor  did  he  describe 
the  complete  order  of  creation;  he 
wrote  of  those  things  that  were 
better  known  to  the  people,  like 
day  and  night,  sea  and  land,  fishes 
and  birds,  to  emphasize  the  fact 
that  all  things  were  made  by  God. 
Moreover,  he  did  not  follow  the 
chronological  order  of  creation. 
Thus,  when  we  read  that  light  was 
made  on  the  first  day  and  the  sun 
on  the  fourth  day,  we  cannot  infer 
from  this  alone  that  light  came  be- 
fore the  sun.  Moses  wished  pri- 
marily to  show  that  both  light  and 
the  sun  came  from  God. 

Sometimes  he  used  metaphorical 
or  anthropomorphic  sayings  to  de- 
scribe something  more  vividly.  For 
example  we  read:  "God  said:  Be 
light  made.  And  light  was  made" 
(Gen.  1,  3).  This  cannot  be  literally 
accepted  as  physical  talk  on  the 
part  of  God. 

The  Church  has  given  no  declara- 
tion on  the  meaning  of  the  six  days 
of  creation  in  the  Mosaic  account, 
nor  has  the  Church  made  any  defi- 
nite pronouncement  on  the  theories 
held  by  Catholic  scholars  to  explain 
this  term.  We  may,  therefore,  adopt 
any  theory  that  does  not  deny  or 
exclude  the  historical  character  of 
the  first  three  chapters  of  Genesis. 
In  order  to  solve  difficulties  it  is 
not  necessary  to  seek  positive 
agreements  between  the  first  chap- 
ter of  Genesis  in  which  matters  are 
not  described  in  a  scientific  man- 
ner, and  the  natural  sciences.  It 
suffices  to  show  that  there  can  be 
no  discrepancy  between  the  popular 
but  historical  narration  which  does 
not  strictly  adhere  to  the  chrono- 


logical  order,  and  tlie  sciences 
which  attempt  to  describe  a  strict 
chronological  order.  If  some  con- 
tend that  incredibly  long  periods  of 
time  were  necessary  for  the  forma- 
tion of  the  world  as  it  is,  and  that 
the  order  described  by  Moses  in  no 
way  corresponds  to  the  order  which 
geology  and  paleontology  manifest, 
we  reply  that  Moses  did  not  exclude 
long  periods  of  this  sort  as  we  can 
see  from  the  different  legitimate  in- 
terpretations adopted  by  theologians. 

It  is  well  to  note  that  the  narra- 
tion of  creation  in  the  book  of  Gene- 
sis excels  all  other  accounts  that 
have  been  found  among  various 
peoples,  In  these  latter  we  find 
many  things  that  dishonor  God, 
such  as  the  eternity  of  matter, 
polytheism,  pantheism  and  dualism. 
But  the  Mosaic  account,  although 
written  for  a  simple  and  unlettered 
people,  proposes  nothing  that  is  not 
worthy  of  God,  while  it  excludes  all 
the  errors  of  the  pagans.  In  it  the 
doctrine  of  creation  is  placed  in 
safety,  and  the  eternity  of  matter 
is  condemned.  In  it  we  see  that 
God  alone  created  all  things.  He 
alone  is  the  Lord  of  all;  thus  poly- 
theism and  pantheism  are  rejected. 
Finally  in  it  we  read  that  God  made 
all  things  good,  so  Manicheism  is 
destroyed. 

9.  The  Possibility  of  Evolution. 
There  are  two  principal  theories 
of  evolution:  (1)  absolute  evolu- 
tion, which,  rejecting  the  existence 
of  a  Creator,  holds  the  eternity  of 
matter,  spontaneous  generation  of 
living  things  by  the  power  of  mat- 
ter alone,  and  the  successive  chang- 
ing of  species  without  God's  help; 
and  (2)  mitigated  evolution,  which, 
acknowledging  the  existence  of  a 
Supreme  Being,  holds  that  God  di- 
rectly created  the  primitive  vegeta- 
tive and  animal  species  giv- 
ing them  the  power  to  produce 
other  species  which  He  thus  cre- 
ated indirectly.  This  latter  holds 
that  animal  life  could  not  have 
evolved  from  vegetative  life  with- 
out the  intervention  of  God,  and 
that  God  likewise  intervened  in  the 


formation  of  the  human  body.  Ab- 
solute evolution  contradicts  not 
only  faith  but  reason  also.  The 
ideas  embodied  are  self-contradic- 
tory. Mitigated  evolution,  on  the 
other  hand,  cannot  be  said  to  con- 
tradict the  account  of  creation  in 
Genesis,  which  Our  Saviour  ac- 
cepted and  which  we  must  hold.  It 
can  be  proposed  as  a  hypothesis 
and  is  admitted  by  many  Catholics 
who  give  good  reasons  to  support 
their  views. 

C.  Angels 

1.  The   Existence   of  Angels.    An 
angel  is  a  purely  spiritual  creature 
with  a  distinct  and  intellectual  per- 
sonality.   That   angels    exist,   is   a 
part  of  the  Catholic  faith.   It  is  de- 
duced from  the  Old  Testament,  and 
Our  Saviour  made  frequent  refer- 
ences  to  angels.    In   the   Book  of 
Tobias    (3,25),    for    example,    we 
read:  "The  holy  angel  of  the  Lord, 
Raphael,   was    sent   to   heal   them 
both."    The  books  of  Genesis,  Exo- 
dus,   Numbers,    Zacharias,    Macha- 
bees  and  Daniel,  especially,  make 
frequent  mention  of  angels. 

In  the  Gospels  we  read  of  an 
angel  appearing  to  Zachary  to  an- 
nounce the  birth  of  John  (Luke  1, 
5-20),  to  the  Blessed  Virgin  to  an- 
nounce the  Incarnation  (Luke  1,  26- 
38),  and  to  Joseph  to  inform  him 
of  the  miraculous  conception  of 
Christ  (Matt.  1,  20-21)  and  later  to 
announce  the  death  of  Herod  (Matt. 
2, 13).  Angels  appeared  to  the  shep- 
herds, saying:  "Glory  to  God  in  the 
highest"  (Luke  2,  9-14).  They  min- 
istered to  Christ  after  His  tempta- 
tion (Matt.  4,  11).  Angels  appear 
repeatedly  to  announce  His  Resur- 
rection (Matt.  28;  Mark  16;  Luke 
24;  John  20  and  21).  Our  Lord  re- 
fers to  them  explicitly  on  many  oc- 
casions (Matt.  13,  41;  13,  49;  18, 10; 
24,  31;  26,  53;  Luke  12,  8-9;  15,  10; 
20,  36;  John  1,  51;  5,  4). 

2.  The  Nature  of  Angels.   The  an- 
gels, as  Scripture  reveals,  are  real 
and  not  mere  abstractions  of  the 
mind.    They  free  Lot  from  Sodom 
(Gen.  19,  16);  they  guard  men  (Ps. 


2421 


90,  11-12);  they  adore  God  (Heb. 
1,  6);  some  of  them  sin  and  are 
cast  into  hell  (2  Peter  2,  4).  These 
acts  could  not  be  performed  by  ab- 
stractions—  they  must  belong  to 
real  beings. 

Angels  are  inferior  to  God  since 
they  were  created  by  Him  and  are 
sent  by  Him  as  servants:  "In  Him 
were  created  all  things . . .  whether 
Thrones,  or  Dominations,  or  Prin- 
cipalities, or  Powers"  (Col.  1,  16). 
"Are  they  not  all  ministering  spir- 
its, sent  for  service,  for  the  sake 
of  those  who  shall  inherit  salva- 
tion?" (Heb.  1, 14).  Angels  are,  how- 
ever, superior  to  men.  It  is  said  of 
man:  "Thou  has  made  him  a  little 
less  than  the  angels"  (Ps.  8,  6).  Of 
the  angels  it  is  said  that  they  "are 
greater  in  strength  and  power"  (2 
Peter  2,11). 

That  angels  are  spirits  is  proven 
indirectly  from  the  Scriptures. 
Sometimes  they  appear  in  bodily 
form,  but  then  they  are  spoken  of 
as  assuming  that  form.  The  Bible 
never  speaks  of  a  body  which  be- 
longs to  them  naturally. 

Angels  have  an  intellect,  and  it 
is  commonly  thought  that  they 
know  God  by  innate  ideas,  that 
they  also  know  the  future  neces- 
sary things  but  not  future  free 
events,  i.  e.,  events  dependent  upon 
the  free  will  of  man.  Angels  like- 
wise enjoy  free  will.  This  is  evi- 
dent from  the  fact  that  some  angels 
sinned  and  were  punished,  while 
others  persevered  and  were  re- 
warded with  the  Beatific  Vision. 
Reward  and  punishment  presuppose 
free  will. 

Angels  exist  in  a  place,  but  not 
in  the  same  way  as  bodies  exist. 
The  presence  of  bodies  is  circum- 
scribed by  their  dimensions  and 
hence  they  are  said  to  be  present 
circumscriptively.  The  presence  of 
angels,  however,  is  like  the  pres- 
ence of  the  soul  —  entirely  in  every 
part  of  the  body  it  occupies.  Angels 
are  present  definitively.  An  angel 
is  not  everywhere  because  it  is  not 
infinite;  he  is  limited  to  some 
place,  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the 


theologians,  is  the  entire  place  of 
his  activity. 

The  power  of  angels  is  much 
greater  than  that  of  men.  St.  Peter 
asserts  that  "angels  are  greater  in 
strength  and  power"  (2  Peter  2, 
11) .  This  power  is  illustrated  many 
times,  e.  g.,  in  Isaias  37,  36,  and 
Daniel  14,  35.  How  far  this  power 
extends  we  do  not  know;  we  do 
know  that  they  cannot  do  any- 
thing which  God's  Will  does  not 
permit. 

3.  The  Grace  and  Fall  of  the  An- 
gels. Grace  was  given  to  all  the  an- 
gels, as  we  see  from  the  names 
applied  to  them  by  Scripture,  as 
"the  sons  of  God"  (Job  38,  7) ;  "the 
saints"  (Daniel  8,13).  Given  a  pe- 
riod of  trial,  many  of  them  re- 
mained faithful  to  God  and  thus  mer- 
ited the  Beatific  Vision.  But  other  an- 
gels sinned  through  their  own  fault 
and  were  sent  to  eternal  punish- 
ments. It  is  commonly  believed  that 
the  first  sin  of  the  angels  was  the 
sin  of  pride,  for,  according  to  Scrip- 
ture, "Pride  is  the  beginning  of  all 
sin"  (Ecclus.  10,15).  Again  we 
read:  "Never  suffer  pride  to  reign 
in  thy  mind  or  in  thy  words:  for 
from  it  all  perdition  took  its  be- 
ginning" (Tobias  4,14).  After  their 
sin,  the  bad  angels  were  cast  into 
eternal  punishments:  "God  did  not 
spare  the  angels  when  they  sinned, 
but  dragged  them  down  by  infernal 
ropes  to  Tartarus"  (2  Peter  2,  4). 
"And  the  angels  also  who  did  not 
preserve  their  original  state,  but 
forsook  their  abode,  He  has  kept  in 
everlasting  chains  under  darkness 
for  the  judgment  of  the  great  day" 
(Jude  6).  Jesus  gave  divine  appro- 
bation to  the  belief  that  some  of 
the  angels  fell,  when  He  said:  "I 
was  watching  Satan  fall  as  light- 
ning from  heaven"  (Luke  10,  18). 

D.   Man 

1.  The  Origin  of  Man.  There  are 
certain  evolutionary  theories  on  the 
origin  of  man.  (1)  The  materialists 
or  positivists  (pure  evolutionists) 
contend  that  both  the  body  and  the 
soul  of  man,  by  the  natural  laws 


243 


of  evolution,  with,  no  intervention 
from  a  First  Cause,  take  their  ori- 
gin from  the  ape  or  the  common 
parent  of  both.  This  is  opposed  to 
right  reason,  since  it  does  not  as- 
sign a  sufficient  explanation,  and 
to  the  teaching  of  faith.  (2)  The 
spiritualists  or  mitigated  evolution- 
ists hold  that  under  the  action  of 
laws  established  by  God,  the  body 
of  man  came  from  the  brutes, 
gradually  evolving  so  that  it  be- 
came fit  to  receive  a  rational  soul 
directly  created  by  God. 

Catholic  faith  teaches  that  our 
first  parents  were  formed  by  God  in 
both  their  body  and  soul.  In  Gene- 
sis we  read:  "And  the  Lord  God 
formed  man  of  the  slime  of  the 
earth:  and  breathed  into  his  face 
the  breath  of  life"  (Gen.  2,7).  "He 
took  one  of  his  ribs  and  filled  up 
flesh  for  it.  And  the  Lord  God 
built  the  rib  which  He  took  from 
Adam  into  a  woman"  (Gen.  2,  21- 
22).  The  Church  has  not  defined  the 
matter,  but  the  first  meaning  of  the 
words  is  the  immediate  creation  of 
both  man's  body  and  soul.  It  has 
been  the  prevailing  interpretation 
of  the  Church  that  God  created 
man's  body  immediately  and  direct- 
ly, though  it  is  not  an  article  of 
faith.  The  Church  is  prudent  in 
maintaining  her  traditional  posi- 
tion until  solid  evidence  in  support 
of  the  contrary  view  can  be  pro- 
duced. 

2.  The  Unity  of  the  Human  Race. 
The  unity  of  the  human  race  has 
been  denied  by  the  Pre-adamites 
who  hold  that  men  existed  before 
Adam,  and  that  Adam  is  the  father 
of  the  Jews  but  not  of  the  Gentiles. 
The  Co-adamites  contend  that  many 
human  families  lived  at  the  same 
time  as  Adam.  Both  these  views 
contradict  the  faith  of  Christ. 
Scripture  says  that  no  man  existed 
when  Adam  was  created:  "There 
was  not  a  man  to  till  the  earth" 
(Gen.  2,  5).  "But  for  Adam  there 
was  not  found  a  helper  like  him- 
self" (Gen.  2,  20).  St.  Paul,  in 
preaching  to  the  Athenians,  said: 
"From  one  man  He  has  created  the 


whole  human  race*'  (Acts  17,  26). 
The  structural  unity,  as  well  as  the 
psychological  and  physical  same- 
ness in  all  essential  characteristics, 
bespeaks  an  identity  of  nature  that 
can  only  with  difficulty  be  explained 
by  anything  but  a  single  common 
parent  as  the  source  of  all  men. 

3.  The    Nature   of   Man.    Man  is 
composed  of  an  organic  body  and 
an  immortal,  rational  soul,  the  two 
elements    coalescing   into   one   na- 
ture. God  formed  the  body  of  Adam 
from   the  slime   of  the   earth  and 
breathed  into  it  the  breath  of  life. 
The  breath  of  life  is  the  spiritual 
soul   that   gives   life   to   man   and 
makes  him  the  image  of  God. 

4.  The   Immortality   of  the   Soul. 
There   are  many  passages  in  the 
Old  Testament  that  prove  the  im- 
mortality of  the  soul.   We  read  of 
the    place    of   peace    where    souls 
abide   (Gen.  15,  15),  of  the  resur- 
rection   of    certain    dead    people 
(e.  g.,  3  Kings  17,  17-24),  and  of  the 
practice  of  calling  up  the  dead  (1 
Kings  28,  8).    The  spirituality  and 
immortality  of  the  soul  are  espe- 
cially clear  in  the  prophets,  in  the 
sapiential  books  and  in  the  book 
of  Machabees.   Our  Lord  confirmed 
this   belief.    Indeed   all    Scripture, 
particularly  the  New  Testament,  ac- 
cepts it  as  a  basic  assumption.  Our 
Lord   said:    "Do  not  be   afraid  of 
those  who  kill  the  body  but  cannot 
kill  the  soul"  (Matt.  10,  28).    And 
in  the  same  Gospel  (22,  31-32)  "As 
to   the   resurrection   of   the    dead, 
have  you  not  read  what  was  spoken 
to  you  by  God,  saying:  'I  am  the 
God  of  Abraham,  and  the  God  of 
Isaac,  and  the  God  of  Jacob'?    He 
is  not  the  God  of  the  dead,  but  of 
the  living."    These  passages  leave 
no  doubt  that  the  revelation  of  God 
teaches  that  there  is  in  us  an  ele- 
ment distinct  from  the  body  that 
does  not  crumble  when  the  body 
dies.      The     Church     has     always 
taught  the   immortality   and   spir- 
ituality of  the  soul.    Thus  we  read 
in  the  Apostolic  Constitutions :  "We 
confess  that  the  soul  in  us  is  in- 
corporeal and  immortal." 


244 


What  Chrisjt  Taught 


A.  Man's  Duties  towards  God 
The  first  duty  of  man  towards 
God  is  to  know,  serve  and  love  Him 
here  on  earth  so  as  to  be  happy 
with  Him  forever  in  Heaven.  In 
other  words,  the  theological  virtues 
of  faith,  hope  and  charity  occupy 
the  first  place  in  the  Christian  life. 
Faith  teaches  us  to  know  God  as 
our  supernatural  end;  hope  arouses 
in  us  the  longing  to  possess  Him; 
love  or  charity  unites  us  to  Him 
as  far  as  this  is  possible  here  on 
earth.  These  divine  virtues  are  in- 
fused into  the  soul  as  permanent 
habits  to  enable  us  to  perform  the 
functions  of  the  supernatural  life. 
The  infused  virtues,  like  sanctify- 
ing grace,  can  be  lost,  each  by  the 
contrary  sin :  charity,  by  every  mor- 
tal sin;  hope,  by  every  grievous  sin 
against  hope  (presumption  and  des- 
pair) ;  faith,  by  a  grievous  sin 
against  this  virtue  (infidelity,  apos- 
tasy and  formal  heresy).  Hence, 
frequent  acts  of  faith,  hope  and 
charity  are  necessary  to  strengthen 
these  virtues  in  our  heart. 

To  be  saved,  everyone  with  the 
use  of  reason  must  have  faith,  "the 
beginning  of  salvation,  the  founda- 
tion and  root  of  justification." 
Christ  taught  this  when  He  said: 
"He  who  does  not  believe,  shall  be 
condemned"  (Mark  16,  16).  The 
Catholic  faith  is  the  true  Faith,  for 
faith  must  be  universal,  all  embrac- 
ing, believing  all  truths  revealed 
by  God  and  committed  to  the  cus- 
tody of  the  unerring  teacher  of 
truth,  appointed  by  Infallible  Truth 
Himself,  Jesus  Christ.  Our  faith 
must  be  firm,  living  and  efficacious. 
It  is  not  a  theory,  it  is  a  practice 
and  a  way  of  life.  "Faith . . .  with- 
out works  is  dead"  (James  2,  26). 

Hope  confirms  faith,  and  facili- 
tates charity.  We  hope  because 
God  is  powerful  and  good,  and 
faithful  to  His  promises  of  salva- 
tion and  of  the  means  to  attain  it. 
Without  hope  we  despair  of  God's 
help;  with  too  much  hope  we  pre- 
sume on  God  to  save  us  and  we 
fail  to  do  our  part  in  saving  our 
souls. 


The  greatest  of  the  virtues  is 
charity,  the  crown  of  Christian  per- 
fection. Charity  enables  us  to  love 
God  because  of  His  infinite  Good- 
ness with  all  the  might  of  our  com- 
plex nature.  This  Our  Saviour 
called  "the  greatest  and  the  first 
commandment"  (Matt.  22,  38).  By 
every  mortal  sin  we  express  a  hate 
for  God,  and  the  charity  diffused 
in  our  hearts  by  the  Holy  Ghost 
is  extinguished.  Next  to  love  of 
God  comes  love  of  our  neighbor 
(Matt.  22,39). 

These  theological  virtues  are 
manifested  principally  by  man's  in- 
ternal worship  of  God,  that  is,  by 
acknowledging  God's  supreme  do- 
minion over  all  things,  and  by  sub- 
mitting to  His  laws.  Further,  as 
man  is  composed  of  body  and  soul, 
a  creature  material  and  spiritual 
in  one,  so  Ms  worship  of  his  Cre- 
ator is  not  merely  internal,  but 
also  external  and  manifested  by 
signs  and  symbols,  rites  and  cere- 
monies. Christ  became  incarnate  to 
draw  us  to  spiritual  things.  This  is 
the  meaning  of  adoring  God  "in 
spirit  and  in  truth"  (John  4,  23), 
true  to  our  composite  nature  and 
social  character.  External  profes- 
sion of  faith,  prayer,  oaths,  vows, 
etc.,  are  acts  of  religion  immediate- 
ly directed  to  God.  Sins  against  re- 
ligion are  idolatry,  divination  and 
magic,  false  worship  and  irrational 
worship  (superstition),  and  sacri- 
lege. It  is  well  to  note,  however, 
that  we  do  not  adore  images  of 
Christ  and  of  the  saints,  but  we 
honor  the  persons  represented  by 
the  images. 

B.  Man's  Duties  towards  His 
Neighbor 

Christ  died  for  all  men,  good  and 
bad;  therefore,  we  must  love  all 
men,  friends  and  enemies  alike. 
This  is  the  new  commandment  of 
the  new  law  (John  13,  34),  and  the 
fulfilment  of  the  law  and  the 
prophets  (Matt.  22,  40;  Rom.  13, 
10).  It  is  the  keystone  of  the  Chris- 
tian religion  (John  13,  35). 

But  besides  this  duty  of  charity, 
man  has  a  strict  duty  of  justice 


245 


towards  his  fellowman,  of  giving 
to  each  his  due,  rational,  social, 
economic,  legal,  etc.  It  is  a  strict 
duty  to  assist  our  neighbor  when- 
ever his  life  is  in  danger.  Such  in- 
justices as  murder  and  duelling  are 
unlawful,  except  when  self-defense 
or  the  good  of  society  demands  it. 
God  alone  is  master  of  life  and 
death;  man  is  the  administrator. 
Alms-deeds  is  a  strict  duty  when 
we  can  relieve  those  in  dire  want. 
We  are  hound,  furthermore,  to  re- 
store ill-gotten  goods,  and  to  make 
reparation  for  co-operation  in 
crimes  of  injustice.  We  violate  our 
neighbor's  rights  by  detraction, 
rash  judgment  and  falsehood. 

C.  Man's  Social  Duties 

Various  special  duties  arise  from 
the  divinely  ordained  diversity  of 
states  and  conditions  of  life.  Chil- 
dren owe  to  their  parents,  and  in- 
feriors to  their  superiors,  the  duties 
of  reverence,  love  and  gratitude, 
and  obedience.  Parents  also  have 
duties  towards  their  children;  to 
educate  them  and  provide  for  their 
temporal  and  spiritual  well-being. 
Masters  and  employers  must  have 
special  care  for  the  material  and 
spiritual  good  of  their  servants  and 
employees,  so  as  not  to  hinder  their 
progress  to  God.  Whoever  neglects 
this  last-mentioned  obligation  is 
called  by  St.  Paul  a  denier  of  the 
faith  and  "worse  than  an  unbe- 
liever" (1  Tim.  5,  8). 

Man  likewise  has  obligations 
towards  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
authorities.  To  the  civil  authorities, 
we  owe  honor,  obedience  and  loyal- 
ty, for  their  power  is  from  God 
(John  19,  11),  and,  when  properly 
used,  demands  our  respect  (Rom. 
13,  1-3).  We  must  also  pay  just 
taxes  for  the  common  good  (Rom. 
13,  7),  and  defend  our  land  with  life 
and  limb.  Such  sacrifice  is  at  times 
necessary  for  the  proper  function 
and  support  of  the  social  order 
founded  by  God  to  promote  the  ma- 
terial and  spiritual  welfare  of  men. 
Even  more  urgent  is  his  obligation 
as  regards  tfce  ecclesiastical  au- 


thorities appointed  by  the  Holy 
Ghost  for  the  immediate  and  pri- 
mary end  of  man  —  the  salvation 
of  his  soul. 

D.    Man's    Duties   towards    Himself 

Well-regulated  self-love  is  a  duty 
presupposed  in  the  divine  com- 
mand: "Thou  shalt  love  thy  neigh- 
bor as  thyself"  (Matt.  22,  39).  We 
love  God  when  we  love  ourselves 
rightly,  for  we  are  images  of  God. 
We  love  ourselves  rightly  when  we 
seek  what  is  truly  good  and  flee 
what  will  hinder  us  from  securing 
our  last  end  —  union  with  God. 
Hence  we  must  not  needlessly  ex- 
pose our  life  to  danger  by  excesses, 
nor  may  we  end  it  by  suicide,  for 
life  is  a  necessary  condition  for 
gaining  our  final  end.  However,  at 
times  we  are  bound  to  endanger 
our  life  for  the  good  of  another, 
or  the  public  good.  We  are  bound 
to  sanctify  our  bodies  by  subduing 
our  evil  passions,  and  we  must  use 
the  God-given  means  to  do  this 
(such  as  avoiding  sinful  occasions, 
going  to  confession  periodically  and 
receiving  Communion).  We  must 
seek  a  good  name,  but  by  lawful 
means,  not  by  hypocrisy  and  du- 
plicity. Renunciation  of  self,  honor 
and  possessions  for  the  sake  of  God 
and  neighbor  is  extraordinary;  it  is 
not  obliging  on  any  man. 

The  right  to  possess  as  personal 
property  the  material  goods  of  this 
earth  is  not  confined  to  common 
possession,  but  extended  to  all  in- 
dividuals of  the  human  race.  This 
right  existed  from  the  dawn  of  his- 
tory. It  is  implied  in  the  command 
of  God:  "Thou  shalt  not  covet  thy 
neighbor's  house  .  .  .  wife  ...  ox  ... 
ass,  nor  anything  that  is  his" 
(Exod.  20,  17);  and  in  Christ's 
command,  "Go,  sell  what  thou  hast" 
(Matt.  19,  21).  The  right  of  inheri- 
tance has  its  basis  in  the  right  of 
individual  possession.  Christ  taught 
that  solicitude  about  earthly  goods 
is  well-ordered  when  we  "seek  first 
the  Kingdom  of  God  and  His  jus- 
tice" (Matt  6,  33),  and  secondarily 
our  material  welfare. 


246 


Canon  Law  defines  the  religious  state  as  "a  stable  manner  of  com- 
munity life  in  which  the  faithful  besides  observing  the  common  precepts 
bind  themselves  to  the  observance  of  the  evangelical  counsels  by  the 
vows  of  obedience,  chastity  and  poverty."  Religious  life,  then,  is  a 
striving  after  perfection  through  intensified  love  of  God  and  of  neighbor. 

Over  and  above  the  common  end  of  religious  life  which  makes  it  a 
school  of  perfection,  the  various  religious  communities  have  particular 
objects  of  their  own  which  divide  them  into  contemplative,  active,  and 
mixed  communities.  Contemplative  are  those  which  devote  themselves 
to  union  with  God  in  a  life  of  solitude  and  retirement;  active,  those 
which  expend  their  energy  in  doing  good  to  men,  for  example,  caring  for 
the  sick  and  the  orphans.  If  their  activity  is  spiritual  in  its  objects  and  re- 
quires contemplation  for  its  attainment,  they  are  called  mixed  com- 
munities. 

Though  the  following  lists  comprehend  all  three  types  of  religious 
bodies,  they  do  not  include  all  the  orders  and  congregations  in  the  world. 
Only  those  communities  are  included  which  live  and  work  in  the  United 
States. 


RELIGIOUS  ORDERS,  COMMUNITIES,  ETC.,  OF  MEN 
IN  THE   UNITED  STATES 


African  Missions  of  Lyons,  Con- 
gregation of  the  —  Founded  in 
Lyons,  France,  1856,  by  Msgr.  Di 
Bresillac  and  Fr.  Planque.  General 
Motherhouse,  Paris,  France.  De- 
voted to  mission  work.  Found  in 
the  Archdioceses  of  Los  Angeles, 
Newark  and  Washington,  and  the 
Dioceses  of  Savannah  and  San  Diego. 

Alexian  Brothers:  C.  F.  A.  — 
Founded  by  Tobias  in  France  in 
the  fifteenth  century  to  nurse  the 
sick  and  bury  the  dead  during  the 
Black  Death.  General  Motherhouse, 
Aix-la-Chapelle,  France.  They  have 
charge  of  hospitals  and  asylums  to- 
day. Found  in  the  Archdioceses 
of  Chicago,  Newark  and  St.  Louis 
and  the  Dioceses  of  Green  Bay  and 
Nashville. 

Assumption,  Augustinians  of  the 
(Assumption  Fathers) — Originated 
in  the  College  of  the  Assumption, 
Nimes,  France,  in  1843  by  the  Rev. 
Emmanuel  d'Alzon  to  combat  irre- 
ligion  and  schism.  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Devoted  to  pa- 
rochial and  educational  work. 
Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of  New 
York  and  the  Diocese  of  Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Atonement,  Society  of  the:  S.  A. 
—  A  branch  of  the  Third  Order 
Regular  of  St.  Francis,  founded 
1899  by  Fr.  Paul  James  Francis. 


General  Motherhouse,  Garrison, 
N.  Y.  Devoted  to  charitable  work. 
Found  in  the  Archdioceses  of  Balti- 
more and  New  York  and  the  Dio- 
ceses of  Amarillo  and  Raleigh. 

Augustine,  Hermits  of  St.  (Au- 
gustinians): O.  S.  A.  —  Founded  at 
Hippo,  by  the  union  of  several  Mo- 
nastic Societies  following  the  Rule 
of  St.  Augustine  which  consists  in 
a  great  measure  of  extracts  from 
a  letter  written  by  the  Saint,  in 
423,  to  the  nuns  of  Hippo.  Dedicated 
to  educational,  missionary  and  pa- 
rochial activities.  Found  through- 
out the  United  States. 

Augustinian  Recollects  —  Found- 
ed 1851.  Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy. 
Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of  Los 
Angeles  and  the  Dioceses  of  Con- 
cordia,  El  Paso,  Leavenworth,  Mon- 
terey-Fresno, Omaha  and  San  Diego. 

Basil,  Congregation  of  the  Priests 
of  St.  (Basilians) :  C.  S.  B.  —  Under 
the  name  of  Basilians  are  included 
all  the  religious  who  follow  the  Rule 
of  St.  Basil.  At  Annonay  in  France, 
a  religious  community  of  men  was 
formed  (1822)  under  the  Rule  of 
St.  Basil,  which  has  a  branch  at 
Toronto,  Canada.  Devoted  to  pa- 
rochial and  educational  work. 
Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of  De- 
troit and  the  Dioceses  of  Galvoston 
and  Rochester. 


247 


Basil  the  Great,  Order  of  St. 
(Ukrainian) :  O.  S.  B.  M.  —  General 
Mother-house,  Leopolis,  Poland. 
Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of  Chi- 
cago. 

Benedict,  Order  of  St.  (Benedic- 
tines) :  O.  S.  B.  —  Founded  529,  toy 
St.  Benedict  of  Nursia,  in  Italy, 
Devoted  to  personal  sanctification 
and  any  other  work  compatible 
with  community  life.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Benedictines,  Sylvestrine:  S.O.S.B. 
—  Founded  by  Sylvester  Gozzolini, 
in  Italy,  1231.  Followed  the  rule  of 
St.  Benedict  with  the  strictest  ob- 
servance of  poverty.  General 
Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy.  Found 
in  the  Archdiocese  of  Detroit. 

Blood,  Priests  of  the  Most  Pre- 
cious: C.  PP.  S.  —  Founded  in  Italy 
in  1815,  "by  Bl.  Gaspare  del  Bufalo. 
General  Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy. 
Devoted  to  mission  and  retreat 
work.  Found  throughout  the  United 
States. 

Borromeo,  Pious  Society  of  the 
Missionaries  of  St.  Charles  (Scala- 
brinians)  —  Founded  by  Msgr.  Sca- 
labrini,  Piacenza,  Italy,  1888.  De- 
voted to  the  spiritual  and  temporal 
care  of  Italian  emigrants  to  Amer- 
ica. General  Motherhouse,  Rome, 
Italy.  Found  in  the  Archdioceses 
of  Chicago,  Cincinnati  and  Milwau- 
kee and  the  Diocese  of  Kansas 
City. 

CamUlians  —  See:  Sick,  Clerks 
Regular  for  the  Care  of  the. 

Capuchins  —  See:  Friars  Minor 
Capuchin,  Order  of. 

Carmei,  Order  of  Our  Lady  of 
Mt.  (Carmelites):  O.  Carm.  —  The 
order  claims  for  its  founders  Elias 
and  Eliseus.  General  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy.  Devoted  to  education 
and  charitable  works.  Found  in  the 
Archdioceses  of  Baltimore,  Chicago, 
Los  Angeles,  Newark  and  New 
York  and  the  Dioceses  of  Altoona, 
Leaven  worth,  Pittsburgh  and  San 
Diego. 

Carmelites,  Order  of  Discalced: 
O.  C.  D.  —  A  Reform  of  the  Order 
of  Our  Lady  of  Mt.  Carmei,  1562. 
General  Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy. 
Found  throughout  the  United 
States. 


Charity,  Brothers  of:  C.  F.  C.  — 
Founded  by  Canon  Peter  J.  Triest, 
in  Belgium,  1807.  General  Mother- 
house,  Ghent,  Belgium.  Devoted  to 
charity,  caring  for  the  sick,  shelter- 
ing poor  workmen,  teaching  the 
young,  caring  for  the  aged,  the  in- 
sane and  idiotic.  Found  in  the 
Archdiocese  of  Boston. 

Chanty,  Congregation  of  the  Fa- 
thers of  —  General  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy.  Known  as  the  Congre- 
gation of  Our  Lady  of  the  Rosary 
in  the  Archdiocese  of  Newark 
where  an  establishment  was  made 
in  1918. 

Charity,  Institute  of  (Rosmini- 
ans):  I.C.  —  Founded  1828,  by  An- 
tonio Rosmini-Serbati,  in  Italy.  Gen- 
eral Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy.  De- 
voted to  contemplation  and  chari- 
table works.  Found  in  the  Diocese 
of  Peoria. 

Christian  Brothers  of  Ireland  — 
Founded  1802,  at  Waterford,  by 
Edmund  Ignatius  Rice.  General 
Motherhouse,  Dublin,  Ireland. 
Found  in  the  Archdioceses  of  Chi- 
cago and  New  York  and  the  Dio- 
ceses of  Helena  and  Seattle. 

Christian  Instruction,  Brothers  of 
(La  Mennais  Brothers) :  I.  C.  — 
Founded  1817,  in  France,  by  Abbe 
de  la  Mennais  at  St.  Brieuc  and 
by  Abbe  Deshayes  at  Auray;  the 
two  branches  united  in  1819.  Gen- 
eral Motherhouse,  Jersey  Island, 
England.  Devoted  to  the  instruc- 
tion of  the  young.  Found  in  the 
Dioceses  of  Fall  River,  Ogdensburg 
and  Portland,  Me. 

Christian  Schools,  Brothers  of 
the  (Christian  Brothers) :  F.  S.  C. — 
Founded  by  St.  Jean  Baptiste  de 
la  Salle  at  Reims,  France,  1680. 
General  Motherhouse,  Rome.  De- 
voted to  primary  and  secondary  ed- 
ucation, and  industrial  and  agri- 
cultural training;  and  orphans. 
Found  throughout  the  United 
States. 

Cistercians  of  the  Strict  Observ- 
ance, Order  of  (Trappists) :  O.C.S.O. 
—  Founded  1098  by  St.  Robert.  Re- 
formed 1664.  New  Constitutions 
1894.  General  Motherhouse,  N.  D. 
de  Citeaux,  par  Nuits-Salnt 
Georges,  France.  Found  in  the  Arcfc- 


248 


dioceses  of  Dubuque  and  Louisville, 
and  the  Diocese  of  Providence. 

Citeaux,  Order  of  (Cistercians) : 
O.  Cist.  —  Established  in  France  in 
1098  by  St.  Robert  to  restore  the 
gravity  and  simplicity  of  monastic 
ceremonies  and  the  stricter  observ- 
ance of  the  rule  of  St.  Benedict. 
General  Motherhouse  in  Austria. 
Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of  Mil- 
waukee and  the  Diocese  of  Natchez. 

Claretlans  —  See:  Mary,  Mission- 
ary Sons  of  the  Immaculate  Heart 
of. 

Clerks  Regular,  Congregation  of 
(Theatine  Fathers) :  C.  R.  —  Found- 
ed in  Rome,  1524,  by  St.  Gaetano 
to  combat  the  errors  of  the  Ref- 
ormation. General  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy.  Found  in  the  Diocese 
of  Denver. 

Columban,  Chinese  Mission  So- 
ciety of  St.:  S.  S.  C.  —  Founded 
1916,  in  Ireland  by  Rt.  Rev.  Edward 
J.  Galvan.  General  Motherhouse, 
Navan,  Ireland.  Devoted  to  mission 
work.  Found  in  the  Dioceses  of 
Buffalo,  Omaha,  Providence  and 
San  Diego. 

Conventuals  —  See:  Friars  Mi- 
nor Conventual,  Order  of. 

Cross,  Canons  Regular  of  the 
Holy  (Crosier  Fathers):  O.  S.  C.  R. 

—  Founded  1211  by  Bl.  Theodore 
Celles  in  Belgium.  General  Mother- 
house,    St.    Agatha,    Holland.    De- 
voted to  mission,  retreat  and  edu- 
cational work.    Found  in  the  Dio- 
ceses of  Duluth,  Fort  Wayne,  Lin- 
coln and  St.  Cloud. 

Cross,  Congregation  of  the  Holy: 
C.  S.  C.  —  An  amalgamation  of  the 
Brothers  of  St.  Joseph  or  Joseph- 
ites  and  the  Fathers  of  the  Holy 
Cross  or  Salvatorians.  Established 
in  1842,  at  Notre  Dame,  Ind.  Gen- 
eral Motherhouse,  Brookland,  D.  C. 
Devoted  to  teaching.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Dominicans — See:  Friars  Preach- 
ers, Order  of. 

Edmund,  Society  of  St.:  S.  S.  E. 

—  Founded  1843  in  France  by  Fr. 
Jean  Baptiste  Murard,  for  the  work 
of  missions.  General  Motherhouse, 
Pontigny,  France.   Found  in  the 
Dioceses  of  Burlington,  Mobile  and 
Raleigh. 

Family,  Congregation  of  the  Mis- 


sionaries of  the  Holy:  M.  S.  F.  — 
Founded  1895.  General  Mother- 
house,  Grave,  Holland.  Found  in 
the  Archdioceses  of  St.  Louis  and 
San  Antonio  and  in  the  Dioceses 
of  Duluth  and  Corpus  Christi. 

Family,  Sons  of  the  Holy  — 
Founded  1864.  General  Mother- 
house,  Barcelona,  Spain.  Found  in 
the  Archdiocese  of  Santa  Fe  and 
the  Diocese  of  Denver. 

Francis,  Missionary  Brothers  of 
St.:  O. S. F.— -Founded  1927.  Mother- 
house,  Eureka,  Mo.  Found  in  the 
Archdiocese  of  St.  Louis. 

Francis,  Third  Order  Regular  of 
St.:  T.  O.  R.  —  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Represented  in 
the  Archdioceses  of  Baltimore  and 
Newark  and  the  Dioceses  of  Al- 
toona,  Sioux  Falls,  Dallas,  Galves- 
ton  and  Pittsburgh. 

Franciscan  Brothers  of  Brooklyn 
—  Founded  in  Brooklyn,  1858.  De- 
voted to  educational  work. 

Franciscan  Friars  of  the  Atone- 
ment —  See:  Atonement,  Society 
of  the. 

Franciscans  —  See:  Friars  Minor, 
Order  of. 

Francis  de  Sales,  Oblates  of  St.: 
O.S.  F.  S.  —  Founded  in  1871  by 
Fr.  Louis  Brisson.  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Found  in  the 
Archdioceses  of  Baltimore  and  Phil- 
adelphia and  the  Diocese  of  Wil- 
mington. 

Francis  de  Sales,  Society  of  (Sa- 
lesians) :  S.  C.  —  Founded  1844  in 
Italy  by  St.  John  (Don)  Bosco  for 
the  purpose  of  religious  instruction. 
General  Motherhouse,  Turin,  Italy. 
Found  in  the  Archdioceses  of  New- 
ark, New  Orleans,  New  York,  Los 
Angeles  and  San  Francisco  and  the 
Dioceses  of  Monterey-Fresno,  Pater- 
son,  San  Diego  and  St.  Augustine. 

Francis  Seraphicus,  Brothers  of 
the  Poor  of  St.  —  General  Mother- 
house,  Ker  Krade,  Holland.  The 
province  is  represented  in  the  Arch- 
diocese of  Cincinnati  and  the  Dio- 
cese of  Little  Rock. 

Francis  Xavier,  Brothers  of  St.: 
C.  F.  X  —  Founded  1839  in  Belgium 
by  Theodore  J.  Ryken  for  the  pur- 
pose of  instructing  youth.  General 
Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy.  Found  in 


249 


the  Archdioceses  of  Baltimore,  Bos- 
ton, Detroit  and  Louisville,  and  the 
Dioceses  of  Brooklyn,  Portland,  Me., 
Richmond,  Springfield  (Mass.)  and 
Syracuse. 

Friars  Minor,  Order  of  (Francis- 
cans) :  0.  F.  M.  —  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Devoted  to 
preaching,  missionary  work,  educa- 
tion, works  of  charity,  etc.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Friars  Minor  Capuchin,  Order  of: 
O.  F.  M.  Cap.  —  A  Reform  in  1525. 
Aiming  at  a  stricter  observance  of 
the  Rule  of  St.  Francis.  Devoted 
to  mission  work  and  combating  the 
errors  of  the  Reformation.  General 
Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States.  The 
English  province  of  the  Capuchins 
uses  the  form  O.S.F.C. 

Friars  Minor  Conventual,  Order 
of:  O.  M.  C.  —  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Found  through- 
out the  United  States. 

Friars  Preachers,  Order  of  (Do- 
minicans): O.  P.  —  Founded  1205 
by  St.  Dominic  in  France.  General 
Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy.  Devoted 
to  preaching,  literary  and  scientific 
pursuits.  Found  throughout  the 
United  States. 

Holy  Ghost  and  of  the  Immacu- 
late Heart  of  Mary,  Congregation 
of  the:  C.  S.  Sp.—  Founded  1703  in 
Paris  by  Claude  Francois  Poullart 
des  Places.  General  Motherhouse, 
Paris,  France.  Devoted  to  mission- 
ary work  and  education.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Infancy  and  Youth  of  Jesus, 
Brothers  of  the  Holy  —  Founded 
1853  by  the  Rev.  John  Timon,  Bish- 
op of  Buffalo,  for  the  care  of  poor 
and  wayward  boys  and  their  in- 
struction in  the  arts  and  industries. 
Motherhouse,  Lackawanna,  N.  Y. 
Found  in  New  York  State. 

Jesus,  Society  of  (Jesuits) :  S.  J. 
—  Founded  1534  in  France  by  St. 
Ignatius  Loyola.  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Devoted  to 
preaching,  teaching,  administering 
the  sacraments,  writing  books,  con- 
ducting missions,  etc.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

John  of  God,  Order  of  St. — 
Founded  in  Spain  in  the  16th  cen- 


tury. Nursing  Brothers  devoted  to 
caring  for  needy  men.  Found  in  the 
Archdiocese  of  Los  Angeles. 

Joseph,    Oblates    of    St.:   O.  S.  J. 

—  Founded  1878.    General  Mother- 
house   in   Asti,    Italy.    Devoted   to 
parochial    and    educational    work. 
Found  in  the  Dioceses  of  Monterey- 
Fresno  and  Sacramento. 

Joseph's  Society  of  the  Sacred 
Heart,  St.  (Josephite  Fathers): 
S.  S.  J.  —  Originated  1871  at  Balti- 
more, Md.  Motherhouse,  Baltimore, 
Md.  Devoted  to  work  in  colored 
missions.  Found  throughout  the 
United  States. 

La  Mennais  Brothers  —  See: 
Christian  Instruction,  Brothers  of. 

La  Salette  Missionaries  of:   M.S. 

—  Founded  1852  by  Msgr.  de  Bruil- 
lard.  Motherhouse,  Turin,  Italy.  De- 
voted to  combating  the  crimes  of 
the  day.    Found  throughout  the 
United  States. 

Lazarists — See:  Vincent  de  Paul, 
Congregation  of  the  Mission  of  St. 

Marian  Fathers:  M.  I.  C.  —  Gen- 
eral Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy. 
Found  in  the  Archdioceses  of  Balti- 
more, Chicago  and  Milwaukee,  and 
the  Dioceses  of  Hartford  and  Rock- 
ford. 

Marianhill,  Congregation  of  the 
Missionaries  of:  C.  M.  Mh.  — 
Founded  1882  in  Cape  Colony, 
Africa,  by  the  Rev.  Francis  Pfan- 
ner.  General  Motherhouse,  Marian- 
hill,  South  Africa.  Dedicated  to  mis- 
sion work.  Found  in  the  Archdio- 
cese of  Detroit  and  the  Dioceses  of 
Lansing  and  Sioux  Falls. 

Marist  Brothers:  F.  M.  S.  — 
Founded  1817  in  France,  by  Ven. 
Benedict  Champagnat.  General 
Motherhouse,  Grugliasco,  Italy. 
Found  in  the  Archdioceses  of  Bos- 
ton and  New  York  and  the  Dioceses 
of  Corpus  Christi,  Manchester,  Sa- 
vannah and  Wheeling. 

Mary,  Missionaries  of  the  Com- 
pany of  (Priests):  S.  M.  M.  — 
Founded  by  Blessed  Louis  Marie 
Grignion  de  Montfort,  1715.  De- 
voted to  the  Blessed  Virgin  and 
missions.  Found  in  the  Diocese  of 
Brooklyn. 

Mary,  Missionary  Sons  of  the  Im- 


250 


maculate  Heart  of  (Claretians) : 
C.  ML  F.  —  Founded  in  Vich,  Spain, 
1849  by  Ven.  Antonio  Maria  Claret. 
Devoted  to  mission  work.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Mary,  Order  of  the  Servants  of 
(Servites):  O.  S.  M.  —  Founded 
1233  by  seven  youths  of  Florence. 
General  Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy. 
Devoted  to  a  special  veneration  of 
the  Seven  Dolors  of  Our  Lady,  mis- 
sionary work  and  teaching.  Found 
in  the  West  and  Southwest. 

Mary,  Society  of  (Marist  Fa- 
thers): S.  M.  —  Founded  1816  in 
Lyons,  by  Jean  Claude  Colin.  Gen- 
eral Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy.  De- 
voted to  the  education  of  youth 
and  training  of  clerics.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Mary,  Society  of,  of  Paris  (Mari- 
anists):  S.  M.  —  Founded  1817  in 
Bordeaux,  France,  by  Guillaume 
Joseph  Chaminade.  General  Mother- 
house,  Bordeaux,  France.  Devoted 
to  the  education  of  children.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States  and 
in  Puerto  Rico  and  Hawaii. 

Marist  Fathers  —  See:  Mary,  So- 
ciety of. 

Mary  Immaculate,  Obiates  of: 
O.  M.  I.  —  Founded  1816  by  Charles 
Joseph  Eugene  de  Mazenod  in 
France.  General  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy.  Devoted  to  the  in- 
struction and  conversion  of  the 
poor,  missions,  retreats,  and  cate- 
chism courses.  Found  throughout 
the  United  States. 

Maryknoll  Missionaries:  M.  M.  — 
Founded  1911  by  Revs.  Thomas  F. 
Price  and  James  A  Walsh.  General 
Center,  Maryknoll,  N.  Y.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Mercy,  Brothers  of  —  Founded 
1856  in  Germany.  General  Mother- 
house,  Montabaur,  Germany.  Found 
in  the  Diocese  of  Buffalo. 

Mercy  of  the  Immaculate  Concep- 
tion, Society  of  Priests  of  (Fathers 
of  Mercy) :  S.  P.  M.  —  Founded 
1808  in  France  by  Rev.  Jean  Bap- 
tiste  Rauzan.  General  Motherhouse, 
Paris,  France.  Devoted  to  mission 
work.  Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of 
New  York  and  the  Diocese  of 
Brooklyn. 

Michael,  Foreign  Mission  Broth- 
ers of  St.:  M.  M.  —  Branch  of  the 


Catholic  Foreign  Mission  Society 
of  America.  Devoted  to  mission 
work.  Found  in  the  Archdioceses 
of  Boston,  Cincinnati,  Detroit,  Los 
Angeles  and  New  York  and  the 
Dioceses  of  Monterey-Fresno,  San 
Diego,  Scranton  and  Seattle,  and 
in  Hawaii. 

Missionaries  of  St.  Charles,  Pious 
Society  of  the  (P.S.S.C.)—  Founded 
by  Msgr.  Scalabrini,  Piacenza, 
Italy,  1888,  for  the  spiritual  and 
temporal  care  of  Italian  emigrants 
to  America.  General  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy.  Found  in  the  Arch- 
dioceses of  Boston,  Chicago,  Cin- 
cinnati, Milwaukee  and  New  York 
and  in  the  Dioceses  of  Buffalo, 
Hartford,  Kansas  City,  Providence 
and  Syracuse. 

Missions,  Pious  Society  of  (Pal- 
lottines) :  P.  S.  M.  —  Founded  1835 
in  Rome  by  Ven.  Vincent  Pallotti. 
General  Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy. 
Devoted  to  spreading,  rekindling 
and  defending  the  Catholic  faith. 
Found  throughout  the  United 
States. 

Oratory  of  St.  Philip  Neri,  Con- 
gregation of  the  (Oratorian  Fa- 
thers): Cong.  Orat.  —  Founded 
1575  in  Rome  by  St.  Philip  Neri. 
Each  house  is  autonomous.  Dedi- 
cated to  prayer,  preaching  and  ad,- 
ministration  of  the  sacraments. 
Found  in  the  Archdioceses  of  New- 
ark and  New  York  and  the  Dio- 
cese of  Charleston. 

Pallottines — See:  Missions,  Pious 
Society  of. 

Passion,  Congregation  of  the 
(Passionists) :  C.  P.  —  Founded 
1725  by  St.  Paul  of  the  Cross  in 
Tuscany,  Italy.  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Members  ob- 
serve the  Evangelical  Counsels  and 
a  fourth  vow  of  promoting  the  de- 
votion to  the  Passion  of  Christ. 
Found  along  the  Atlantic  Coast  and 
in  the  Middle  West. 

Paul,  Pious  Society  of  St.:  S.S.P. 
— For  the  Apostolate  of  the  Press. 
Motherhouse,  Alba,  Italy.  Found  in 
the  Archdiocese  of  New  York. 

Paul  the  Apostle,  Missionary  So- 
ciety of  St.  (Paulists) :  C.  S.  P.  — 
Founded  in  New  York  in  1858  by 
Fr.  Isaac  Thomas  Hecker.  Devoted 
to  the  conversion  of  America. 


251 


Mother-house,  New  York  City.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Premontre,  Order  of  the  Canons 
Regular  of  (Premonstratensians) : 
(X  Praem.  —  Founded  1120  by  St. 
Norbert  at  Premontre,  France.  De- 
voted to  the  Eucharist  and  Immacu- 
late Conception.  Found  in  the 
Archdiocese  of  Philadelphia  and 
the  Diocese  of  Wilmington  and  the 
Middle  West. 

Providence,  Sons  of  Divine: 
F.  D.  P,  —  General  Motherhotise, 
Tortona,  Italy.  Found  in  the  Dio- 
cese of  Indianapolis. 

Redeemer,  Congregation  of  the 
Most  Holy  (Redemptorists) :  C.SS.R. 
—  Founded  1732  by  St.  Alphonsus 
Mary  Liguori,  in  Italy.  General 
Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy.  Devoted 
to  mission  work.  Found  through- 
out the  United  States. 

Resurrection  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  Priests  of  the:  C.  R.  — 
Founded  1836  under  the  direction 
of  Bogdan  Janski.  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy.  Devoted  to  parochial 
and  educational  work.  Found  in  the 
Archdioceses  of  Chicago,  Louisville 
and  St,  Louis  and  the  Diocese  of 
Albany. 

Rosminians  —  See:  Charity,  In- 
stitute of. 

Sacrament,  Society  of  the  Blessed : 
S.  S.  S.  —  Founded  1865  in  Paris 
by  Bl.  Pierre  Julien  Eymard.  De- 
voted to  the  worship  of  the  Holy 
Eucharist,  General  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy,  Found  in  the  Arch- 
dioceses of  New  York  and  Chicago 
and  the  Diocese  of  Cleveland. 

Sacred  Heart,  Brothers  of  the: 
S.  F.  S.  C.  —  Founded  1821  in 
France  by  the  Rev.  Andre  Coindre. 
General  Motherhouse,  Renteria, 
Spain.  Devoted  to  the  teaching  of 
boys  in  parochial  and  commercial 
schools  and  asylums.  Found 
throughout  the  United  States. 

Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus,  Mission- 
aries of  the:  M.  S.  C.  —  Founded 
1855  by  Jules  Chevalier.  Devoted  to 
the  Sacred  Heart  and  mission  work. 
Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of  Phila- 
delphia and  the  Dioceses  of  La 
Crosse,  Rockford  and  Toledo. 

Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus,  Priests  of 
the:  P.  S.  C.  J.  —  Founded  in 


France,  1877.  General  Motherhouse, 
Rome,  Italy.  Devoted  to  education, 
preaching  and  mission  work.  Found 
in  the  Middle  West. 

Sacred  Hearts,  Congregation  of 
the  SS.  CC.  — Founded  by  Fr.  Cou- 
drin.  Established  on  the  Rue  Pic- 
pus,  Paris,  in  1805.  Devoted  to  mis- 
sionary and  educational  work.  Gen- 
eral Motherhouse,  Brain-le-Comte, 
Belgium.  Found  in  the  Archdiocese 
of  Baltimore  and  the  Dioceses  of 
Fall  River,  Green  Bay,  Oklahoma 
City  and  Tulsa,  and  Rochester  and 
in  Hawaii. 

Sacred  Hearts,  Congregation  of 
the  Holy  Union  of  the  —  Founded 
1826  in  Douai,  France,  by  Fr.  Jean 
Baptiste  Debrabant.  General 
Motherhouse,  Tournai,  Belgium.  De- 
voted to  the  education  of  youth. 
Found  in  New  York,  Massachu- 
setts, California  and  Kansas. 

Salesians  —  See:  Francis  De 
Sales,  Society  of  St 

Saviour,  Society  of  the  Divine 
(Salvatorians) :  S.  D.  S.  —  Founded 
1881,  in  Rome,  by  Fr.  John  Baptist 
Jordan  for  the  purpose  of  spread- 
ing the  Faith.  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Found  in  the 
Archdioceses  of  Baltimore,  Milwau- 
kee and  Portland,  Ore.,  and  the 
Dioceses  of  Green  Bay,  Marquette 
and  Wilmington. 

Scalabrinians  —  See:  Borromeo, 
Pious  Society  of  the  Missionaries 
of  St  Charles, 

Servites  —  See:  Mary,  Order  of 
the  Servants  of. 

Sick,  Clerks  Regular  for  the  Care 
of  the  (Camillians) :  C.  R.  M.  \.  — 
They  are  known  also  as  the  Fa- 
thers of  a  Good  Death.  Founded 
1582  in  Rome  by  St.  Camillus  de 
Lellis.  General  Motherhouse,  Rome, 
Italy.  Dedicated  to  hospital  work. 
Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of  Mil- 
waukee. 

Stigmata  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  Priests  of  the  Holy  (Stig- 
matine  Fathers) :  C.  P.  S.  —  Found- 
ed 1816  by  Ven.  Gaspare  Bertoni. 
General  Motherhouse,  Rome,  Italy. 
Devoted  to  parochial  work.  Found 
in  the  Archdioceses  of  Boston  and 
New  York  and  in  the  Diocese  of 
Springfield. 


252 


SuSpice,  Society  of  Priests  of  St. 
(Sulpicians) :  P.  S.  S.  —  Founded 
1642  in  Paris  by  Jean  Jacques 
Olier.  Devoted  to  the  education  and 
perfection  of  ecclesiastics.  Found 
in  the  Archdioceses  of  Baltimore 
and  San  Francisco  and 'the  Diocese 
of  Seattle. 

Theatine  Fathers  —  See:  Clerks 
Regular,  Congregation  of. 

Trappists  —  See:  Cistercians  of 
the  Strict  Observance,  Order  of. 

Trinity,  Missionary  Servants  of 
the  Most  Holy:  M.  S.  SS.  T,  — 
Founded  1929,  by  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Augustin  Judge.  Motherhouse,  Holy 
Trinity,  Ala.  Devoted  to  the  care  of 
Southern  missions.  Found  in  the 
Archdioceses  of  Baltimore  and 
Newark,  the  Dioceses  of  Cleveland, 
Mobile  and  Paterson,  and  in  Puerto 
Rico. 

Trinity,  Order  of  the  Most  Holy 
(Trinitarians) :  O.  SS.  T.  —  Found- 
ed in  the  12th  century  by  SS.  John 
Matha  and  Felix  of  Valois  for  the 


ransom  of  captives.  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Found  in  the 
Archdioceses  of  Baltimore  and  Phil- 
adelphia and  the  Diocese  of  Trenton. 

Viator,  Clerks  of  St.  (Viatorian 
Fathers) :  C.  S.  V.  —  Founded  1835 
in  France,  by  Fr.  Louis  Joseph 
Querbes.  General  Motherhouse, 
Jette-Saint-Pierre,  Belgium.  De- 
voted to  teaching.  Found  in  the 
Archdioceses  of  Chicago  and  Balti- 
more and  the  Dioceses  of  Peoria, 
Springfield,  111.,  and  Winona. 

Vincent  De  Paul,  Congregation 
of  the  Mission  of  St.  (Vincentians) : 
C.  M.  —  Founded  1625  in  Paris  by 
St.  Vincent  De  Paul.  General  Moth- 
erhouse, Paris,  France.  Devoted  to 
instructing  the  poor.  Found  through- 
out the  United  States. 

Word,  Society  of  the  Divine: 
S.V.D.  — Founded  1875  in  Holland 
by  Fr.  Arnold  Jansen  for  the  propa- 
gation of  the  Faith.  General  Mother- 
house,  Rome,  Italy.  Found  through- 
out the  United  States. 


RELIGIOUS  ORDERS,  COMMUNITIES,  ETC.,  OF  WOMEN 
IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


Agnes,  Sisters  of  the  Congrega- 
tion of  St.  —  Founded  in  the  United 
States  in  1870.  General  Mother- 
house,  Fond  du  Lac,  Wis.,  Found  in 
the  Archdioceses  of  Chicago,  Mil- 
walkee  and  New  York  and  the  Dio- 
ceses of  Altoona,  Concordia,  Fort 
Wayne,  Green  Bay,  Marquette, 
Pittsburgh,  Superior  and  Toledo. 

Allegany  Sisters — See:  Francis  of 
Assisi,  Sisters  of  the  Third  Order 
of  St.,  founded  at  Allegany,  N.  Y. 

Ann,  Sisters  of  St.  —  Founded  in 
Vaudreuil,  P.  Q.,  Canada,  in  1850. 
General  Motherhouse,  Lachine,  P. 
Q.,  Canada.  Found  in  the  Archdio- 
cese of  Boston  and  the  Dioceses 
of  Albany,  Providence  and  Spring- 
field. 

Assumption,  Little  Sisters  of  the 
—  Founded  in  France  in  1865.  Gen- 
eral Motherhouse,  Paris,  France. 
Found  in  the  Archdioceses  of  New 
York  and  Philadelphia  and  the  Dio- 
cese of  Paterson. 

Assumption,  Religious  of  the  — 
Founded  in  Paris  in  1839.  Mother- 
house,  Antheit,  near  Namur,  Bel- 
gium. Found  in  the  Archdioceses 
of  Philadelphia  and  Manila,  P.  I. 


Assumption   B.  V.   M.,  Sisters  of 

the  —  Founded  in  Canada  in  1853. 
General  Motherhouse,  Nicolet,  P. 
Q.,  Canada.  Found  in  the  Archdio- 
cese of  Boston  and  the  Dioceses 
of  Albany,  Burlington,  Hartford, 
Manchester,  Providence  and  Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Augustine,  Missionary  Canoness- 
es  of  St.  —  Founded  in  British 
India,  in  1897.  General  Mother- 
house,  Heverle,  Belgium.  Found  in 
the  Archdioceses  of  New  York  and 
Philadelphia  and  in  Puerto  Rico. 

Auxiliaries  of  the  Apostolate, 
Sisters  —  General  Motherhouse, 
Monongah,  W.  Va.  Found  in  the 
Diocese  of  Wheeling. 

Basil  the  Great,  Sisters  of  the 
Order  of  St.  —  Founded  in  Cappa- 
docia  in  the  4th  century.  General 
Motherhouse,  Fox  Chase,  Pa.  Found 
in  Illinois,  Maryland,  Michigan, 
New  York,  Ohio  and  Pennsylvania, 
under  jurisdiction  of  the  Ukrainian 
Greek  Catholic  Diocese. 

Benedict,  Sisters  of  St.  —  Found 
in  the  Archdiocese  of  St.  Paul  and 
the  Dioceses  of  Bismarck  and 
Crookston. 


253 


Benedictine  Sisters  —  Founded 
in  Italy  about  529.  No  General 
Motherhouse.  Found  throughout 
the  United  States. 

Benedictine  Sisters,  French. 
Founded  1883  in  Basses-Pyrenees, 
France.  Motherhouse,  Ramsey  P. 
O.,  La.  Found  in  the  Archdiocese 
of  New  Orleans. 

Benedictine  Sisters,  Missionary 
— Motherhouse  at  Tutzing,  Bavaria. 
Found  in  the  Diocese  of  Omaha. 

Benedictine  Sisters,  Olivetan  — 
Founded  in  Switzerland  in  1857. 
Motherhous e,  Jonesboro,  Ark. 
Found  in  the  Dioceses  of  Dallas 
and  Little  Rock. 

Benedictine  Sisters  of  Perpetual 
Adoration  —  Founded  in  Italy  in 
529.  General  Motherhouse,  Clyde, 
Mo.  Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of 
Chicago  and  the  Dioceses  of  St. 
Joseph  and  Tucson. 

Bernardine  Sisters  of  the  Third 
Order  (Polish)  —  Founded  in  the 
United  States  in  1894.  General 
Motherhouse,  Reading,  Pa.  Found 
in  the  Archdioceses  of  Boston  and 
Philadelphia,  and  the  Dioceses  of 
Altoona,  Erie,  Fall  River,  Harris- 
burg,  Hartford,  Pittsburgh,  Provi- 
dence, Scranton,  Springfield  and 
Trenton. 

Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  Institute  of 
the  —  Founded  in  Bavaria  in  1609. 
General  Motherhouse,  Loretto  Ab- 
bey, Armour  Heights,  Toronto,  Can- 
ada. Found  in  the  Archdiocese  of 
Chicago  and  t